The program describes both MIKON and IRS sessions. Registered participants can attend any of these sessions at their choice.
Time Building C-13, room 1.31 Building C-13, room 1.30 Building C-13, room 1.28 Building C-13, room 0.32 Building C-13, room 0.31 Building C-13, room 0.38 Building C-13, room 1.27 Building C-13, room 3.06 Building D-20, Aula Building C-13, Hall Building C-18, Lunchroom-Lounge Building C4, room 345

Monday, July 1

08:30-10:10   MIKON C1: CMOS and MMIC technologies for mm-Waves MIKON B1: Active devices & nonlinear components MIKON E1: Communication antennas MIKON CAD WKSH1: CAD for Electromagnetic Modelling
Part I - Theory
MIKON TUT1: Principles of Design for Manufacturing and Assembly for RF and mmW engineering. Basics of Design based on statistical methods. Robust design of RF/mmW components            
10:10-10:40 Coffee1: Coffee break
10:40-12:20   MIKON C2: mm-Wave propagation and material characterisation MIKON B2: Pasive components & filters MIKON WKSH1: Digital Predistortion for 5G/6G Wireless Transmitters MIKON CAD WKSH2: CAD for Electromagnetic Modelling
Part I - Theory
12:20-14:00 Lunch1: Lunch
14:00-15:40                 MRW OPENING: MIKON & MRW Opening Session      
15:40-16:10 Coffee2: Coffee break
16:10-17:50   MIKON C3: mm-Wave antennas and systems MIKON D1: Radar & Wireless Technology WIM: Women in Microwaves
How and Why People Communicate: from the Origin of Speech to AI-Based Signal Recognition
IRS-TUT 3: Short Course on Joint Communication and Sensing
IRS TUT2: Fundamentals of Radar Imaging
17:50-19:50 Event1: Welcome Cocktail
C13 Building

Tuesday, July 2

08:30-10:10 IRS OPENING: IRS Opening Session MIKON E2: Radar and sensor antennas MIKON A2: Modelling of microwave communication components and systems MIKON A3: Applications of EM Modelling in microwave design MIKON CAD WKSH3: CAD for Electromagnetic Modelling
Part II - Examples
MIKON TUT2: Bio-inspired Radio Sensing (BiRaS)            
10:10-10:25 Coffee3: Coffee break  
10:25-10:40 .  
10:40-10:55 MIKON Plenary1: Plenary session             IRS YSC: IRS Young Scientist Contest meeting        
10:55-12:20 IRS IMG: Radar Imaging IRS EW: EW for radar technology
With keynote by Dietmar Matthes
    IRS AUTO1: Interference Mitigation for Automotive Radar
Special Session "Recent Progress in Automotive Radar" part 1
12:20-14:00 Lunch2: Lunch MIKON Poster1: Active & Passive Devices & Components & Microwave Materials MIKON-M1: MIKON - Meeting of the foundation board  
14:00-15:40 JOINT SESSION: Joint Mikon/IRS MIKON D2: Technologies for communications: components & heterogeneous integration MIKON A1: Determination of Material and Object Characteristics at Microwave Frequencies MIKON TUT3: Microwave Power Amplifiers: from theory to design MIKON CAD WKSH4: CAD for Electromagnetic Modelling
Part II - Examples
IRS AUTO2: Automotive Radar - Novel Sensors and Novel Applications
Special Session "Recent Progress in Automotive Radar" part 2
  MIKON YSC: MIKON Young Scientist Contest meeting        
15:40-16:10 Coffee4: Coffee break
16:10-17:50 MIKON Plenary2: Plenary session   IRS ENV_TGT: Environment and Target Characterization     IRS AUTO3: Advanced techniques in Automotive/Maritime Radar applications
Special Session "Recent Progress in Automotive Radar" part 3
19:00-23:00 Event2: Gala dinner
The Centennial Hall Wystawowa 1

Wednesday, July 3

08:30-10:10 MIKON E3: Antenna design and modelling MIKON MM2: Microwaves and Conductive Materials MIKON 1P1: Emerging Technologies MIKON D3: Sensing & Tracking MIKON CAD WKSH5: CAD for Electromagnetic Modelling
Part III Hands-on/Live demo
Meeting_AOC: AOC Polish Chapter meeting (by invitation) MIKON CAD WKSH6: CAD for Electromagnetic Modelling
Part III Hands-on/Live demo
    IRS POSTER: IRS Poster Session   MIKON CAD WKSH7: CAD for Electromagnetic Modelling
Part III Hands-on/Live demo
10:10-10:40 Coffee5: Coffee break
10:40-12:20 IRS JCS: Joint Communication and Sensing MIKON MM1: Microwaves and Dielectric Materials MIKON 1P2: Filters & resonators - analysis & design MIKON TUT4: Technical Writing & Speaking   IRS SIGPRO: Signal Processing for Radar            
12:20-13:00 Lunch3: Lunch         MIKON Poster2: Active & Passive Devices & Components    
13:00-14:00 Meeting: Sekcja Mikrofal i Radiolokacji - Meeting (by invitation)          
14:00-15:40 MIKON CLOSING: Plenary closing session IRS HW: Radar Hardware IRS AI: AI, ML and other novel methods IRS PASV1: Passive/Bistatic part1                
15:40-16:10 Coffee6: Coffee break
16:10-17:50 MIKON WKSH2: Load-Modulated Balanced Amplifier: From First Invention to Recent Advances IRS TRK: Tracking IRS ADV: Advanced Radar Techniques and Applications IRS PASV2: Passive/Bistatic part 2 MIKON TUT5: Fundamentals of Microwave Modelling and Characterisation for Dielectric Property Determination MIKON CAD WKSH8: CAD for Electromagnetic Modelling
Part III Hands-on/Live demo
MIKON CAD WKSH9: CAD for Electromagnetic Modelling
Part III Hands-on/Live demo
MIKON CAD WKSH10: CAD for Electromagnetic Modelling
Part III Hands-on/Live demo
17:50-21:00 Event3: Young Sci. Meeting
Building H14

Thursday, July 4

08:30-10:10   IRS MULTID: Multidimensional Radar Imaging (SS) IRS SPC: Radar Techniques for SSA and Spaceborne Radars (SS) MIKON WKSH3: Microwave and Millimetre-Wave Characterisation of Materials   IRS NOISE: Noise and Multistatic Radar Technology (SS)            
10:10-10:40 Coffee7: Coffee break
10:40-12:20 IRS CLOSING: IRS Closing Session             MIKON WKSH4: Microwave and Millimetre-Wave Characterisation of Materials        
12:20-14:00 Lunch4: Lunch

Monday, July 1

Monday, July 1 8:30 - 10:10

MIKON C1: CMOS and MMIC technologies for mm-Waves

Room: Building C-13, room 1.30
Chairs: Wojciech Knap (Université Montpellier, CNRS, France), Luca Valenziano (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany)
8:30 3D Printing of Interdigitated Finger Capacitors Using Ultra-Precise Deposition Technology
Luca Valenziano, Georg Gramlich and Alexander Quint (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany); Thomas Zwick (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany); Akanksha Bhutani (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany)

This paper presents the first interdigitated finger capacitors fabricated using the ultra-precise deposition (UPD) printing system by XTPL to the best of our knowledge. Various lengths of the individual fingers are designed, fabricated and compared. The small structural sizes that can be achieved using the UPD technology allow a reduction of parasitic effects resulting in an increase of the self resonant frequency (SRF) and high bandwidths. In addition different dielectric materials are added on top of the printed structures to increase the capacitance. All capacitors are printed on a fused silica substrate, that is prepared accordingly to enable a smooth transition between a coplanar waveguide (CPW) feed and the printed paths. This paper demonstrates the potential of the UPD printing system for printing passive circuit components, particularly interdigitated finger capacitors.

8:50 CMOS-Integrated Near-Field Sensor for Terahertz Dielectric Spectroscopy
Alexander V Chernyadiev (Institute of High Pressure Physics PAS & CENTERA Labs, Poland); Dmytro B. But (CENTERA LAboratory, Institute of High Pressure Physics PAS, Poland & V. Ye. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics NASU, Ukraine); Cezary Kołacinski (CENTERA LAboratory, Institute of High Pressure Physics PAS, Poland); Kestutis Ikamas (Vilnius University & The General Jonas Žemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania, Lithuania); Wojciech Knap (Université Montpellier, CNRS, France); Alvydas Lisauskas (Vilnius University, Lithuania)

In this research, we present an electronic near-field sensor designed in 180 nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, specifically tailored for terahertz dielectric spectroscopy. Our sensor utilizes a unique on-chip detection mechanism, which allows to probe the dielectric properties of materials in aqueous solutions. We have achieved superior sensitivity values, positioning our sensor at the forefront of terahertz-related techniques.

9:10 A 25.5-34.5 GHz Broadband Compact Amplifier in 28 nm CMOS Technology
Yaxin Zhang (Sanechips Technology Co Ltd & State Key Laboratory of Mobile Network and Mobile Multimedia Technology, China); Xingcun Li, Xiaoning Zhang, Zhilin Chen, Min Lu and Jie Hu (Sanechips Technology Co., Ltd, China & State Key Lavoratory of Mobile Network and Mobile Multimedia Technology, China)

A compact millimeter-wave (mm-wave) amplifier is presented in this paper. The amplifier consists of three cascode stages with a single-ended configuration and is implemented in a 28 nm CMOS technology. In order to achieve the demonstrated compact core size, the input, output, as well as two inter-stage matching networks of this circuit were all realized with only a single inductor. Without using any other passive components, the core size of this three-stage amplifier is shrunk to 0.29 mm × 0.28 mm = 0.08 mm2. With a total dc power dissipation of 60 mW, this amplifier exhibits a peak gain of 15.9 dB at 29.5 GHz with 9 GHz 3-dB bandwidth (BW) from 25.5 to 34.5 GHz. Meanwhile, the measured maximum output 1 dB compression point (OP1dB) is -2.75 dBm at 29 GHz, and the minimum in-band noise figure (NF) is 6.4 dB at 34 GHz, including around loss of the feeding lines both at the input and output side. Overall good agreement between simulation and measurement is observed.

9:30 A Linearity-Enhanced mm-Wave GaN MMIC Power Amplifier with Inter-Stage AM/AM Compensation and AM/PM Cancellation
Ruijia Liu, Soroush Veisee, Haoyang Jia and Anding Zhu (University College Dublin, Ireland)

In this paper, a linearity enhanced millimeter-wave (mm-wave) Gallium Nitride (GaN) monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifier (PA) is presented. The linearity of the proposed amplifier is improved by using the amplitude to amplitude modulation (AM/AM) distortion compensation and the amplitude to phase modulation (AM/PM) distortion cancellation between the driver-stage and the power-stage transistors. For proof of concept, a 26-to-28-GHz GaN MMIC PA was designed using a 120-nm GaN on silicon carbide high electron mobility transistor process. The fabricated amplifier achieves a saturated power of around 30 dBm, with the AM/AM distortion of less than 3-dB and the AM/PM distortion of smaller than 5° from 26 to 28 GHz. The corresponding power-added efficiency (PAE) at saturation is 32.3%-35%.

9:50 Sub-Terahertz Emitters in BiCMOS Technology with Fundamental Frequencies 250 GHz
Dmytro B. But (CENTERA LAboratory, Institute of High Pressure Physics PAS, Poland & V. Ye. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics NASU, Ukraine); Cezary Kołacinski (CENTERA LAboratory, Institute of High Pressure Physics PAS, Poland); Alexander V Chernyadiev (Institute of High Pressure Physics PAS & CENTERA Labs, Poland); Kestutis Ikamas (Vilnius University & The General Jonas Žemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania, Lithuania); Wojciech Knap (Université Montpellier, CNRS, France); Alvydas Lisauskas (Vilnius University, Lithuania); Adam Kowalczyk (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

We present voltage control oscillators based on a differential Colpitts oscillator topology with optimized emission frequency at the fundamental harmonic in a 130 nm SiGe BiCMOS technology. The radiation is out-coupled through the substrate side using a hyper-hemispheric silicon lens. The source is optimized for 250 GHz and radiates up to 0.325 mW of propagating power. We present an experimental study of the dynamical properties of electronic oscillators subjected to feedback radiation with its application for reflection-type coherent imaging.

MIKON B1: Active devices & nonlinear components

Room: Building C-13, room 1.28
Chairs: Paolo Colantonio (University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy), Krzysztof Nyka (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland)
8:30 Ka-Band GaN Power Amplifier with Integrated DC Supply Switch and RF Switch
Sanaul Haque and Petros Beleniotis (Brandenburg University of Technology, Germany); Hossein Yazdani (Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Germany); Matthias Rudolph (Brandenburg University of Technology, Germany)

This work presents power amplifiers with integrated features like DC supply switch for reducing the power consumption in receive mode of an RF front end (RFFE) module and RF switch for compact RFFE module design. Two 28–32 GHz power amplifiers, one with only DC supply switch and the other with both DC supply switch and RF SPST switch, are designed and fabricated using 0.15 µm GaN-on-SiC technology. The PA with DC supply switch shows a measured small-signal gain of 11–12.7 dB at 28–32 GHz, Psat of 31 dBm and PAEpeak of 24% at 30 GHz. The PA with DC supply switch and RF SPST switch, on the other hand, exhibits a measured small-signal gain of 9.2–11.6 dB at 28–32 GHz, Psat of 29.5 dBm and PAEpeak of 15% at 30 GHz. In the receive mode, the measurements show a power consumption of only 20 mW (instead of 2 W in transmit mode), port-to-port isolation of more than −27 dB and S22 higher than −3 dB at 28–32 GHz highlighting the effectiveness of integrated DC and RF switch.

8:50 Development of a 10-W-Class Microwave Power Source Based on a Dielectric Resonator Oscillator and Class-F Power Amplifier for a Microwave-Discharge Ion Thruster on LEO-Satellites
Kohei Fujiwara and Takashi Kondo (Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute, Japan); Kazuya Yaginuma and Sei Mizojiri (Pale Blue Inc., Japan); Shinji Hara and Noriyuki Tanba (Nagoya University, Japan)

Recently satellites in low earth orbit (LEO) used for satellite communications (satcom) are entering a period of growth. LEO satellites are capable of operating their thruster systems to adjust their attitude and altitude in orbit. A recent development for thruster system uses compact microwave-discharge ion or Hall thruster technology with main advantage being the utilization of noble gas or water-vapor over traditional combustible fuels. Hence, the thruster system can operate with greater safety, cost-effectiveness, and a size reduction compared to other type of thrusters. Massive satellite constellation employing water vapor systems based on LEO satcoms could benefit during deployment and normal operations. The thruster system consists of an oscillator-stage, amplifier-stage, and a microwave-discharge ion thruster. To realize the advantages of a water-vapor based system, it is necessary to develop a high efficiency microwave power source (MPS). We developed a MPS with a dielectric resonator oscillator (DRO) and single class-F power amplifier with 10-W-class GaN power transistors. The oscillator can generate 1 W output during the amplifier-stage requires 1 W (30 dBm) input to operate and outputs 10 W microwave power at the most optimal power efficiency. In this report, we explain the development of 10-W-class MPS which is a 41.76 dBm maximum output at 4.2074 GHz with a system efficiency of 46.65%. We also detail the environmental evaluations complied with space standard from the SMC-S-016.

9:10 Nonlinear Power Splitter: Phase Response and Its Potentials to Solve the Problems for RF/Microwave Amplification
Kamran Davoodi (University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy); Rocco Giofrè and Paolo Colantonio (University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy)

The dynamic behaviour of RF power splitters has great impact in the behavior of dual-branch RF power amplifiers (PAs) such as Doherty power amplifiers (DPAs). Recently, we have introduced a structure as a nonlinear power splitter which has the capability to change the power ratio based on the terminal impedances in the output ports. In the previous work, we discussed the amplitude response of this new structure and how we can deliver more power to one branch or vice versa in dualbranch configurations. But, for using this structure in the Doherty amplifier, the phase response of this structure is crucial as well. In this paper, we analyze the phase response of the standard Hybrid Branch Line Coupler (HBLC) structure and then we show that the phase response of the nonlinear power splitter has some advantages that make it easier to use in the Doherty power amplifier design. Continuing, we show some potential applications of the nonlinear power splitters for RF/Microwave amplifications.

9:30 Super-Low Power X Band, Voltage Controlled Oscillator Designed in 22 nm FDSOI Technology
Piyush Kumar (Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Germany); Linus Maurer (Universität der Bundeswehr München, Germany); Enno Boehme (Researcher, Germany)

This paper presents the design architecture, simulation and measurement result of a stable high-performance onchip signal generator system. The system consists of an ultra-lowpower Voltage controlled oscillator designed for the frequency range of 7.2 - 8.2 GHz and is interfaced with a divide-by-2 pre-scaler. The circuit generates an RF output of 3.6 GHz to 4.1 GHz with constant average output power and phase-noise (PN). The minimum current consumption of VCO core is 1.05 mA at a supply voltage of 250 mV and a back gate voltage of 1.4 V. The back gate bias is adapted in the RF block to minimize the DC power consumption and enhance the PN and the output power.

9:50 A Highly Linear Single-Balanced Resistive X-Band MMIC Mixer in GaN HEMT Technology
Tom Johansen (Technical University of Denmark, Denmark); Frank Schnieder (Ferdinand-Braun-Institut Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Germany); Bernd Janke (Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Germany); Olof Bengtsson, Andreas Wentzel and Wolfgang Heinrich (Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Germany)

In this paper a highly linear X-band MMIC mixer implemented in a 0.25 um GaN HEMT technology is presented. The mixer is based on a single-balanced resistive architecture using a pair of symmetrical 4 x125 um GaN HEMTs. A novel minituarized half-wavelength hair-pin type of balun creates the balanced LO signal to be fed to the gates. A lumped-element diplexer network is used to separate the IF and RF signals at the drains. The fabricated MMIC mixer demonstrates a 6.9 dB conversion loss at 10 GHz with an LO power of +24.6 dBm and a bandwidth from 7.8-12.2 GHz. Over the same bandwidth the single-tone second and third-order spurious responses are below -66 dBm and -98 dBm, respectively, at an RF input power level of -10 dBm. The experimental results furthermore show that the two-tone third-order input intercept point (IIP3) reaches 30 dBm at an applied LO power of +24.6 dBm.

MIKON E1: Communication antennas

Room: Building C-13, room 0.32
Chairs: Pawel Kabacik (Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland), Adam Narbudowicz (Tyndall National Institute, Ireland & Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland)
8:30 Evaluation of the Actual EMF Exposure from Extreme Massive MIMO Base Stations Around 10 GHz Using Channel Modelling
Marcin Rybakowski and Kamil Bechta (Nokia, Poland); Christophe Grangeat (Nokia, France); Pawel Kabacik (Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland)

Massive MIMO is a key 5G technology and will be even more important for future generations of cellular standards such as 6G. The system performance improvements offered by this technology and the possibility to develop larger antenna arrays for new frequency bands pave the way to the future deployments of extremely large multi-antenna systems. This paper provides an analysis of the actual EMF exposure levels from extreme massive MIMO active antenna array systems that are targeted for 6G mobile networks in the 7-15 GHz frequency range. Various antenna array dimensions have been investigated, from a 12×8 array of 192 antenna elements to a 24×16 array with 796 antenna elements. Modelling studies have been performed at 10 GHz. The actual maximum approach has been implemented as recommended in IEC 62232:2022. The modelling results provide a range of power reduction factors (FPR) from -7.1 dB to -10.7 dB with increasing antenna array size.

8:50 Design and Investigation of Slotted Semi-Elliptical UWB MIMO Antenna with Notch-Band Features
T. Hemalatha (VIT-AP University, India); Bappadittya Roy (Vellore Institute of Technology, Amaravati, India); Uma Maheswari Yarram (VIT-AP University, India); Venkata Lakshmaiah, Y (Department of ECE, Narasaraopeta Engineering College, Narasaraopeta, India - 52260)

This article introduces a pioneering development in wireless communication technology, presenting a novel compact Semi-Elliptical Shaped Slotted (SES) ultra-wideband (UWB) Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) antenna having dimensions 15 x 30 mm2, it is designed using HFSS software. Two slots were incorporated on the patch elements to generate the notch bands at X-band and Ku-band. A slotted parasitic strip engraved on the Partial Ground Plane (PGP) to generate the third notch at Ka-band and to enhance the isolation. The proposed design achieved the operating bandwidth of 38.15 GHz with triple notch characteristics. It also achieved the reflection coefficient (S11) of -28.26 dB at 17.28 GHz frequency and isolation of ≤ -17 dB for the entire ultra wideband. It also achieved the gain of 8.45 dBi with good radiation pattern.

9:10 A Compact Wideband Monopole Antenna with Wider Notch-Band Characteristics
Venkata Lakshmaiah, Y (Department of ECE, Narasaraopeta Engineering College, Narasaraopet, India - 52260); Bappadittya Roy and T. Hemalatha (School of Electronics Engineering, VIT-AP University, Inavolu, India - 522241); V Venkata Rao (Narasaraopeta Engineering College, India)

The present article introduces a novel wide-band, open-ended monopole antenna, supplemented by fabrication. To attain a broad impedance bandwidth, an open-ended slot is intricately etched onto the radiating element. The design employs an FR4 substrate with a dielectric constant of 4.4. The resultant antenna covers a diverse frequency bands including a wider notch band (3.97 to 8.13 GHz) with a center frequency of 6.05 GHz. The notch band is achieved by etching an L-shaped slot on the partial ground plane. The proposed monopole structure achieved the maximum S11 of -31.17 at 3.07 GHz and high gain of 3.05 dBi. The proposed wideband antenna design is appropriately suitable for L (1-2 GHz) and S (2-4 GHz) band applications.

9:30 Highly-Isolated Compact 4-Port Slotted Circular Ring UWB MIMO Antenna with Band-Notched Characteristics
T. Hemalatha (VIT-AP University, India); Bappadittya Roy (Vellore Institute of Technology, Amaravati, India); M Sri Harsha and Uma Maheswari Yarram (VIT-AP University, India)

In this research paper, a novel and compact four-port Slotted Circular Ring (SCR) Ultra wideband (UWB) MIMO antenna is proposed, featuring an aperture area measuring 40 x 40 x 1.6 mm³. This antenna design incorporates notch band characteristics and high isolation. The primary focus of this research is to develop a UWB MIMO antenna with minimized design complexity yet offering high performance, which emphasizes the concerted effort to enhance communication efficiency while minimizing the intricacies inherent in the design and implementation of UWB technology. Hexagonal structure merged with SCR enhanced the impedance bandwidth from 13.66 to 14.31 GHz, which is suitable for C-band, X-band and Ku-band applications. It covered the UWB from 4.19 to 18.5 GHz with a notch at C-band (5.06 to 5.64 GHz). In order to obtain isolation >25 dB, neutralization lines (NL) are placed between the antenna elements. Acceptable findings were obtained when evaluating the antenna's performance in terms of diversity characteristics such as ECC, TARC, and DG. The maximum return loss (|S11|) of 24.94 dB is achieved at 4.77 GHz. The measured results of the fabricated prototype and the simulated results are in good agreement.

9:50 An Optimized Ka-Band Low Profile Dual-Polarized Transmitarray Antenna with 2D Beam Switching
Seyed Hashem Ramazannia Tuloti, Adam Lamecki and Michal Mrozowski (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland)

This article presents an optimized dual-polarized transmitarray antenna (TA) designed for MIMO applications at the Ka-band, capable of switching beams in two directions. The antenna aperture uses a small unit cell with three layers of Taconic RF-35 dielectric substrates, which can be easily fabricated using PCB technology. The unit cell achieved a 360-degree phase shift and a transmission magnitude exceeding -0.4 dB at 28 GHz. We used nine dual-polarized patch antennas in a cross shape, each with a 10.5 dBi gain at 28 GHz, to switch the beams in two directions without changing the feed location. We optimized the phase distribution in the TA aperture and adjusted the feed antenna's F/D and tilt to achieve a high-gain antenna with low-gain roll-off during beam switching. The fabricated TA exhibited excellent agreement with the full-wave simulation results. It achieved ±15 degrees and ±30 degrees beam tilts in the x- and y- directions, with less than 0.8 dB gain roll-off for both polarizations. Transmitarray antennas have emerged as promising solutions for various wireless communication systems due to their ability to combine the advantages of optical theory and antenna array techniques, resulting in low-profile, high-radiation efficiency designs. Dual-polarization in TAs is typically achieved through techniques such as multilayer frequency selective surfaces (M-FSS) or receive-transmit (R-T) schemes. TAs can perform beam scanning using either electrical or mechanical control solutions. In the case of electrical control, RF components such as PIN diodes are added to each unit cell to achieve tunable transmission phases by controlling the DC bias. This approach is expensive, lossy, and complex. Passive TAs, on the other hand, can only provide a fixed phase shift once their dimensions are determined. Nevertheless, the beams of the passive TAs can be mechanically steered by moving the feed source, which causes a high gain roll-off issue. This occurs when the feed source veers from the center to scan the beams in a unifocal TA with an aperture designed for the center-located feed source. In this study, we used a compact unit cell composed of three layers of Taconic RF-35 dielectric substrates, facilitating cost-effective fabrication using PCB technology. The unit cell has two circular patches in the top and bottom layers and a circular ring with four lines in the middle layer of each stacked FSS and is suitable for dual polarization applications due to its symmetry. The required 360-degree phase shift has been achieved at 28 GHz with less than 0.4 dB transmission magnitude loss. This allowed us to design a highly efficient wideband TA and optimize the antenna aperture for beam scanning. The unit cell in this design is smaller than the ones examined in the literature, which reduces the sidelobe levels in the TA by fitting more unit cells into the aperture. To realize beam switching in two dimensions, we employ a configuration comprising nine dual-polarized patch antennas arranged in a cross shape. Each patch antenna exhibits a gain of 10.5 dBi at 28 GHz, ensuring robust performance across the desired frequency band. The optimization process involves fine-tuning the phase distribution within the TA aperture and adjusting parameters such as the focal length-to-diameter (F/D) ratio and tilt of the feed antennas to mitigate gain roll-off during beam switching. By carefully optimizing these parameters, we achieve remarkable beam steering capabilities, with the fabricated TA demonstrating ±15 degrees and ±30 degrees beam tilts in the x- and y-directions, respectively, while maintaining gain roll-off below 0.8 dB for both polarizations. To validate the proposed design, extensive full-wave simulations were conducted using CST Microwave Studio software (Fig. 1). The simulations utilized a sophisticated computational setup, including a Hexahedral mesh type with high accuracy and sufficient simulation precision. The simulation results demonstrated excellent agreement with the fabricated TA, confirming the effectiveness of the optimization strategies employed. In summary, this paper introduces a novel approach to optimizing dual-polarized transmitarray antennas for Ka-band applications. Through advanced optimization techniques and innovative design configurations, significant enhancements in beam steering capabilities, efficiency, and low-profile design characteristics have been achieved. Comparative analyses with existing literature highlight the notable advantages of the proposed design, particularly in unit cell size, phase range, and efficiency. By leveraging these advancements, the proposed design holds great promise for advancing wireless communication systems, especially in the realm of emerging MIMO applications and next-generation millimeter-wave technologies.

MIKON CAD WKSH1: CAD for Electromagnetic Modelling

Part I - Theory
WIPL-D d.o.o. (Wipl-D)
Altair (FEKO)
Room: Building C-13, room 0.31
Chairs: Malgorzata Celuch (QWED, Poland), Piotr Słobodzian (Wroclaw University of Technology & Faculty of Electronics, Poland)

MIKON TUT1: Principles of Design for Manufacturing and Assembly for RF and mmW engineering. Basics of Design based on statistical methods. Robust design of RF/mmW components

Andrzej Samulak, Huawei
Room: Building C-13, room 0.38
Chair: Andrzej Samulak (Huawei, Poland)

Monday, July 1 10:10 - 10:40

Coffee1: Coffee break

Monday, July 1 10:40 - 12:20

MIKON C2: mm-Wave propagation and material characterisation

Room: Building C-13, room 1.30
Chairs: Rashaunda Henderson (University of Texas at Dallas, USA), Yevhen Yashchyshyn (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)
10:40 Dielectric Characterization of Molding Compound in Microwave, Millimeter-Wave, and Terahertz Spectrum
Nikita Mahjabeen, Rashaunda Henderson and Mark Lee (University of Texas at Dallas, USA)

In advanced packaging, the epoxy molding compound in electronics is growing popularity for RF interconnect technology and antenna. This promotes the need to characterize the properties of molding material over a broad spectrum to facilitate electronic design. This paper demonstrates the dielectric properties of C8 mold material over five decades of frequency using five different characterization techniques. The dielectric constant of C8 varies from 3.5 to 4 and the loss tangent varies up to 0.01 from 0.1 GHz to 10 THz.

11:00 Reflection-Only Method for Characterization of Lossy Dielectrics in Sub-THz Range
Konrad Godziszewski and Yevhen Yashchyshyn (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

This paper presents a broadband measurement technique for characterization of lossy dielectrics in sub-THz frequency range. The method is based on measuring only the complex reflection coefficient and does not require accurate information about the thickness of the sample under test.

11:20 Measurements of Material Loss and Floor Penetration for 18-30 GHz
Maciej Niedźwiecki, Mateusz Zawadzki and Krzysztof Cichoń (Poznan University of Technology, Poland)

mmWaves is seen to be one of the key enablers for 5G and 6G communications. However, a serious problem may be a limited link budget, especially in the indoor scenario. Therefore, in this work, the penetration of the floor and loss of material are analyzed with a series of measurements at frequencies 18-30~GHz. The measurements showed that there is a great variety of material losses which should be taken into account in Outdoor-to-Indoor or Indoor-to-Indoor models. Of six materials, the measured loss varied from 2 up to 67~dB, while the measured floor loss ranged from 31 to 49~dB depending on the frequency. The final conclusion also is that with many materials the communication may be feasible at frequencies 18-30~GHz, however, the floor penetration loss makes the communication nearly infeasible.

11:40 A Reliable Attenuation Characterization of EMI Absorber Material at V-Band Frequencies
Palak Dave, Andreas E. Olk and Andreas R. Diewald (IEE S.A., Luxembourg)

Characterizing material at millimeter wave frequencies can be challenging. Test engineers have to make a proper choice between many different measurement configurations depending on the sample shape and nature of the interaction with the electromagnetic wave. Many existing experimental setups are optimised for dielectric materials and the determination of the complex permittivity but only few are handling strong losses in transmission which are typical for EMI materials. In this paper, the material characterization of EMI absorbers using a waveguide-based sample fixture around 60 GHz is discussed. The attenuation constant and the wave impedance are determined under consideration of the reflections at the material interfaces of the bulk material. Best practices for RF material characterization can be deduced for this particular case.

12:00 Impact of Rain Attenuation on Short-Range Frequency Operations in 5G Networks
Sandra B Matondo and Pius Adewale Owolawi (Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa)

Attenuation caused by rain poses significant challenges for millimeter wave communication systems, especially in regions with heavy rainfall. Accurate attenuation prediction is required to set realistic performance expectations and ensure robust millimeter-wave communications links for 5G networks even in challenging environments. The aim of this work is to model and optimize rain attenuation in terrestrial 5G using evolutionary algorithms. The attenuation is modelled using symbolic regression that takes rain rate, path length, and frequencies between 24.5 GHz and 86 GHz as input. Next, differential evolution is used to determine the optimal parameters that best fit the model. The model is found to predict the attenuation with minimal errors. The proposed model's performance is evaluated against the ITU-R, Crane, Da Silva and Melo models. The proposed model's accuracy and performance are further validated based on the obtained MSE, MAE and R-squared values.

MIKON B2: Pasive components & filters

Room: Building C-13, room 1.28
Chairs: Michal Mrozowski (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland), Jakub Sorocki (AGH University of Krakow, Poland)
10:40 Broadband Six-Port Reflectometer Insensitive to Impedance Mismatch of Power Detectors
Kamil Staszek (AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland)

In this paper, a new six-port reflectometer is proposed, which is capable of optimum operation over a wide frequency range from 1.2 GHz to 4.8 GHz with power detectors that exhibit poor impedance match. In the proposed concept the signals reflected from power detectors are redirected to matched loads, hence they do not impact the signal distribution scheme defining the measurement uncertainty. As a result, the six-port can operate equally well with matched and non-matched power detectors. The six-port reflectometer is designed, fabricated, calibrated, and used to measure complex reflection coefficients over 40-dB magnitude's range showing very good agreement with measurements done with a commercial vector network analyzer.

11:00 Reconfigurable Phase Shifter Based on Groove Gap Waveguide Technology for Radar Applications
Ali Farahbakhsh (Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Iran); Davood Zarifi (University of Kashan, Iran); Michal Mrozowski (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland)

This paper presents a novel design of a reconfigurable phase shifter based on groove gap waveguide (GGW) technology. The proposed phase shifter consists of some GGW bends with movable pins that can change the waveguide length and thus the phase of the electromagnetic (EM) waves. The advantage of the GGW technology is that it does not require electrical contact between different parts of the structure, which enables the moving parts to slide freely without EM leakage. The proposed phase shifter is simulated using CST Microwave Studio and shows a good performance in terms of reflection coefficient, insertion loss, and phase shift of 915°.

11:20 Miniaturized S-Band Diplexers for Space Applications with High Far Out-Of-Band Rejection
Robert Stefanski (al. Zwyciestwa 96/98 & WiRan sp. z o. o., Poland); Andrzej Osiecki (WiRan Sp. z O. O., Poland); Jaroslaw Stepien (Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland)

The paper presents the results of theoretical considerations, supported by the results of simulations, concerning the implementation of a miniaturized S-band diplexer based on SIR (Stepped-Impedance Resonators). The project is the next stage in the development of S-band diplexers, manufactured by WiRan. This time, the focus was on minimizing the dimensions and weight of the device and achieving high far-out-of-band-rejection (FOOBR) of 2nd-5th order harmonics. At the same time, efforts were made to keep the remaining electrical parameters attractive, thus meeting the project requirements set by European Space Agency. The choice of the diplexer technique (SIR with Teflon disc - PTFE) was dictated by the excellent FOOBR results obtained in this type of solutions. According to the assumptions, the project is to be implemented at least at the Technology Readiness Level 6. Nevertheless, efforts will be made to ensure that the project finally ends at TRL 9. In this article a band pass filter is presented being a demonstrator of technology to be applied in final diplexer with extraordinary spurious-free performance of up to 5 times the edge frequency of TX filter and very good multipactor performance, which is critical aspect in space applications. Although high quality factor is maintained, the resulting geometry allows for compact realization of diplexer.

11:40 Design of Hybrid AWLR-Based Filters Using Classical Cascade Synthesis Approach
Yagmur Karahan (ASELSAN Inc., Turkey); Nevzat Yildirim (Middle East Technical University (METU) & Consultant at Aselsan Military Ind., Ankara, Turkey)

This study presents the design of Acoustic-Wave-Lumped-Element Resonator (AWLR)-based filters using the classical cascade synthesis approach as a simpler and more practical method instead of the coupling matrix (CM)-based synthesis approach. The classical cascade synthesis approach is used to design hybrid bandpass (BP), bandstop (BS), linear phase filters, and BP-BS diplexers using commercially available identical SAW resonators leading to bandwidths wider than all-AW filters with higher Q-factors. It is shown that simple circuit transformations enable the quick design of such hybrid filters.

12:00 Introduction of a Transmission Zero in Directional Filters by Using Unequal Length Coupled Sections for Inter-Resonator Coupling
Ilona Piekarz (AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland); Jakub Sorocki (AGH University of Krakow, Poland)

A novel directional filter topology is proposed where a transmission zero is introduced at no cost of increased total electrical length compared to classical topology. Two coupled line sections per wave-long resonator featuring unequal transmission lines are used for inter-resonator coupling. One of the sections is realized to be close to half-wavelength of electrical length at a center frequency so that its deep null is located at the edge of the filter`s stopband. The approach is theoretically analyzed and validated using a transmission line model of a 2nd order directional filter demonstrator operating at 1 GHz with 4% bandwidth. Simulation results confirmed the filter to exhibit frequency response with extra transmission zero certifying the usability of the proposed approach.

MIKON WKSH1: Digital Predistortion for 5G/6G Wireless Transmitters

Prof. Anding Zhu, PhD, FIEEE
School of Electrical & Electronic Eng.
University College Dublin
Room: Building C-13, room 0.32
Chair: Anding Zhu (University College Dublin, Ireland)
10:40 Digital Predistortion for Broadband Transmitters Using Machine Learning
Anding Zhu (University College Dublin, Ireland)


11:00 Artificial Neural Networks for Digital Predistortion Linearization of Multi-Input Wideband Power Amplifiers
Pere Gilabert (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Spain)


11:20 Phase-Normalized Neural Networks for Linearization of Power Amplifiers
Arne Fischer-Bühner (Nokia Bell Labs, Belgium)


11:40 AI-Assisted Digital Predistortion of RF Power Amplifi Ers for 6G Flexible Spectrum Applications
Chao Yu (Southeast University, China)


12:00 Failures and Successes During the Development of a Custom DPD Solution for Cellular Base Stations
Przemyslaw Korpas (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)


MIKON CAD WKSH2: CAD for Electromagnetic Modelling

Part I - Theory
QWED sp. z o.o. (QuickWave)
EM Invent sp. z o.o. (Invensim)
Dassault Systèmes (CST Studio Suite)
Room: Building C-13, room 0.31
Chair: Grzegorz Fotyga (Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland)

Monday, July 1 12:20 - 14:00

Lunch1: Lunch

Monday, July 1 14:00 - 15:40

MRW OPENING: MIKON & MRW Opening Session

Room: Building D-20, Aula
Chairs: Andrzej A. Kucharski (Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland), Jozef Modelski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)
14:00 Conference Opening Ceremony


14:25 Novel Topologies and Technological Solutions for Microwave Sensors
Maurizio Bozzi (University of Pavia, Italy)


15:10 Link Budgets for In-, On-, and Off-Body Communication: An Impossible Dream?
Anja K. Skrivervik (EPFL, Switzerland)


Monday, July 1 15:40 - 16:10

Coffee2: Coffee break

Monday, July 1 16:10 - 17:50

MIKON C3: mm-Wave antennas and systems

Room: Building C-13, room 1.30
Chair: Hugo Deberge (European Space Agency (ESA), The Netherlands)
16:10 Portable Ground Station for Tracking of Spaceborne W-Band Signals
Hugo Deberge (European Space Agency (ESA), The Netherlands); Václav Valenta (European Space Agency, The Netherlands); Marek Peca (ESA, The Netherlands)

The interest on higher frequency bands in satellite communications has never stopped increasing over the past years leading to the development of very high throughput satellite communication systems (VHTS) promising terabit per second capacity. This is only possible thanks to multibeam concepts, frequency reuse, polarization diversity and excellent maturity of semiconductor technologies that enable implementation of the most critical RF functions well beyond Ku-band. Hence, the scarcest resource, the bandwidth, becomes the only limit. Therefore, advanced HTS/VHTS feeder links can no longer rely on Ka-band. As a result, mm-wave frequency band as Q-band (33-50 GHz), V-band (50-75 GHz) and W-band (75-110 GHz) have gained in popularity as they can feed terabit streams between gateways and spacecrafts. These shorter wavelengths allow smaller antennas with higher gain as well as smaller chips and component sizes which reduces the overall weight of the payload. Systems are also less subject to interferences as the electromagnetic spectrum at mm-wave frequencies is less occupied compared Ka/Ku bands. First technology demonstrators and propagation campaigns have emerged even beyond Q/V band. W-band offering 2 x 5 GHz band between 71-76 and 81-86 GHz is considered as a natural next step to extend the capacity of the Q/V-band. To demonstrate the technology maturity and to enable preliminary propagation experiments, several W-band payloads have been developed and launched recently in the frame of projects cooperation like "W-Band Technology Developments towards first beacon-based propagation campaign'' that has been led by ESA. A W-Cube satellite with a 76 GHz beacon for propagation experiments has been in orbit since 2021 and another technology demonstrator that combines both W-band beacon and a high-throughput datalink EIVE is to be flown in 2023. This contribution will present development status of a W-band ground terminal capable of tracking beacon signals paced on LEO orbits. The system has been developed at ESA in the frame of YGT programs. The W-band terminal consists of a 60 cm two-reflector Cassegrain antenna used in terrestrial E-band radios. This antenna is equipped with a receive frontend based on a state-of-the-art LNAs processed on a 70 nm gate length GaAs mHEMT developed in dedicated ESA R&D activities. A custom made down-converter based on GaAs COTS is driven by a frequency-controlled PLL through SPI. Baseband processing is done with an SDR. The antenna together with the receive frontend are mounted on a low-cost antenna tracking system that has been adjusted to allow for fast LEO satellite tracking. System level aspects, design and measurements of the key elements as well as measurements results from field testing and overall system performances and limitations will be presented in this contribution.

16:30 Transformation of Polarization of Terahertz Pulses Under Modulation Instability in Paraelectrics
Volodymyr Grimalsky (Autonomous University of State Morelos (UAEM), Mexico); Jesus Escobedo-Alatorre (Autonomous University of State Morelos, Mexico); Yuriy Rapoport (University of Warmia and Mazury, Poland); Anatoliy Kotsarenko (Autonomous University of Carmen, Mexico)

It is theoretically investigated nonlinear propagation and interaction of two-dimensional and three-dimensional terahertz electromagnetic beams of different polarizations in nonlinear crystals. The attention is paid to crystalline paralelectrics like SrTiO3 at the temperatures 50 – 200 K. The interacting wave beams are subject to the modulation instability that results in the formation of the sequence of short envelope pulses of 2 - 10 picoseconds durations from the long input envelope pulses. The energy transfer from the pulse with the higher input amplitude to one with the smaller input amplitude occurs. The initial focusing of the beams compensates the wave losses and reduces the input amplitudes for observing the modulation instability.

16:50 Frequency-Domain Backscatter Communication and Its Millimeter-Wave Implementation
Yishan Wang, Kai Xu and Jayakrishnan Methapettyparambu Purushothama (Heriot-Watt University, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Wei Gong (University of Science and Technology of China, China); Lei Wang (Lancaster University, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Yuan Ding (Heriot-Watt University, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

This paper studies frequency-domain backscatter communication (BackCom) links. Specifically, we propose a new conjugate multiplication (CM) method that enables frequency-domain BackCom functional for dynamic digitally IQ-modulated ambient signals. Through both theoretical analysis and its millimeter Wave (mmWave) proof-of-concept experimental validation, its feasibility and performance superiority for different ambient signals, e.g., single-tone continuous wave (CW) and QPSK modulated signals of different bandwidth, are demonstrated and compared with the traditional frequency-shifted and recently proposed Quadrature Demod (QD) method.

17:10 Low-Cost 5G mm-Wave Phased-Array Antenna Module
Mikołaj Żebrowski, Paweł Zawada and Jakub Strycharz (Microamp Solutions, Poland)

This article presents a 26.5-29.5 GHz dual-polarized antenna array with electronic beamforming dedicated for 5G systems. Antennas are integrated with 16 beamformer ICs on multi-layer PCB. The array demonstrates a realised gain of 21 dB in operating bandwidth. Scanning ± 60° in both azimuth and elevation plane is achieved.

17:30 MIMO Systems for 6G THz Data Transmission Links
Mateusz Kaluza (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland); Paweł Komorowski (Military University of Technology, Poland); Adrianna Nieradka and Mateusz Surma (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland); Przemysław Zagrajek (Military Institute of Technology, Poland); Agnieszka Siemion (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

The recent advancements in terahertz (THz) physics drive the development of 6G technology. Multiplexing THz signals into a single optical path represents a highly promising technique for enhancing the data capacity of forthcoming data links. This study introduces the concept of applying two different diffractive elements to combine THz beams into a single communication channel, subsequently separating them for detection. These elements have been designed, optimized, simulated, manufactured, and experimentally validated.

MIKON D1: Radar & Wireless Technology

Room: Building C-13, room 1.28
Chairs: Pawel Kabacik (Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland), Lukasz Kulas (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland)
16:10 Vital Sign Monitoring in Cluttered Environments: Leveraging FMCW Radar and PCA Analysis
Keivan Alirezazad, Jonas Schmitt and Linus Maurer (Universität der Bundeswehr München, Germany)

This research project focuses on monitoring and recording specific vital signs, such as heart rate (HR) and breathing rate (BR), from human participants. Leveraging the capabilities of the INRAS GmbH Radarbook2, a 77-GHz multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar, we employ principal component analysis (PCA) on aggregated range-angle maps (RAM) that are spatially sliced. Through the analysis of multiple features extracted from slow-time samples of phase data, PCA effectively distinguishes between signal and noise, resulting in a more robust representation of the underlying vital signals. This study evaluates the performance of the proposed algorithm against the EQ02+ LifeMonitor, a cutting-edge wearable sensor employed for establishing ground truth values. Analysis of conducted experiments indicates a low mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 2% for HR and 3.3% for BR measurements.

16:30 On Pollinator Monitoring Using mmWave Micro-Doppler Radar
Maryam Norouzi and Pieter Barnard (Trinity College Dublin, Ireland); Adam Narbudowicz (Tyndall National Institute, Ireland & Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland); Ian Donohue (Professor in Environmental Science, Ireland)

Pollinators serve a crucial role in our global ecosystem by facilitating the reproduction of plants and crops. Despite their vital contribution, factors like urbanization and pesticide use, pose significant threats to the habitats of various pollinator species, such as bees. Therefore, it is increasingly imperative to devise solutions that allow precise and efficient monitoring of their biodiversity. This study presents a low-cost solution based on mmWave Doppler sensor to extract important characteristic wingbeat information of bumblebees through near-field monitoring. By conducting various simulated and real-life experiments, we demonstrate the feasibility of our approach for providing lowcost and effective portable in-field monitoring of pollinators for biodiversity conservation purposes.

16:50 Comparative Evaluation of and Enhancements for Breast Microwave Imaging Systems
Tyson Reimer, Fatimah Eashour, Gabrielle Fontaine and Stephen Pistorius (University of Manitoba, Canada)

This study bridges the evaluation of design parameters in breast microwave imaging (BMI) systems with innovative methodologies for assessing image quality. By comparing three distinct BMI system designs tailored for clinical, laboratory, and field settings and applying quantitative metrics to analyze image quality, this research identifies the influence of system design and reconstruction algorithms on diagnostic efficacy. The investigation into bed-based, bench-top, and portable systems, together with several reconstruction methods, unveils insights into optimizing breast cancer microwave imaging systems.

17:10 Automated Crosstalk Reduction System for Multichannel RF Devices
Maciej Grzegrzolka, Bartłomiej Kola and Krzysztof Czuba (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

Multichannel RF Devices often suffer from problems with crosstalk between the channels. In this paper, an automated crosstalk reduction solution is presented. It was designed and used in a Cavity Simulator for European Spallation Source. First, the theory of operation is presented. In the next part, the used hardware is discussed. The software algorithm follows it. In the last part, the measurements of the system operation are presented.

17:30 Autonomous Robot for Efficient Indoor RF Measurements
Aleksander Krupa, Bartosz Multan, Mateusz Groth, Krzysztof Nyka and Lukasz Kulas (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland)

In this paper, we addresses the emergence of autonomous and semi-autonomous radio frequency (RF) measurements as a vital application for robots, particularly in indoor environments where traditional methods are labor-intensive and error-prone. We propose a method utilizing Autonomous Mobile Robots (AMRs) equipped with Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and RGB-D cameras to conduct precise and repetitive RF signal measurements autonomously. The system architecture, comprising both hardware and software components, enables seamless integration and operation, reducing human intervention to preparation and analysis tasks. The proposed solution demonstrates its efficacy through experimental validation, showcasing its capability to conduct autonomous measurements with high precision and efficiency, thereby enhancing the testing of wireless communication systems and algorithms.

WIM: Women in Microwaves

How and Why People Communicate: from the Origin of Speech to AI-Based Signal Recognition
Małgorzata Danicka
Room: Building C-13, room 0.32
Chair: Malgorzata Celuch (QWED, Poland)

IRS-TUT 3: Short Course on Joint Communication and Sensing

Dr. Mehmet Parlak (UCLouvain)
Room: Building C-13, room 0.31

IRS TUT2: Fundamentals of Radar Imaging

Marcin Kamil Bączyk (Warsaw University of Technology)
Room: Building C-13, room 0.38

This tutorial will introduce participants to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) technologies. SAR is used to create high-resolution images of the Earth's surface under any weather conditions by simulating a larger antenna, enhancing spatial resolution. ISAR generates images of moving targets from a stationary position, providing detailed views of objects such as ships and aircraft. The tutorial will cover basic image formation principles and showcase results from both active and passive imaging modes. This comprehensive overview is designed to deepen understanding of these advanced radar imaging technologies and their applications.

Monday, July 1 17:50 - 19:50

Event1: Welcome Cocktail

C13 Building

Tuesday, July 2

Tuesday, July 2 8:30 - 10:25

IRS OPENING: IRS Opening Session

Welcome from IEEE AES Society (Dr. Braham Himed, IEEE Fellow, AFRL Fellow)
Room: Building C-13, room 1.31
Chair: Krzysztof (Chris) Kulpa (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)
9:00 Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR): What is Next?
Alberto Moreira (German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany)

Among many different space-based sensor technologies, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) plays an essential role in providing timely and reliable geospatial information as it is the only sensor technology which provides high-resolution imagery on a global scale independent of the weather conditions and solar illumination. This talk will first provide an overview on the state of the art in spaceborne SAR. A prominent example is the TanDEM-X mission, the first bistatic radar in space consisting of two satellites in close formation flight. The second part of this talk describes the paradigm shift is taking place in spaceborne SAR systems. New antenna and SAR instrument concepts with multichannel and digital beamforming will boost the performance of future SAR systems by at least one order of magnitude. Augmenting complex SAR missions with global coverage, low-cost, lightweight SAR systems based on NewSpace concepts are being implemented with the aim of imaging small areas with a very short revisit time. The talk concludes with a vision for spaceborne SAR.

9:30 Novel Potentials Enabled by Satellite-Based Passive Radars
Diego Cristallini (Fraunhofer FHR, Germany)

Passive radar has now become an established technology. Among current active field of research it is worth mentioning the capability to perform imaging as well as the capability of detection of small objects such as drones. Satellite Illuminators of Opportunity (IOs) such as Digital Video Broadcast - Satellite (DVB-S) as well as the exploitation of emerging broadband communication satellite constellations (e.g. Starlink or OneWeb) offer interesting characteristics to perform these two tasks. In fact, they offer relatively wide signal bandwidths for passive radars (up to 2 GHz), they operate at high carrier frequencies (namely in Ku-Band), and these so-called mega-constellations with global and continuous coverage are planned to be composed of hundreds or thousands of satellites deployed at low Earth orbits (LEO), thus offering continuous and synoptic illumination on wide and also remote areas. In particular, while the wide signal bandwidth enables high range resolutions, the high operating frequency significantly increases the system sensibility against Doppler (and micro-Doppler) modulations with respect to other conventional passive radar IOs at lower frequencies. Both these aspects offer extremely appealing characteristics for detection and imaging. Finally, preliminary experimental measurements will be presented. All of these analyses will provide an overview of the great potential capabilities achievable by using these novel satellite constellations as illuminators of opportunity, trying also to promote further research and developments in this field that will open up new and advanced passive radar applications.

10:00 The Photonic Radar Revolution: Challenges and Potentials for Future Automotive Radar Systems
Stephan Kruse (Paderborn University, Germany)

Imaging radar could be a key component for high level autonomous driving. However, in electronic MIMO and phased array radar systems, the imaging capabilities are constrained by the small antenna aperture size. This limitation arises from the significant losses incurred by electronic links (typically a few dB/cm). In contrast, fiber optical links exhibit remarkably low loss, with values below 0.3 dB/km. Leveraging this advantage, radar systems with nearly infinite aperture sizes can be implemented. Within the talk, various photonic radar approaches are presented and discuss their applicability in automotive environments. Additionally, the talk will delve into the realm of photonic quantum radar. These approaches have the potential to overcome classic radar limitations, such as overcome the Rayleigh limit and achieving outstanding SNRs.

Tuesday, July 2 8:30 - 10:10

MIKON E2: Radar and sensor antennas

Room: Building C-13, room 1.30
Chairs: Marlene Harter (Offenburg University, Germany), Dirk Heberling (RWTH Aachen University, Germany)
8:30 Low Frequency Edge-Slot Vivaldi Antenna for Ground Penetrating Radar Applications
Philip Arthur and Marlene Harter (Offenburg University, Germany)

The low frequency performance of a combined edge-slot Vivaldi antenna suitable for ground penetrating radar is investigated. By implementing different exponential and edge slots in the conductor layer, the simulated gain and reflection coefficient parameters are improved compared to the conventional Vivaldi antenna. The modified antenna demonstrates wide impedance bandwith less than -10 dB with positive gain from 75 MHz to 1 GHz. A maximum gain above 7 dBi is realized in simulation. With its low frequency operation, gain improvement and low design profile, the proposed antenna makes a key candidate for low frequency GPR applications.

8:50 Miniaturized Horn Antenna for Use in Interferometric Radar Based Measurement System
Wojciech Damian Bernaś (AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Poland); Krzysztof Wincza (AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland)

This paper investigates two different miniaturized horn antenna designs developed with the assumed high temperature resistance and impedance match. Apart from different geometries the developed antennas differ in impedance matching methods used for reflection coefficient improvement. It is shown that such designs can be realized at a cost of lower gain and higher sidelobe level. One of the designed antennas was manufactured with the use of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology and the obtained measurement results are in a good agreements with simulations.

9:10 Connectivity Improvement in Wireless Sensor Networks Using ESPAR Antennas with Dielectric Overlays
Luiza Leszkowska (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland); Mateusz Rzymowski (Gdansk University of Technology & WiComm Center of Excellence, Poland); Marcin Madziąg (ISS RFID SP. Z O. O., Poland); Krzysztof Nyka and Lukasz Kulas (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland)

This article presents an electrically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) switched beam antenna with a dielectric overlay to miniaturize the antenna and modify the radiation pattern in the vertical plane. The antenna is intended for a gateway in a wireless sensor network (WSN) and is located on the ceiling of a room. Because the ESPAR antenna consists of an array of vertical monopoles, there is a deep minimum in the radiation pattern right beneath the antenna. The use of a dielectric overlay improves the radiation pattern in the vertical direction. Systematic tests in realistic indoor environment in the 2.4 GHz frequency band were conducted, which showed improved connectivity with wireless sensors placed near the floor in a wide area beneath the antenna.

9:30 Influence of 3D Printed Overlay Infill Patterns on Miniaturized ESPAR Antenna Performance
Luiza Leszkowska (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland); Mateusz Rzymowski (Gdansk University of Technology & WiComm Center of Excellence, Poland); Krzysztof Nyka and Lukasz Kulas (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland)

In this article, we show how different infill patterns influence the overall performance of miniaturized electrically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antenna. The use of 3D printed dielectric overlays is a simple and flexible way to miniaturize ESPAR antennas, so they are more compact and can be better integrated with wireless sensor network (WSN) nodes or gateways in different application areas. Additionally, such overlays modify antenna radiation patterns in elevation, which can be used to provide better connectivity with WSN nodes places beneath a WSN gateway. In this work, we investigate 3 different infill patterns that can be used in widely available 3D printers to create the overlay in a 3D printing process, and we show how each of the infill patterns used affects the antenna performance. Finally, based on our measurements, we propose the infill pattern that provides the best parameters of a miniaturized ESPAR antenna.

MIKON A2: Modelling of microwave communication components and systems

Room: Building C-13, room 1.28
Chairs: Grzegorz Fotyga (Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland), Bartłomiej Salski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)
8:30 Optimization Methodology of 112-Gbaud Photoreceivers for Tb/s-Class Optical Communications
Antoine Chauvet (Quartz Laboratory & III-V Lab, France); Romain Hersent (III-V Lab, France); Fabrice Blache (Alcatel-Thales III-V Lab, France); Agnieszka Konczykowska (III-V Lab, France); Abed-Elhak Kasbari (ENSEA-ECS-Lab, France); Achour Ouslimani (Laboratoire QUARTZ, France)

Most photoreceivers' frontends rely on an assembly of a photodiode (PD) and a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) to convert the received optical signal into an amplified electrical one. However, ensuring sufficient electro optical bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio, and linearity for future Tb/s-class transmitters is challenging as the PD TIA interconnect becomes a significant issue. We report an optimization methodology of the frontend's Electro-Optical Response (EOR), in tuning the TIA's input impedance to eliminate the resonances originating from the interconnection. We also discuss the importance of the photodiode and PD-TIA interface modeling for the optimization. After optimization, the frontend achieves a 67-GHz Butterworth-like simulated electro-optical response, with 23 GHz of bandwidth control and clear 112-GBd PAM-4 eye opening. With the proposed optimization, the frontend demonstrates a high resilience to a +/-30% interconnection inductance variation.

8:50 H2 Approximation of Measured Filter S-Parameters with Restricted Number of Transmission Zeros
Jedrzej Michalczyk and Jerzy Julian Michalski (SpaceForest, Poland)

In this work H2 optimal rational approximation of filter S-parameters is proposed. The method allows to introduce a restricted number of transmission zeros in the approximation process. It is shown that restriction for the number of transmission zeros is beneficial for improving the approximation results. Proposed method introduces restriction on McMillan degree for obtained rational representation, thus the results of approximation can be used directly for coupling matrix extraction. The method was verified by obtained excellent approximation results for measured S-parameters of a 10th order cross-coupled filter.

9:10 Scattering Invariant Mode Wave Propagation Using Antenna Arrays
Oliver Csernyava (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary); Tamas Peto (Pro Patria Electronics Kft., Hungary); József Pávó (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary); Zsolt Badics (Tensor Research, USA)

This study examines low-loss microwave propagation, which is achieved by creating scattering invariant mode (SIM) using antenna-beam forming, which is less affected by the statistical variation of the media than the regular beams used in radio wave communication techniques. The SIMs are calculated by measurement of the scattering structure in an anechoic chamber, using metallic cylinders as scatterers. Alternatively, for comparison, a hybrid method based on numerical calculations and the Foldy-Lax approximation is used to obtain fast results in the numerical analysis of the computationally large 3D problem. The robustness of the Scattering Invariant Modes is examined by varying the geometry of the model.

9:30 Modelling and Simulation of Synchronisation Errors in Multi-Receiver Passive Radar Systems
Konstanty S Bialkowski (The University of Queensland, Australia)

This paper presents a study on the effect of synchronisation errors in multi-receiver passive radar systems. In multi-receiver networks, the coherent detection assumes accurate synchronisation between the receivers, but practically this is difficult to achieve in practice. By creating a virtual radar environment we can investigate the effect of time offset, frequency offset and drift in different receiver configurations. Using the Generalised Canonical Correlation Analysis (GCCA) detector, the effect on performance is analysed under controlled conditions. The key output of this work involves an understanding of the required accuracy for distributed receivers which can help inform future work into multi-receiver passive radar and distributed beamforming systems.

9:50 A New Gap-Based Approach for Analysing All-Optical Random Bit Sequences
Andreas Ahrens (Hochschule Wismar, Germany); Christoph Lange (Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Berlin, Germany); Jasmeet Singh (Hochschule Wismar, Germany); Olaf Grote (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain)

Quantum mechanical phenomena are revolutionizing classical engineering fields such as signal processing or cryptography. When randomness plays an important role, like in cryptography where random bit sequences guarantee certain levels of security, quantum mechanical phenomena allow new ways of generating random bit sequences. Such sequences have a lot of applications in the communication sector and beyond. They can be generated deterministically (e.g. by using polynomials, resulting in pseudo-random sequences) or in a non-deterministic way (e.g. by using physical noise sources like external devices or sensors, resulting in random sequences). Important characteristics of such binary sequences can be modelled by gap processes in conjunction with the probability theory. Recently, all-optical approaches have attracted a lot of research interest. In this work, an adaptation of the quantum key distribution (QKD) setup is utilized for generating randomized bit sequences. The simulation results show that all-optically generated sequences very well resemble the theoretically ideal probability density characteristic. Furthermore, m-sequences show very promising results as well as Gold sequences. Additionally, the level of burstiness, i.e. the distribution of one's and zero's throughout the sequence, is studied for the different sequences. The results lead to the finding that generator polynomials with concentrated non-zero coefficients lead to more bursty bit sequences.

MIKON A3: Applications of EM Modelling in microwave design

Room: Building C-13, room 0.32
Chairs: Marzena Olszewska-Placha (QWED Sp. z o. o., Poland), Malgorzata Warecka (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland)
8:30 Testing Stability of FDTD in Media Described by Time-Fractional Constitutive Relations
Damian Trofimowicz, Tomasz P Stefanski and Piotr Pietruszka (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland); Jacek Gulgowski (University of Gdansk, Poland)

We present the procedure that allows one to establish the maximum time-step size guaranteeing stable finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations in media described by time-fractional constitutive relations. The considered constitutive relations involve fractional-order (FO) derivatives based on the Grunwald-Letnikov definition, which describe hereditary properties and memory effects of media and processes. Therefore, the current values of the electromagnetic field in the FDTD iterative procedure depend on all previous ones, which is a new type of computational scheme for this method. In this contribution, we focus on the derivation of a new stability condition for such an FDTD scheme. We formulate fundamental equations of the proposed FDTD method and, then, we derive the stability condition. In the next step, we analyse the properties of this condition on the complex plane based on the characteristic equation of the method. Our results are useful for researchers investigating numerical techniques modelling electromagnetic processes described by the diffusion-wave equation and FO derivatives.

8:50 Performance Comparison of Automatically Generated Topologically Agnostic Patch Antennas
Adrian Bekasiewicz and Khadijeh Askaripour (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland)

Real-world antenna design typically relies on empirical methods, where the development starts with structure synthesis followed by its iterative adjustments to achieve the desired performance. Although the outlined approach proved to be successful, it is also dependent on engineering experience. Alternatively, development can be performed automatically based on the specifications. In this work, an unsupervised design of topologically agnostic patch antennas is considered. The method involves a random generation of feasible topologies, followed by classification of the designs and their cost-efficient numerical optimization. The outlined framework has been used to determine two sets of geometrically distinct radiators dedicated to work for the frequency ranges of 5.3-5.9 GHz and 7-8 GHz, respectively. The generated antennas have been compared in terms of the electrical and radiation performances. The results indicate that the use of free-form topologies has a notable effect on the performance of antennas developed to operate in the given frequency spectrum.

9:10 On the Design of Selected Microwave Circuits with Non-Uniform Transmission Lines
Marcin Wiśniewski (PIT-RADWAR S.A. & Warsaw University of Technology, Poland); Wojciech Wojtasiak (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

In this paper, a practical approach to the design of selected microwave circuits with Non-Uniform Transmission Lines (NUTLs) is presented. Influence of NUTL shape and dielectric constant of a substrate on the frequency response of a line is investigated and described. To prove the NUTL's usefulness, a branch-line coupler (BLC) with 3rd harmonic suppression and broadband output matching network of a power amplifier is designed and compared with their conventional counterparts, composed of only uniform transmission lines.

9:30 Design of a Cellular Dual-Band Sticker Antenna for Thickness-Independent 3D-Printed Substrates
Adrian Bekasiewicz, Khadijeh Askaripour and Marek Wojcikowski (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland); Tuan-Vu Cao (Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway)

Additive manufacturing technology provides high flexibility in designing custom enclosures for prototype devices such as nodes of distributed sensor networks. Although integration of components is desired from the perspective of sensor mobility, it might negatively affect the performance of radio-connectivity due to couplings between the antenna and system peripherals, as well as other unaccounted effects of the 3D printed enclosure. In this work, a design of a dual-band cellular antenna is considered. The structure is optimized to work on plastic substrates characterized by thicknesses ranging from 1 mm to 5 mm, respectively. The antenna features a –10 dB bandwidth within frequencies from 0.74 GHz to 1.05 GHz and 1.49 GHz to 1.92 GHz. Owing to a simple topology the structure can be implemented in the form of a copper-based sticker and attached on a 3D printed material (e.g., the enclosure of the device). The radiator has been compared against the state-of-the-art antennas in terms of bandwidth and gain.

9:50 Determining the EM Susceptibility Pattern of a Shielded Object Using the SIE-MoM-DD Method
Anna Grytsko (Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Poland); Piotr Słobodzian (Wroclaw University of Technology & Faculty of Electronics, Poland)

In this article, we present a numerical method to determine the EM susceptibility pattern of shielded object with apertures. This method uses surface integral equations in combination with the method of moments and the computational domain decomposition technique (SIE-MoM-DD) to model the object and electric field in its interior.

MIKON CAD WKSH3: CAD for Electromagnetic Modelling

Part II - Examples
QWED sp. z o.o. (QuickWave)
EM Invent sp. z o.o. (Invensim)
Dassault Systèmes (CST Studio Suite)
Room: Building C-13, room 0.31
Chair: Rafal Lech (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland)

MIKON TUT2: Bio-inspired Radio Sensing (BiRaS)

Prof. Amit Kumar Mishra, Aberystwyth University, UK
Room: Building C-13, room 0.38
Chair: Amit Kumar Mishra (Aberystwyth University, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

Tuesday, July 2 10:10 - 10:40

Coffee3: Coffee break

Room: Building C-13, room 1.30, Building C-13, room 1.28, Building C-13, room 0.32, Building C-13, room 0.31, Building C-13, room 0.38, Building C-13, room 1.27, Building C-13, room 3.06, Building D-20, Aula, Building C-13, Hall, Building C-18, Lunchroom-Lounge

Tuesday, July 2 10:40 - 12:20

MIKON Plenary1: Plenary session

Room: Building C-13, room 1.31
Chairs: Maurizio Bozzi (University of Pavia, Italy), Malgorzata Celuch (QWED, Poland)
10:40 High-Data Rate Wireless Links: Key Antenna Innovations and Novel Paradigms
Ettorre Mauro (Michigan State University, USA)


11:15 Performance of Antenna-In-Package (AiP) Designs at Millimeter Wave Frequencies
Rashaunda Henderson (University of Texas at Dallas, USA)


11:50 Upper Bounds on Antenna Gain and Its Reachability
Miloslav Capek (Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic)


IRS YSC: IRS Young Scientist Contest meeting

Room: Building C-13, room 3.06
Chair: Jacek Misiurewicz (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

Tuesday, July 2 10:55 - 12:20

IRS IMG: Radar Imaging

Room: Building C-13, room 1.30
Chairs: Karol Abratkiewicz (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland), Thayananthan Thayaparan (Radar Applications and Space Technology, Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Canada)
10:55 A Fast Ship Size and Heading Angle Estimation Method for Focused SAR and ISAR Images
Sushil Kumar Joshi and Stefan V. Baumgartner (German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany)

Ship size estimation is important for ship classification. In this paper a novel and fast ship size and heading angle estimation method for focused synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and ISAR (inverse SAR) images is proposed. The eigen information of the detected ship pixel positions are used for estimating the size and heading angle of the ship. The proposed method is compared with several state-of-the-art algorithms. Real spaceborne radar datasets are used for evaluation.

11:15 Video-SAR Implementation on Various Computing Architectures
Michael Fritzenwallner and Andreas Stelzer (Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria); Andreas Haderer (Joby Austria GmbH, Austria); Reinhard Feger (Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria)

Forming synthetic aperture radar images in real-time using the backprojection algorithm (BPA) requires optimal use of available hardware. We discuss the challenges and feasibility of implementing the BPA to achieve good performance on graphics processor units (GPU) platforms. We will compare the achieved performances between high-end GPUs, CPUs (x86-64 and ARM) as well as edge devices with low-performance GPUs. Benchmark results prove the feasibility of real-time processing with embedded GPUs using less than 40 Watts of power.

11:35 Distributed Massive MIMO FMCW Radar Simulator Based on Ray Tracing
Moein Ahmadi (University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg); Mohammad Alaee-Kerahroodi (Interdisciplinary Center for Security, Reliability and Trust, Université du Luxembourg, Luxembourg); Bhavani Shankar Mysore R (Interdisciplinary Centre for Security, Reliability and Trust & University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg); Björn Ottersten (The Interdisciplinary Centre for Security, Reliability and Trust (SnT), Luxembourg)

This work introduces a system-level model for radar signal generation, developed to support the latest applications of radar technology like automotive radar industry, high-resolution RF security screening and vital sign monitoring. This study models the dynamic environmental geometry sourced from conventional 3D software such as Blender. Subsequently, it introduces a ray tracing approach incorporating multipath reflections and line of sight based ray allocation to accurately compute the delay and amplitude of received signals based on the radar equation. The proposed model supports a range of conventional multichannel FMCW radar techniques, including phased array, slow time TDM, BPM, DDM MIMO radar for the generation of received signals. The simulation results from the CUDA GPU-accelerated implementation demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed radar signal simulator.

11:55 Highly-Squinted TOPSAR Image Formation and Azimuth Resolution Enhancement Using Anomaly Suppression Autofocusing in the Hybrid Domain
Iman Heidarpour Shahrezaei and Hyun-Cheol Kim (Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI), Korea (South))

TOPSAR has operational advantages over conventional synthetic aperture radars (SARs) by steering the beam in the azimuth direction. However, because of its complex observation geometry, azimuth resolutional degradation occurs when the illumination mode is highly-squinted. In the highly-squinted TOPSAR (HS-TOPSAR), symmetrically located targets along the flight trajectory have almost the same Doppler history, resulting in ambiguities, whereas beam steering narrows and skews the received spectrum, reducing signal orthogonality and introducing spectral folding. As a result, the Doppler gradient becomes too small to be precisely measured, limiting fine azimuth angular resolution, and causing azimuth ambiguities when reconstructing the image. To this end, an extended hybrid-domain IFA based on azimuth iterative focusing is proposed to overcome such azimuth-variant characteristics. The simulation results and metrics demonstrate the applicability of the IFA.

IRS EW: EW for radar technology

With keynote by Dietmar Matthes
Room: Building C-13, room 1.28
Chairs: Artur Gromek (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland), Dietmar Matthes (Fraunhofer FHR, Germany)
10:55 Electromagnetic Warfare in the Era of Cognitive Radar and Artificial Intelligence
Dietmar Matthes (Fraunhofer FHR, Germany)

The talk will introduce the aspects and challenges of Electromagnetic Warfare (EW) in the context of modern electromagnetic spectrum operations. Dominating the electromagnetic spectrum is a critical task in all military conflicts, enabling to detect enemy forces, to deceive them or to disrupt their efforts. Radar threats evolving from static to agile, from adaptive to cognitive waveforms, from single site to distributed and netted systems increasingly present prior unknown actors. New approaches to intercept, analyse and characterize those signals are based on machine learning techniques to cope with responsive and unpredictable behaviour in the EW environment.
The spectrum usage can be weakened or even disabled by sophisticated applica-tion of Electromagnetic Attack (EA) as one of the three EW pillars. An on the fly decision or design of suitable, responsive EA techniques against identified, agile threats without relying on pre-programmed libraries is crucial to stay ahead of the threat's capabilities in the future. Finally, an assessment of the countermeasures' effectiveness is required to close the loop to Cognitive EW, learning during the mission, improving EA techniques and self-protection capabilities.

The talk will be Unclassified

11:25 Edge Detection Methods for Radars Recognition Based on Antenna Images
Jan Matuszewski and Robert Kucharski (Military University of Technology, Poland)

The paper examines the edge detection methods for radar recognition using convolutional neural networks. A short analysis of selected edge detection methods was made. The results of research comparing the edge detection methods and verification their usefulness in radar recognition process are presented. Based on the available neural networks AlexNet, GoogLeNet and Darknet-53 in the MATLAB environment, the radars were recognized based on their antennas images. The results of correct radar recognition are depicted in the appropriate figures.

11:45 Generation of Synthetic Clutter Signals with Denoising Diffusion Probabilistic Models
Taras Sosedko (Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques FHR, Germany); Dietmar Matthes (Fraunhofer FHR, Germany)

Rural clutter channels, which vary over time, significantly impact radar measurements and communications, but predicting their amplitude, Doppler, and phase characteristics remains a formidable challenge. This study endeavors to incorporate the effects of rural bistatic radar channels into simulations by analyzing transfer functions derived from real X-band measurement data. We introduce a denoising diffusion probabilistic model aimed at capturing the intricate characteristics of fast-fading channels, thus facilitating the augmentation of the dataset of measured clutter channels for more robust modeling. This work is based on previous research in generating clutter signal data using generative adversarial networks [1]. Potential usage of the proposed model is testing and evaluation of radar systems by providing realistic simulations of rural clutter channels.

12:05 Cognitive Jamming Policy Generation Based on A2C Algorithm
Chudi Zhang, Biao Yang, Wenshuai Ji, Jun Hu and Shiyou Xu (Sun Yat-Sen University, China); Xiao Yu (Sun Yat-sen University China, China)

Due to the rapid development of cognitive electronic warfare (CEW) and complex electromagnetic environments, traditional jamming methods are difficult to adapt to new types of scenarios. Reinforcement learning (RL), as one of the cores of machine learning, provides a solution for jammers to adapt to new challenges. In order to quickly find a jamming policy for multifunctional radar (MFR), this paper proposes a jamming policy generation scheme based on the Advantage Actor Critic (A2C) algorithm, which utilizes interactive self-learning to dynamically adjust the jamming policy and realize cognitive jamming decision generation. Firstly, this paper investigates the model of jamming policy generation and discusses the relationship between radar operating modes and jamming modes, and the whole process can be modeled as a Markov decision process (MDP). In this paper, a heuristic reward function is used, which helps the jammer to better explore the optimal strategy. Secondly, we discuss the A2C algorithm, especially the advantages of this algorithm over other RL methods for which research results are available. Finally, in this paper, we compare the simulation results of the A2C algorithm with Q-Learning and DQN algorithms, and demonstrate that the algorithm effectively improves the cognitive jamming policy generation ability of the jammer.

IRS AUTO1: Interference Mitigation for Automotive Radar

Special Session "Recent Progress in Automotive Radar" part 1
Room: Building C-13, room 0.38
Chairs: Andreas Danklmayer (Fraunhofer FHR, Germany), Marc Michael Meinecke (Volkswagen AG, Germany)
10:55 Measurement and Analysis of Narrowband Interference in Automotive CS Radars and Impact on Interference Suppression Techniques
Masahiro Umehira (Nanzan University & Ibaraki University, Japan); Yoshihiko Takeuchi (Nanzan University, Japan); Xiaoyan Wang (Ibaraki University, Japan)

Narrowband interference causes false detection of the target when interference CS (Chirp sequence) radar has the same chirp rate as the measurement CS radar. Narrowband interference theoretically appears as line spectrum, however experimental results show that its spectrum is spread in ranging spectrum and its frequency changes according to time. This paper describes measurement and analysis of narrowband interference and shows how hardware imperfections cause frequency shift and spectrum spreading of narrowband interference. Furthermore, it discusses impact on narrowband interference suppression and proposes block-wise noise level estimation to improve narrowband interference suppression performance.

11:15 Introducing RaDense: A Radar Density Based Simulation Tool to Analyze Mutual Interference in FMCW Radars
Rajat Awadhiya (University of Wuppertal, Germany); Felipe Torres (Aptiv Services Deutschland GmbH., Germany); Markus Clemens (University of Wuppertal & Chair of Electromagnetic Theory, Germany)

This paper introduces a radar-density based simulation tool to investigate mutual interference in automotive frequency modulated continuous waveform (FMCW) radars. Employing simulation, the average increase in the noise floor caused by interference across various radar densities is analyzed. Moreover, the impact of interference on two distinct radar application scenarios is assessed. The proposed methodology serves as a valuable tool for comprehensively evaluating the performance of FMCW radars under interference conditions and testing the efficacy of interference mitigation algorithms.

11:35 Adaptive Digital Beamforming for Radar Interference Mitigation
Anum Ahmed Pirkani, Fatemeh Norouzian and Mikhail Cherniakov (University of Birmingham, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Marina S. Gashinova (University of Birmngham, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

Mutual interference between radars is one of the major obstacles currently faced by automotive industry towards the attainment of full vehicle autonomy. This paper presents an analysis and mitigation of interference in the spatial domain and evaluates its efficiency compared to the traditional mitigation techniques for various road scenarios and radar configurations. The performance metrics, including peak-to-highest side lobe levels and signal to interference plus noise ratio, have been assessed based on the angular separations between the target and interferers to highlight the cases where spatial domain mitigation might be suited.

11:55 Using a Two-Dimensional Autoregressive Model for Interference Mitigation in FMCW Radar
Majid Joshani (Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden); Bruna Gregory Palm (Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sweden); Mattias Dahl and Mats I. Pettersson (Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden)

This work confronts the complex issue of cross-interference in Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radars, a critical concern that has become more pronounced with the proliferation of automotive radar systems. The study introduces a two-dimensional autoregressive (AR) modeling technique for signal reconstruction in the time domain, tailored specifically for the textured nature of FMCW radar frames composed of fast-time (Range bin) and slow-time (Doppler bin) signals. According to the simulations conducted in this study, the proposed 2-D AR model (of order 3) exhibits superior performance compared to its 1-D counterpart (of order 5). This is evidenced by a slightly lower Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) during model training and a higher Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise Ratio (SINR) for the reconstructed signal, suggesting that the 2-D model requires less frequent temporal sampling. The study further investigates different sampling strategies and evaluates the influence of model order on signal reconstruction. Based on these assessments, a third-order 2-D AR is recommended as a suitable trade-off model for interference mitigation of FMCW radars for the evaluated scenarios. This paper is structured as follows: Section I defines the interference problem in FMCW radars and the latest solutions to this problem are discussed. Sections II and III include the working principles of FMCW radar and theoretical backgrounds about multi-dimension auto-regressive modeling, respectively. Eventually, the mitigation techniques and numerical evaluations of the proposed approach are presented in Sections IV and V.

Tuesday, July 2 12:20 - 14:00

Lunch2: Lunch

Room: Building C-13, room 1.31, Building C-13, room 1.30, Building C-13, room 1.28, Building C-13, room 0.32, Building C-13, room 0.31, Building C-13, room 0.38, Building C-13, room 1.27, Building C-13, room 3.06, Building D-20, Aula

MIKON Poster1: Active & Passive Devices & Components & Microwave Materials

Room: Building C-13, Hall
Chair: Kamil Staszek (AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland)
An Investigation of InP DHBT Doherty Amplifier for Enhanced Efficiency in D-Band
Pawel Drazkowski and Tom Johansen (Technical University of Denmark, Denmark)

In this work, a Doherty amplifier (DA) implemented in an InP DHBT technology is investigated for enhanced power-added-efficiency (PAE) and 6-dB power-back-off (PBO) efficiency in D-Band. The DA is implemented with standard common-emitter power cells, as well as power cells with enhanced gain. The gain enhancement is achieved by adding driver stages or by implementing power cells in stacked topology. The best achieved simulated performance of a DA circuit implemented using a Class-AB main amplifier and Class-C auxiliary amplifier demonstrates a gain of 3.5 dB, peak PAE of 29.4%, and 6-dB PBO efficiency of 11.1%, at 140 GHz. In comparison, a simulated performance of a single-stage common-emitter Class-AB power amplifier demonstrates a gain of 5.1 dB, peak PAE of 33.1%, and 6-dB PBO efficiency of 14.8%, showing no advantage of using DA for high dynamic range signal amplification in D-Band.

Influence of the Soldering Process Quality on Thermal Resistance of RF Transistors
Krzysztof Górecki (Gdynia Maritime University, Poland)

The paper presents the results of experimental studies illustrating the influence of the assembly quality of RF transistors on their thermal resistance. The measure of assembly quality is the total voids in the solder joint. The influence of the location of the tested transistors on the printed circuit board on the value of thermal resistance was considered. The non-uniformity of temperature distribution on the surface of the tested transistors was also analyzed. The impact of the obtained research results on the lifetime of the considered transistors was discussed.

Broadband Multiport Amplifier Consisting of 4 x 4 Butler Matrices Designed in Microstrip Technique
Mateusz Paweł Tutaj, Krzysztof Wincza and Robert Smolarz (AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland)

A broadband, fully integrated 4-channel Multiport Amplifier (MPA) operating at 1 GHz center frequency has been presented in this paper. Designed MPA consists of two 4 x 4 Butler matrices and amplifying blocks based on ADL5611 amplifiers offered by Analog Devices. To obtain broad operational bandwidth, Butler matrices are composed of coupled-line sections. Moreover, the circuitry has been designed in the microstrip technique to simplify the integration of passive and active parts of the multiport amplifier. The described circuit has been proven theoretically with circuit simulation, then designed, simulated electromagnetically, and manufactured.

Class-F GaN HEMT Power Amplifier Design and Implementation Using Thin-Film Technology
Alperen Tunç (Istanbul Technical University, Turkey); Osman Ceylan (Maury Microwave, USA); Selçuk Paker and Hasan Bülent Yağcı (Istanbul Technical University, Turkey)

This study presents the introduction of a Class- F amplifier operating at X-band, employing a GaN HEMT. Alumina thin film substrate was utilized in the design of matching networks. The final configuration of the amplifier is housed in a metal enclosure with connectors, forming a hybrid structure that incorporates a bare die GaN HEMT, bonding wires, and thin-film-based input and output networks. The design process considered the impact of the transistor's intrinsic parasitics and the effects of bonding wires to ensure Class-F waveforms at the output. The measurement results demonstrate an output power of 39.8 dBm, 57.4 % power-added efficiency (PAE), and a gain of 13.9 dB at a frequency of 7.76 GHz.

3-Way Equal Filtering Power Divider Using Compact Folded-Arms Square Open-Loop Resonator
Augustine O. Nwajana and Rose Paul (University of Greenwich, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

Microstrip three-way (that is, 4.8 dB) integrated filtering power divider (FPD) is presented in this paper. The proposed FPD evenly distributes an input power signal into three equal output signals. The design incorporates balanced signal power division, and filtering technology for the removal of unwanted frequency elements and aimed at enhancing signal quality and efficiency in the radiofrequency (RF) front-end of communication systems. Microstrip folded-arms square open-loop resonator (FASOLR) is employed in the design implementation to achieve compact size. The proposed FPD features a 2.6 GHz centre frequency, with a 0.03 fractional bandwidth. The implementation is carried out on Rogers RT/Duroid 6010LM substrate with a dielectric constant of 10.7, a thickness of 1.27 mm and a loss tangent of 0.0023. The good agreement between the theoretical and practical results verifies the effectiveness of the FPD in delivering equal power outputs at the three output ports, and at the same time filtering out unwanted frequencies. The practical results of the prototype FPD indicate a good return loss of better than 15.5 dB and an insertion loss of better than 4.77+0.34 dB. The design prototype achieved compact size of 0.31 λg x 0.18 λg. λg is the guided wavelength for the microstrip line impedance at the centre frequency of the 3-way equal filtering power divider.

Miniaturized UWB Microstrip Bandpass Filter with Notched Band
Hussein Shaman (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Saudi Arabia & Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabia); Geamel Alyami (KACST, Saudi Arabia); Marji Alshammari (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia); Faris Almansour (KACST, Saudi Arabia)

This paper introduces a pioneering approach to the design of an ultra-wideband (UWB) microstrip bandpass filter featuring a narrow notch. The proposed filter incorporates two identical high-impedance short-circuited stubs, one low-impedance short-circuited stub, and two identical sections with three parallel-coupled lines. The electrical length of both the short-circuited stubs and the parallel-coupled lines is meticulously set to a quarter-wavelength at the center frequency of the desired passband. Additionally, a very short-length open-circuited stub is strategically placed at the end of one of the outer lines in a parallel-coupled line section. This configuration enables the filter to exhibit a narrow notched band within the passband, effectively attenuating unwanted WLAN signals. The filter is designed utilizing a microstrip substrate characterized by a relative dielectric constant of 10.8 and a thickness of 1.27 mm. The design of the proposed filter is successfully realized in theory and verified by full-wave electromagnetic simulation and the experiment. An excellent agreement between the expected and measured results is obtained.

Dual-Band Bandpass Filter Derived from the Transformation of a Single-Band Bandpass Filter
Chandramouli H. Mahadevaswamy, Anup Raju Vasistha and Augustine O. Nwajana (University of Greenwich, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

The recent proliferation of personal wireless communication devices is driving the need for multi-band frequency selective components including multiplexers and dual-band filters. This paper presents a simple technique for transforming a single-band bandpass filter (BPF) into a dual-band BPF. A second order (two-pole) single-band bandpass filter was chosen for this research, giving rise to a fourth order (four-pole) dual-band bandpass filter after the proposed filter transformation. Both filters were then implemented using the compact U-shaped microstrip resonator for improved device miniaturization. The proposed work features a centre frequency of 1.4 GHz for the single-band bandpass filter, with a span of 3.4% fractional bandwidth. The dual-band bandpass filter operates at 1.35 and 1.45 GHz. The design implementation employs the commercially available Rogers RT/Duroid 6010LM substrate, having a dissipation factor (tan δ) of 0.0023, dielectric constant (εr) of 10.7, diel thickness (h) of 1.27 mm, and top/bottom cladding of 35 microns. The results reported for the theoretical and practical designs show good agreement and improved performance when compared to similar research works in literature. The practical responses of the prototype dual-band BPF indicate a good return loss of better than 18 dB across both bands, and an insertion loss of better than 0.1 dB. The design prototype achieved physical size of 0.23 λg x 0.18 λg. The results reinforce the design's competitive edge in performance. λg is the guided wavelength for the microstrip line impedance at the centre frequency of the filter.

Application of Broadband Branch-Line Coupler Consisting of Impedance Transformers in 4 x 4 Butler Matrices Designed in PCB and MMIC Technologies
Robert Smolarz (AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland)

� Abstract � In this paper, the design of a novel 4 x 4 Butler Matrix composed of broadband branch-line couplers has been presented. To enhance the operational bandwidth of the circuit, for the first time, a branch-line coupler having additional two-section impedance transformers introduced in [16] has been utilized. To verify the applicability of the proposed design, two Butler matrices have been designed: in PCB and MMIC technologies. PCB circuit operates at 2 GHz center frequency. The structure has been designed, fabricated, and measured. The MMIC version of the considered Butler Matrix has been designed in the PH10 GaAs process offered by UMS and operates at 26 GHz center frequency. The circuit has been only designed and simulated electromagnetically.

A Tunable Wire Loop Inductor Based on Bistable Compliant Mechanism
Norbert Seliger (Technische Hochschule Rosenheim, Germany)

By axially loading of a cylindrical wire we utilize the first order buckling mode to form the shape of a segment of a wire loop inductor. The shape of the deformed wire is expressed in analytical form and provides the basis for a semi-empirical formulation of the loop inductance. Combining several buckling segments and taking advantage of the snap-through behavior of such a segment, the shape of the wire loop in air and hence the loop inductance can be varied mechanically on purpose. The analytical model for the tunable inductance enables a design methodology for bistable compliant inductors. We present two designs of mechanically tuned inductors in the range from 20 nH to 50 nH. Furthermore the electromagnetic properties of the proposed innovative components are confirmed by method of moments numerical modeling based on quasi-static magnetic fields and by experiment. We finally show that the design process is applicable to regular plane polygonal inductors representing multi-stable compliant stages.

Broadband RF Front-End Circuit Design for Satellite Communication Systems
İsmail Sisman (Profen Communication Technologies, Turkey); Tugba Haykir Ergin (Yeditepe University, Turkey); Ozan Furkan Sezgen (Profen Communication Technologies, Turkey); Duygun Erol Barkana (Yeditepe University, Turkey)

In this study, an X-band low noise amplifier (LNA) that achieves less than 0.7 dB noise at 7.75-8.5 GHz is designed and fabricated for X-band satellite communications. Four-stage amplifier using both MMIC amplifiers and transistors. LNA is designed for 50 dB gain. Consequently, the X-band of the suggested design is far less noisy than that of its commercial equivalents.

Active Phase Drift Compensation in Master Oscillator to Phase Reference Line Connection for the European Spallation Source
Dominik Sikora, Krzysztof Czuba and Pawel Jatczak (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland); Morten Jensen and Luciano Carneiro Guedes (European Spallation Source ERIC, Sweden)

The European Spallation Source in Lund, Sweden, is planned to be the world's most powerful pulsed neutron source. The machine includes a 600 m long proton accelerator with almost 300 RF resonator cavity structures and beam diagnostic devices, a five-ton tungsten target wheel, and fifteen instruments for science known as experimental stations. An essential requirement for ESS is to ensure a precise phase synchronization of the subsystems. The phase accuracy requirements are 0.1o for the short term, 0.1o for the long term between adjacent outputs, and 2.0o for the long term between any two outputs. This paper covers the design and installation of the active phase drift compensation system in RF connection from the Master Oscillator to the Phase Reference Line for the European Spallation Source. The system stabilizes phase simultaneously at 352.21 MHz and 704.42 MHz reference frequencies. It also demonstrates simultaneous group delay drift reduction from 18.1 ps to 0.71 and 0.87 ps at 352 MHz and 704 MHz, respectively, without noticeable degradation of the residual phase noise. The drift suppression factor equals about 20 and is considered an excellent result, considering the system's complexity and the necessity of measuring phase at a distant cable end. The system was implemented in the ESS facility and has been successfully operated there since 2021. Further tests are planned in 2024.

Miniaturized Coaxial Coupling Enhances the Millimeter-Wave Q-Factor of Fabry-Perot Open Resonator for Dielectric Material Characterization
Adam Pacewicz, Bartlomiej Salski and Matthew Krysicki (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

A new version of a coaxial loop-coupled Fabry-Pérot open resonator (FPOR) with a significantly enhanced Q-factor is reported. Measurements have been performed in the 40 GHz - 130 GHz range. The resonator is coupled using a 0.6 mm diameter coaxial line located at the center of each mirror. Compared to an FPOR coupled with a 1.0 mm diameter coaxial line, the Q-factor increase is up to 10-fold.

An Open Platform Tool for 2D Multipactor Simulations in Metallic Microwave Components
Tomasz Nalecz (QWED, Poland); Lukasz Nowicki (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland & QWED Sp. z O. O., Poland); Malgorzata Celuch (QWED, Poland); Michal Baranowski (Gdansk University of Technology & Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunication and Informatics, Poland); Adam Lamecki (EM Invent Ltd, Poland); Michal Mrozowski (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland)

The paper presents a computer simulation software aimed at assessing the multipactor threshold power in a rectangular waveguide working with single tone excitation. Initial tests demonstrate a strong agreement between the simulation results obtained and those from commercial software. Contrary to the existing commercial software, our tool will be provided as Open Platform, for free use and popularisation of knowledge about physical phenomena resulting from interactions of microwaves with materials.

Investigation of the Electromagnetic Properties of Silicon Carbide in the mmWave Frequency Range Using Density Functional Theory
Lukasz Nowicki (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland & QWED Sp. z O. O., Poland); Malgorzata Celuch (QWED, Poland); Wojciech Wojtasiak (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

This study uses density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the electromagnetic (EM) properties of silicon carbide (SiC), specifically focusing on cubic type 3C. Using the SIESTA program, the crystal structure of SiC is modeled. In the simulations, the influence of the electric field in two directions is considered, demonstrating the anisotropic behavior of the material. From the real and imaginary permittivity, the loss tangent in SiC up to 450 THz was calculated with the smallest value for 72.5 GHz. Conductivity is also obtained for this particular frequency.

Microwave Characterization of 3D Printed Layers with a Fabry-Perot Open Resonator
Bartłomiej Salski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland); Marzena Olszewska-Placha (QWED Sp. z o. o., Poland); Henrik Ramberg (3D Fortify, USA)

3D-printed materials made of a liquid photocurable resin using a gyroid latticing technology are characterized in the frequency range spanning from 1.9 up to 110 GHz using split-post dielectric resonators and a Fabry-Perot open resonator. It is shown that such materials can be low-loss in a broad frequency range if appropriate settings of the lattice are employed. Presented measurements confirm theoretical predictions that such lattice structures exhibit an upper cut-off frequency due to a lateral mode occurring in the structure, which mainly depends on the unit cell size. Another novel experimental finding is that the investigated materials exhibit in-plane anisotropy, typical for inhomogeneous structures. The proposed measurement methods provides a unique insight into electromagnetic properties of such 3D-printed materials, thus, enabling their further optimisation for the use at even higher frequencies.

Evaluation of Image Restoration Techniques for Dielectric Resonator Mapping of Materials
Justyna I. Koper (QWED Z. O. o & Warsaw University of Technology, Poland); Malgorzata Celuch and Marzena Olszewska-Placha (QWED, Poland); Przemyslaw Korpas (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

Complex permittivity maps obtained by Split Post Dielectric Resonator (SPDR) material measurement technique yield limited resolution due to the weighted averaging over the region interacting with DR field. The motivation of this work is to improve spatial resolution for examining inhomogeneous samples and smaller homogeneous samples that do not meet the resonator's minimum size requirements. To achieve this, attempts were made to reverse the averaging. The electric field pattern is known from finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation, and on this basis, an inverse problem is formulated. Due to the presence of additive noise in the measurements, matrix regularization techniques are investigated, such as Truncated Singular Value Decomposition (TSVD) and Tikhonov regularization, alongside established image restoration methods for noise-prone deblurring, such as Richardson-Lucy deconvolution, Wiener filter and Plug-and-Play Alternating Direction method of multiplier (ADMM).

Comparison of Artificial Intelligence Methods in Extracting the Permittivity of Materials with Fabry-Perot Open Resonator
Dawid Ruciński (CERN & Warsaw University of Technology, Poland); Mateusz Krysicki and Bartłomiej Salski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

This paper discusses the application of particular artificial intelligence methods in the process of extracting the permittivity of thin, dielectric materials using Fabry-Perot open resonator (FPOR). The main point of the measurements is presented. Then, the details of the measurement process are explained with highlighting the possible fields of improvement. Several chosen artificial intelligence architectures are shown, including classic normal networks, multilayer perceptrons and radial-basis networks. For the comparison, there have been also presented Mamdani and Sugeno fuzzy inference systems. There is described the procedure of the measurement, gathering data process and finally the performance is described on the example of medical materials.

3D Printed Polarisers for THz Spectral Range
Adrianna Nieradka, Mateusz Kaluza and Hubert Rudyk (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland); Paweł Komorowski (Military University of Technology, Poland); Agnieszka Siemion (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

3D printed polarisers for the terahertz (THz) frequency range have been investigated in this paper. The fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology allows cost-effective access to passive optical elements, especially for the sub-THz radiation range. In addition, it enables the use of different element base materials and customization. The performance of polarisers has been simulated, and the manufactured elements have been tested in different angular positions for a given frequency and a wide range of frequencies for the selected angles. The obtained results allowed for forming constructive conclusions about the material and fill factor of the polarisers that should be used.

MIKON-M1: MIKON - Meeting of the foundation board

Room: Building C-18, Lunchroom-Lounge

Tuesday, July 2 14:00 - 15:40


Room: Building C-13, room 1.31
Chairs: Krzysztof (Chris) Kulpa (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland), Kamil Staniec (Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland)
14:00 90 Years of PIT-RADWAR. Contribution to Radar Technology Development in Poland
Michal Grabowski and Miroslaw Sankowski (PIT-RADWAR S.A., Poland)
14:25 Millimeter-Wave Low Noise Amplifiers in SOI for 5G/6G Joint Communication and Sensing
Mehmet Parlak (Universite Catholique de Louvain, Belgium & IF Consultancy, USA); Martin Rack, Lucas Nyssens, Théo Denis, Jean-Pierre Raskin and Dimitri Lederer (Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium)

Joint Communication and Sensing (JCAS) has garnered considerable interest, offering dynamic resource allocation and operational adjustments based on real-time inputs, optimizing energy efficiency and overall system performance. JCAS comes with its challenges. Despite sharing a common front-end in a JCAS transceiver, communication and radio sensing exhibit distinct specifications, primarily in bandwidth and linearity. For the RF front-end to effectively function in both radar and communication modes, it is essential to incorporate reconfigurability concerning parameters such as gain, linearity, frequency, and bandwidth. Illustrating the operation of two LNAs in the 5G and 6G bands, this paper investigates silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology as a candidate for JCAS systems integration while highlighting the utilization of the back-gate bias feature to enhance reconfigurability in communication and radar system.

14:50 Sending Radar Data from Orbit down to Earth - Challenges and Solutions
Konstanty Lukasik (ICEYE, Poland)

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) payload generates enormous amounts of data that is dependent on the imaging bandwidth, now reaching up to 1200 MHz, as well as on the duration of each image and the ever increasing number of collections per orbit. All these factors combined with a requirement for fast data availability on ground necessitate a robust, adaptable downlink system with high throughput and reliability.

In our presentation, we will demonstrate how we tackled these challenges by leveraging the modular design of our satellites and the team's readiness to adopt new technologies. Specifically, we developed an X-band radio transmitter, which maximizes the utilization of available RF spectrum to address these requirements effectively.

15:20 Compressive Sensing Techniques for the Detection of Surface Waves
Koen Blaauw (Royal Netherlands Aerospace Center, The Netherlands); Harmen van der Ven (Netherlands Aerospace Centre, The Netherlands)

Understanding the scattering physics of specific objects is important for their design and use. Imaging techniques may give this insight, provided that they can distinguish different scattering mechanisms. The use of compressive sensing (CS) in imaging allows to use different scattering models. In this paper, two models for surface wave (SW) scattering are described and applied to a canonical test case. We find that CS is effective in extracting the reflection of surface waves from the total radar echo. However, the standard L1-regularization of the CS optimization problem requires careful balancing of the different scattering models. It is shown that the Bayesian approach to solve the CS optimization problem does not suffer from this problem.

15:45 Antenna System for Passive Radar Operating in DVB-T Band
Krzysztof (Chris) Kulpa (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland); Lukasz Januszkiewicz (Lodz University of Technology, Poland & Institute of Electronics, Poland); Karol Kropidłowski (Lodz University of Technology, Poland)

This paper presents an antenna system for a passive radar designed to operate in the DVB-T band covering frequencies from 450 MHz to 1 GHz. A setup of 8 Vivaldi antennas with reduced dimensions was developed for this purpose. The use of corrugation allowed to reduce the size of a single radiator, and consequently the entire antenna array. The results of computer simulations of the parameters of the developed antenna show its good impedance matching in the assumed frequency range as well as the directional radiation pattern of individual radiators.

MIKON D2: Technologies for communications: components & heterogeneous integration

Room: Building C-13, room 1.30
Chairs: Pawel Kopyt (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland), Krzysztof Wincza (AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland)
14:00 Compact Nonresonant Slotted Waveguide Array Antenna with Extended Scan Area
Adam Sośniak (PIT RADWAR, Poland); Mateusz Burtowy and Mariusz Nojman (Poland)

In this paper design of a slotted waveguide array antenna with extended scan area is presented. Eigenmode solver of CST Studio Suite is used to determine the dispersion characteristics of waveguide structures and expected scan area. The designed slotted array operates in C-band with 8% bandwidth and has scanning area of approximately 30 degrees. Array characteristics are calculated using CST Studio full-wave electromagnetic software.

14:20 Practical Implementation of Overlapped Beamformer in C-Band 1D AESA
Mateusz Burtowy (Poland); Paweł Ostaszewski (PIT-RADWAR S.A., Poland); Mariusz Nojman (Poland)

An Active Electrically Scanned Array (AESA) consists of numerous antenna elements where each of them has its own receiving channel until analogue-digital conversion. In this paper, an analogue microwave matrix called overlap beamformer (OBF) for 1D AESA is presented. OBF has the ability to reduce the number of receivers with a factor of 2 and without degradation of formed digital beams in desired operational sector. The proposed OBF exhibits ±10° scan sector and is designed in well-established microstrip PCB technology.

14:40 Microwave 16-QAM Modulator and Demodulator for 2.4 GHz Band Utilizing 4x4 Butler Matrices
Piotr Wilkoń (AGH University of Krakow, Poland); Kamil Staszek (AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland)

This paper investigates the usability of 4x4 Butler matrices for 16-QAM modulation and demodulation. The presented theoretical analysis shows that an appropriate choice of demodulator matrix input ports not only allows for using of non-matched power detectors without causing performance degradation, but also significantly reduces design complexity. The measurements of the manufactured circuits yield excellent electrical parameters and a good resemblance between the obtained and ideal constellation, confirming the efficacy of Butler matrices as 16-QAM modulators and demodulators.

15:00 Phase Reference Line for the European Spallation Source
Krzysztof Czuba and Dominik Sikora (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland); Rihua Zeng (European Spallation Source ERIC, Sweden); Radosław Papis (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland); Morten Jensen (European Spallation Source ERIC, Sweden)

The European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden, is based on a 600 m long linear proton accelerator (LINAC) with over 155 RF resonator structures, both normal and superconducting, operating respectively at frequencies of 352 MHz and 704 MHz. The accelerator will also be equipped with more than 150 various proton Beam Diagnostic (BD) devices. This paper covers the design and installation of the RF synchronization system in the ESS accelerator tunnel to provide phase reference signals for over 300 RF accelerator subsystems with accuracy reaching 0.1° at both operating frequencies. The described system consists of a Phase Reference Line (PRL), an entirely passive system based on a single 1-5/8" coaxial rigid line installed at the tunnel ceiling and supporting systems such as power amplifiers and temperature and gas pressure control systems. The 580 m long PRL was designed to distribute both reference frequencies from a Master Oscillator to 56 tap points in the tunnel. Each tap point contains a broad-band, adjustable directional coupler, passive diplexer, and a configurable set of power splitters to feed 3 or 6 signal outputs with equalized power levels. The entire PRL is temperature stabilized (+/-0.1 deg C) and includes an inner-line gas pressure stabilization to assure phase synchronization precision. This contribution covers the concept of the PRL, technical assumptions, the design, the installations, and current performance test results.

15:20 Study on Low Resistance Permanent Joints for Assembly of PCB-Integrated Additively Fabricated Air-Filled Waveguide
Jakub Sorocki, Krzysztof Wincza, Slawomir Gruszczynski and Ilona Piekarz (AGH University of Krakow, Poland)

In this paper, permanent joints are investigated for assembly of the recently introduced Printed Circuit Board (PCB) integrated air-filled waveguide (AF-WG). The joints provide low-resistance contact between the metal-coated 3D-printed U-shaped waveguide shell and the on-PCB ground plane that serves as one of the guide walls. The above is an alternative to the originally proposed through-hole screw joint and studied snap-fit joints, which are a better choice at higher frequencies. Joints employing conductive glue and low-temperature solder were assessed by measurement of test vehicles being a long WR-42 sized waveguide section in-between two through-patch microstrip to AF-WG transition operating within 18 GHz to 26.5 GHz bandwidth. The obtained results show that solder joints might be attractive in terms of minimizing power losses, however, special care must be taken during the assembly process.

MIKON A1: Determination of Material and Object Characteristics at Microwave Frequencies

Room: Building C-13, room 1.28
Chairs: Anna Grytsko (Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Poland), Adam Lamecki (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland)
14:00 Determination of the Ppm-Level Moisture Content in Dielectric Materials Using Higher-Order Modes of a Dielectric Disk Resonator
Valeri Mikhnev (CENTERA Labs., Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland); Grzegorz Cywinski (CENTERA Labs, Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland); Sergey Rumyantsev (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute & Ioffe Institute, USA); Wojciech Knap (Université Montpellier, CNRS, France); Kamil Stelmaszczyk (Institute of High Pressure Physics, Poland)

A dielectric disk resonator employing whispering gallery modes is one of promising sensors for millimeter-wave and sub-terahertz frequency bands due to its small size, high quality factor and ability to operate with one-side access to the object under investigation. However, the whispering-gallery-mode resonator operating on the fundamental mode is not well suited for testing bulky dielectric materials. The reason is that the resonance is crucially suppressed by stray fields arising in the tested material near the disk edge, and thus the high quality factor of the resonator cannot be realized. In this work, it is shown that the higher-order whispering gallery modes are preferable in such applications. Though the unloaded quality factor of the resonator sensor is not as high as in the case of the fundamental mode, it nevertheless suffices to detect small levels of moisture content in the dielectric materials. A dielectric disk resonator with the diameter of 20 mm and thickness 3 mm made of a high-purity alumina was used as a moisture sensor operating in the frequency band near 63 GHz. The performance of the dielectric disk resonator sensors was demonstrated experimentally in the evaluation of moisture content in thick sheets of ABS plastic and gasoline-water mixtures, when the water fraction in the material amounted to 200-1000 ppm.

14:20 Methods of Measuring Permittivity and Permeability of 3D-Printed Samples in a Rectangular Waveguide
Jie Zou and Simon Müller (Hochschule Trier, Germany); Volker Lücken (Trier University of Applied Sciences & Chair for Integrated Signal Processing Systems, Germany); Andreas R. Diewald (Hochschule Trier, Germany)

PLA (Polylactic Acid) is commonly used for many standard 3D printers, as it does not require a special heated bed or heated chamber. This study presents several methods based on the transmission/reflection (TR) method to measure the permeability and permittivity of a 3D-printed PLA sample. Differently from the traditional TR methods by establishing scattering equations to determine permeability and permittivity of a material, in the new method, the longitudinal phase constant and the TE({10}) wave impedance are determined from S-parameters of the overall measurement before, then the electromagnetic material properties permittivity and permeability can be calculated using the formula of the TE({10}) wave impedance.

14:40 Impact of 3D Model Simplifications on the Determination of Numerical Accuracy of the Radar Cross-Section Values
Marta Walenczykowska, Witold Bużantowicz and Adam Kawalec (Military University of Technology, Poland)

Method of Moments (MoM) is one of the most useful approaches for Radar Cross-Section (RCS) simulation, allowing i.e. the computation of the scattering from 3D models of real objects. However, it is limited by computer memory and computation time. In this paper, the authors explore the question of the balance between the possible acceptable level of 3D model simplification and the time benefit associated with a decrease in computational overhead due to the reduction of the model geometry complexity. A volume-based spatial RCS characteristics quality index is proposed. The authors present the results of the calculations performed for perfectly conducted sphere 3D models with varying levels of geometry simplification for which a simple analytical solution exists. Furthermore, the results of the computations performed for a generic missile model set are shown.

15:00 Global Complex Roots and Poles Finding Algorithm in CxR Domain
Sebastian Dziedziewicz, Malgorzata Warecka, Rafal Lech and Piotr Kowalczyk (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland)

This paper is a brief description of the results presented in 10.1109/ACCESS.2023.3292961. and concerns an algorithm for finding the roots and poles of a complex function depending on two arguments (one complex and one real) is proposed. Such problems are common in many fields of science for instance in electromagnetism, acoustics, stability analyses, spectroscopy, optics, and elementary particle physics. The proposed technique belongs to the class of global algorithms, gives a full picture of solutions in a fixed region, and can be very useful for preliminary analysis of the problem. The roots and poles are represented as curves in this domain. It is an efficient alternative not only to the complex plane zero search algorithms (which require multiple calls for different values of an additional real parameter) but also to tracking algorithms. The developed technique is based on the generalized Cauchy Argument Principle and Delaunay triangulation in three-dimensional space. The usefulness and effectiveness of the method are demonstrated in several examples concerning the analysis of guides (Anti-Resonant Reflecting Acoustic Waveguide, coaxially loaded cylindrical waveguide, graphene transmission line) and a resonant structure (Fabry-Pérot open resonator).

MIKON TUT3: Microwave Power Amplifiers: from theory to design

Paolo Colantonio, University of Roma Tor Vergata, Roma, Italy
Chiara Ramella, Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy
Room: Building C-13, room 0.32
Chairs: Paolo Colantonio (University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy), Chiara Ramella (Politecnico di Torino, Italy)

MIKON CAD WKSH4: CAD for Electromagnetic Modelling

Part II - Examples
WIPL-D d.o.o. (Wipl-D)
Altair (FEKO)
Sonnet Software, Inc. (Sonnet)
Discussion & Introduction to Part III
Room: Building C-13, room 0.31
Chairs: Malgorzata Celuch (QWED, Poland), Piotr Słobodzian (Wroclaw University of Technology & Faculty of Electronics, Poland)

IRS AUTO2: Automotive Radar - Novel Sensors and Novel Applications

Special Session "Recent Progress in Automotive Radar" part 2
Room: Building C-13, room 0.38
Chairs: Andreas Danklmayer (Fraunhofer FHR, Germany), Marc Michael Meinecke (Volkswagen AG, Germany)
14:00 Change Detection in Automotive Radar Based Occupancy Maps Using Siamese Networks
Harihara Bharathy Swaminathan (Osnabrück University, Germany); Aron Sommer and Uri Iurgel (Aptiv Services Deutschland GmbH, Germany); Andreas Becker (Fachhochschule Dortmund, Germany); Martin Atzmüller (Osnabrück University and DFKI German Research Center for AI, Germany)

In this paper we present a deep learning based approach for detecting changes or deviations in the context of radar based occupancy grid maps. Specifically, we propose a convolutional neural network (CNN) based architecture to identify spatial changes. As a reference map of the environment, we use occupancy maps generated using detections obtained from automotive radar sensors fitted to the corners of a test-vehicle. For the purpose of similarity learning, a siamese architecture is used. The network is trained with occupancy maps of highway and urban scenes captured over a period of time around the city of Wuppertal, Germany, focusing on construction zones on the road. As per the initial evaluations, the siamese network is able to classify images with construction zones as changes from non-changes i.e. images without construction zones.

14:25 Enhancing Angle-Of-Arrival (AOA) Estimation in a Radar System Through an Additional Antenna Array Sharing the Same Receiver Channels
Sadam Hussain Kazimi (Chemnitz University of Technology & APTIV, Germany); Felipe Torres (Aptiv Services Deutschland GmbH., Germany); Dennis Vollbracht (Aptiv Services Deutschland GmbH, Germany); Madhukar Chandra (TU-chemnitz, Germany)

This paper presents an innovative system concept for automotive radar antenna arrays, employing dual frequency bands to power two separate antenna systems from a common monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) port. This configuration enables the creation of both dense and sparse arrays or two distinct sets of arrays, enhancing angular accuracy and reducing computational complexity. The dense array disambiguate measurements of the sparse array, providing a larger aperture, while two sparse arrays offer increased accuracy. The system offers both ambiguous and unambiguous measurements capability for determining angle-of-arrival (AoA) of targets, promising significant improvement in angular accuracy with fewer receive channels.

14:50 Liquid Crystal Dynamically Steerable GHz and THz Devices for Automotive and Other Applications
Anastasiia Pusenkova (PATQER, Canada); Thomas Gisder (Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft, Germany); Marc Michael Meinecke (Volkswagen AG, Germany); Heiko Gustav Kurz (Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft, Germany); Tigran Galstian (Laval University, Center for Optics, Photonics and Laser, Canada); Heiko Schroeder (Volkswagen AG, Germany)

We describe a dynamically adjustable diffractive element built to control GHz-THz radiation what makes it attractive for automotive radar applications. The device is based on nematic liquid crystals and interdigitated electrode design procuring a versatile reconfiguration capability with low losses. Among others, our approach allows the dynamic asymmetric energy redistribution (steering). Corresponding applied and fundamental aspects of the design are discussed also.

15:15 Doppler Analysis of a Lidar-Photonic Radar Combined Sensor System
Stephan Kruse, Jan Brockmeier, Pascal Kneuper and Tobias Schwabe (Paderborn University, Germany); Heiko Gustav Kurz (Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft, Germany); Marc Michael Meinecke (Volkswagen AG, Germany); Christoph Scheytt (University of Paderborn, Germany)

The Doppler shift in a combined light detection and ranging (lidar) and photonic radio detection and ranging (radar) sensor systems for large aperture phased array and multiple input multiple output (MIMO) is investigated. Reusing the optical frequency modulated continuos wave (FMCW) local oscillator (LO) signal of a photonic radar system could be beneficial for coherent large aperture phased array MIMO lidar systems with almost no additional cost. Within this paper, the Doppler shift of such a lidar radar combined sensor (LiRaS) system is analysed. It should be noted, that all components of a LiRaS system can be monolithically integrated into silicon based electronic photonic integrated circuits (EPICs).

MIKON YSC: MIKON Young Scientist Contest meeting

Room: Building C-13, room 3.06
Chair: Adam Narbudowicz (Tyndall National Institute, Ireland & Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland)

Tuesday, July 2 15:40 - 16:10

Coffee4: Coffee break

Tuesday, July 2 16:10 - 17:50

MIKON Plenary2: Plenary session

Room: Building C-13, room 1.31
Chairs: Adam Narbudowicz (Tyndall National Institute, Ireland & Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland), Alexander Yarovoy (TU Delft, The Netherlands)
16:10 Understanding the Dynamics of Antenna Design: A Journey Through Characteristic Modes
Eva Antonino-Daviu (Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain)


16:45 UAVmounted GPR-SAR Systems: A Key Technology for Detecting Buried Explosive Threats
María García Fernández (Queen's University Belfast, United Kingdom (Great Britain))


17:20 High Performance Gigabit/s Electronic Circuits Enabling Terabit/s Optical Communication Systems
Agnieszka Konczykowska, Romain Hersent, Muriel Riet, Virginie Nodjiadjim, Colin Mismer, Filipe Jorge and Fabrice Blache (III-V Lab, France); Haik Mardoyan (Nokia Bell Labs, France); Bertrand Ardouin (III-V Lab, France)

In this paper, we present important challenges in modern optical networks generated by a skyrocketing traffic demand growth. We present the recent evolutions in hardware and software used for optical transmission. Semiconductor technologies for high-speed ICs and examples of circuit design and realizations are discussed. Finally, we present the key and recent system experiments for new generations transceiver developments.

IRS ENV_TGT: Environment and Target Characterization

Room: Building C-13, room 1.28
Chairs: Mikhail Cherniakov (University of Birmingham, United Kingdom (Great Britain)), Braham Himed (AFRL, USA)
16:10 Modelling Absorption Loss in the High-Latitute Ionosphere for Over-The-Horizon Radar (OTHR)
Thayananthan Thayaparan (Radar Applications and Space Technology, Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Canada)

Over-the-Horizon Radar (OTHR) uses high frequency (HF) radio wave propagation to detect targets up to thousands of kilometers away through ionospheric refraction and reflection. However, OTHR operation at high latitudes is impeded by irregular and variable enhancements to the electron density from precipitation in the auroral region, increasing the ionospheric absorption of HF radio waves and reducing the usable frequency range. A precipitation enhanced E-layer model was developed for the Empirical Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Model (E-CHAIM) to improve upon the electron density profile at lower altitudes. In this paper, the monthly median absorption is modeled for feasible operating frequency and elevation angle radar parameters to assess the effect of ionospheric absorption on OTHR in Canada.

16:35 Commercial Drones Radar Cross Section Characterisation at 24 GHz with a Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave Radar
Riccardo Ardoino (Elettronica SpA, Italy); Simone Russo, Riccardo Bagnato and Nicola Flagiello (Elettronica S.p.A., Italy); Luca Di Gregorio (Telespazio S.p.A., Italy); Vittorio Rossi (Elettronica S.p.A., Italy)

The Radar Cross Section (RCS) of commercial micro and mini drones was characterized with a Commercial-Of-The-Shelf (COTS) Radar, using Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) waveforms, operating at 24 GHz. This paper presents a synthesis of measurements and some statistical inferences aimed to verify the correspondence of experimental densities with those ones of theoretical models.

17:00 A Pathloss-Based Amplitude Model for Metamaterial Coded Aperture Imaging
Yunhan Cheng, Chenggao Luo, Hongqiang Wang, Kang Liu, Yang Zeng and Zhenghui Gong (National University of Defense Technology, China)

Coded aperture imaging based on a metamaterial array antenna (MCAI) is a promising technology for high-resolution forward-looking radar imaging. However, existing methods for building imaging models always assume that the reflected signal from each metamaterial phase modulation unit has the same transmission amplitude, which introduces significant amplitude errors in practical MCAI scenarios. In this paper, a pathloss-based amplitude model is proposed for MCAI. The impact of the transmission distance and the antenna's directivity on the transmission amplitude is formulated as loss factors. The refined model provides a more accurate estimate of the amplitude model for MCAI with the metamaterial phase modulation unit. Subsequently, a simplified pathloss model is utilized in a radiation pattern measurement experiment to verify the effectiveness of the proposed amplitude model. The experimental results indicate that the simplified pathloss model has a better correlation with the measured radiation pattern. This confirms the higher modelling accuracy of the proposed model.

17:25 An Improvement in Elevation Angle Accuracy for Low-Angle Target Tracking Under Multipath Interference
Thi-Hoa Nguyen (Viettel High Technology Industries Corporation & Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Vietnam); Thanh Nguyen Nhu, Khue Nguyen Dinh and Tuan Nguyen Manh (Viettel High Technology Industries Corporation, Vietnam); Nguyen Van Loi (Viettel High Technology Industries Corporation & Radar Center, Vietnam)

Due to the multipath phenomenon, low-angle target tracking in radar systems has been a significant challenge as it interferes with the radar's main beam. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to enhance the accuracy of target elevation angle measurement for monopulse radars when encountering multipath propagation phenomenon. This method enhances the accuracy of target angle measurement in the Amplitude Comparison Monopulse (ACM) method by adjusting the outcomes utilizing a coefficient. This coefficient represents the solution to an equation that links the target angle computed through the ACM method and the real-time indication of the influence from multipath interference in the received data. The method offers an accurate estimation of target angles without requiring prior knowledge of meteorological conditions and terrain parameters. The effectiveness of this method in tracking targets at low angles is demonstrated using empirical data, which shows promising results.

IRS AUTO3: Advanced techniques in Automotive/Maritime Radar applications

Special Session "Recent Progress in Automotive Radar" part 3
Room: Building C-13, room 0.38
Chairs: Andreas Danklmayer (Fraunhofer FHR, Germany), Marc Michael Meinecke (Volkswagen AG, Germany)
16:10 Estimating 2D Wind Vectors Using Automotive FMCW Radar
Andreas Baulig (HENSOLDT Sensors GmbH, Germany); Julian Baisch and Clemens Klöck (University of Applied Science Esslingen, Germany); Steffen Schober (Esslingen University of Applied Sciences, Germany); Hermann Knaus (University of Applied Science Esslingen, Germany)

This paper investigates the feasibility of obtaining a horizontal wind velocity vector from 77 GHz automotive Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar measurements based on reflections off of suspended water droplets. To that end, a dedicated Eiffel-style wind tunnel is constructed with the ability to inject fine water droplets into the air stream. Wind tunnel design is constrained to a low-cost easy-to-build philosophy, avoiding large metal components where possible to reduce unwanted radar reflections. Estimation of the 2D horizontal wind vector is based on the Velocity Azimuth Display (VAD) method utilizing a least-squares approach. The implementation is first verified and tested using a simulated precipitation scenario. Afterwards, the estimation scheme is applied onto real radar captures from wind tunnel experiments. In both cases, VAD provides acceptable estimates for wind direction and speed.

16:35 Experimental Setup for Comparison of Two Radar-Based Heartbeat Estimation Methods
Michelle Tchameni (Hochschule Trier, Germany); Andreas E. Olk and Udo Schröder (IEE S.A., Luxembourg); Andreas R. Diewald (Hochschule Trier, Germany)

Recent advancements in radar technology have transformed vital sign monitoring in healthcare, providing non-intrusive alternatives to conventional methods, such as electrocardiography. While previous works have explored various aspects of radar-based vital sign analysis, including signal processing and peak detection algorithms, a clear performance comparison remains challenging due to variations in hardware and operating frequency across studies. This paper focuses on the setup configuration and solutions implemented to improve the reflectivity of the measurement object. The simultaneous measurement capability of two FMCW radar systems operating at different frequencies (24 GHz and 60 GHz) is illustrated, and the flexibility of the installation is highlighted, allowing arbitrary chest wall displacement functions via a pressure pump. Both radar systems exhibit the capability to capture stable and high-quality signals, facilitating a subsequent comparative analysis of two heartbeat estimation algorithms.

17:00 Target Tracking in Maritime Environment Using 77 GHz FMCW-MIMO-DBS Imaging Radar
Anum Ahmed Pirkani, Andy Stove and Mikhail Cherniakov (University of Birmingham, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Duncan Robertson (The University of St Andrews, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Marina S. Gashinova (University of Birmngham, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

This paper describes a novel approach based on a combination of MIMO and adaptive Doppler beam sharpening beamforming techniques to enhance radar resolution in dynamic maritime conditions followed by an implementation of a multi-target tracker based on extended Kalman filter to track dynamic targets, thereby, providing higher levels of autonomy to small and medium sized marine crafts. The experiments have been conducted using compact 77-GHz automotive radars in open-sea conditions (sea state 3) and results show reliable performance in detecting and tracking approaching wave using developed signal processing scheme despite platform and sea motion.

17:25 Improving the Signal-To-Clutter Ratio in Sub-THz Radar Using the Radon Transform
Samuel Harris (University of Birmingham & BAE Systems, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Dillon Kumar, Anum Ahmed Pirkani, Andy Stove and Edward Hoare (University of Birmingham, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Duncan Robertson (The University of St Andrews, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Marina S. Gashinova (University of Birmngham, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

This paper investigates the use of the Radon transform for improving small target detection by radar in a marine environment. The data used were collected using a 150 GHz radar staring at targets floating in a wave tank, which replicated maritime conditions. The Radon transform treats the augmented range-time profiles of various targets embedded in sea clutter as images. After transforming these images, in Radon space a method is developed to separate the normative form of the sea clutter from the anomalous forms of the targets, after which the normative form can be reduced. The proposed processing technique shows consistent improvements of up to 12 dB in the SCR.

Tuesday, July 2 19:00 - 23:00

Event2: Gala dinner

The Centennial Hall Wystawowa 1

Wednesday, July 3

Wednesday, July 3 8:30 - 10:10

MIKON E3: Antenna design and modelling

Room: Building C-13, room 1.31
Chairs: Krzysztof Wincza (AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland), Wlodzimierz Zieniutycz (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland)
8:30 Optimizing OAM Beams Divergence Angle in RF with Hemi-Spherical Dielectric Lenses
Deepak Yadav and Jyothishree Pillai (Shiv Nadar University, India); Madhur D Upadhayay (Shiv Nadar Institution of Eminence Deemed to Be University, India); Jitendra Prajapati and Naveen Babu (Shiv Nadar University, India)

This paper presents the study on hemi-spherical dielectric lens to minimize the divergence angle of orbital angular momentum(OAM) beam. A four element UCA antenna is designed to generate +1 OAM mode and eight element UCA antenna is designed to generate +2 and +3 OAM modes at resonating frequency of 5.2 GHz WLAN band. The hemi spherical Teflon lens (dielectric constant 2.1) converges the beam direction of UCAs from ± 29 degree to ± 12 degree for OAM mode +1, from ± 25 degree to ± 12 degree for OAM mode +2 and from ± 44 degree to ± 18 degree for OAM mode +3 and simultaneously increases the directivity from 4 dBi to 12 dBi while maintaining side-lobe level below 14dB. A comparison of the proposed hemi-spherical lens with reported lenses in terms of gain, beam direction and side-lobe level are also tabulated.

8:50 Dual Band Cavity-Backed Filtering Antenna with Modified Coupling Slot Structure
Yavuz Asci (Usak University, Turkey); Mustafa Secmen (Yasar University, Turkey)

In this study, loading stub technique is proposed to convert a wideband 2 × 2 full metal cavity-backed antenna into a dual band antenna for satellite communication (SatCom) systems. Wideband 2 × 2 cavity-backed antenna is modified to dual band antenna by only adding conventional coupling slot structure with stubs, which provides filtering. The filtering antenna does not change the wideband antenna's lateral and longitudinal dimensions, and not distort gain and radiation characteristics within in-band frequency regions. By integrating these stubs, undesired frequency band of 12.5 - 13.75 GHz being between Rx (10.7 - 12.5 GHz) and Tx (13.75 - 14.5 GHz) in-bands at Ku-band is effectively suppressed, which improves isolation and lowers interference. The simulated fractional bandwidths (FBW) for |S11| <-10 dB is 15.78% (10.68 - 12.51 GHz) and 8.1% (13.74 - 14.9 GHz) at the Rx and Tx bands, respectively. The peak gain values range from 13.06 to 13.92 dBi at Rx and 13.57 to 14.24 dBi at Tx bands. Besides, out-of-band rejection level reaches to 20.7 dB at 13 GHz while covering the entire Rx and Tx bands of the Ku-band.

9:10 Recovery of Ideal DFT Beams in Antenna Arrays Using Mutual Coupling Compensation
Mariusz Zamłyński (Wrocław University of Science and Technology & NOKIA, Poland); Piotr Słobodzian (Wroclaw University of Technology & Faculty of Electronics, Poland)

In this paper we present the technique of calculation an antenna weights taking into account the phenomenon of mutual coupling between radiating elements of an antenna array. As a result it is possible to recover the Ideal DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform) beams maintaining properties related to orthogonality and high isolation.

9:30 Dual-Polarized Antenna Based on Characteristic Modes of Conductive Plate
Adam Jan Jeżak (Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland); Adam Narbudowicz (Tyndall National Institute, Ireland & Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland); Robert Borowiec (Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland)

In this paper, a dual-polarized antenna for small terminals is investigated. The antenna consists of a feed network that provides excitation to the terminal's metal chassis or the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) ground plane. Feed points are selected based on the Theory of Characteristic Modes. The proposed antenna is a 4-layer PCB with dimensions 80 x 80 mm. It operates within the bandwidth of 1820 - 1880 MHz with polar discrimination of 30dB, directivity of 4.4dBi, and envelope correlation coefficient not exceeding 0.001.

MIKON MM2: Microwaves and Conductive Materials

Room: Building C-13, room 1.30
Chairs: Malgorzata Celuch (QWED, Poland), Kamel Haddadi (University of Lille / IEMN CNRS8520, France)
8:30 Plano-Concave Fabry-Pérot Open Resonator for Measurements of Conductivity Up to 70 GHz
Jerzy Cuper, Bartłomiej Salski, Pawel Kopyt and Adam Pacewicz (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

In this paper, we present a setup based on Plano-Concave Fabry-Pérot Open Resonator (PC FPOR) suitable for metallic sample measurement of conductivity ranging from 10^3 S/m (e.g., carbon-fiber-based laminates) up to 10^7 S/m (e.g., good room-temperature conductors like copper). As multiple TEM00Qmodes are considered within the cavity, the setup delivers the properties of the sample-under-test at multiple frequencies in the band of 30 to 70 GHz with separation of ca. 1.5 GHz between consecutive frequency points. This work is an extension of our recently published method towards higher frequencies. Therefore, additional loss sources must be introduced to the cavity's numerical description to cover this range properly. Firstly, volumetric losses of air can no longer be neglected as below 40GHz, especially due to the oxygen absorption peak located at ca. 61 GHz. Secondly, the influence of both coupling holes has to be accounted for. Such a calibration is necessary to measure without additional systematic errors.

8:50 A Systematic Study of Correlation Between Surface Roughness and Microwave Effective Conductivity of Copper Foils for Ultra-Low-Loss Applications
Malgorzata Celuch and Tomasz Nalecz (QWED, Poland); Janusz Rudnicki (QWED Sp. z o. o., Poland); Thomas Devahif (Circuit Foil Luxemburg, Luxembourg)

This summary presents initial results of the EUREKA-Eurostars 5G_Foil project aiming at the development of industrial screening methods for copper foils for high-frequency applications. Here, a technique based on Ruby Dielectric Resonator is validated for fast determination of effective microwave conductivity, which is then correlated to the foils' surface topology. A high correlation is demonstrated between the measured conductivity and the Developed Interfacial Area Ratio (Sdr), with an excellent fit to a decreasing exponential function. The coefficient of determination decreases when other roughness parameters are taken as a reference, and foil thickness is irrelevant, in the considered thickness range.

9:10 Resonant Microwave Measurement of the Electric Conductivity of Wires
Bartłomiej Salski, Piotr Czekala and Pawel Kopyt (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

A rapidly increasing need for high-speed cable assemblies prompts the need for microwave characterization of wires at frequencies well beyond a few GHz. Therefore, the resonant method based on a cylindrical cavity resonator is presented in this paper, which allows measuring electric conductivity of wires with the diameter less than 1 mm at frequencies spanning from 20 to 40 GHz. The concept of the measurement altogether with the error analysis is addressed and practical limitations of the method are discussed.

9:30 GrInShield for Graphene-Based Composites in Electromagnetic Interference Shielding
Jovana R Prekodravac, Dr. (Vinca Institute of the Nuclear Sciences-National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Serbia); Miroslav Huskić (University of Slovenj Gradec, European Union); Kamel Haddadi (University of Lille / IEMN CNRS8520, France); Muhammad Yasir (Carl Von Ossietzky University, Germany); Dejan Kepić (Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences University of Belgrade, Serbia); Svetlana Jovanović Vučetić (Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Serbia)

In the rapid development of microelectronics, energy, and automotive sectors, as well as Radio-Frequency (RF) telecommunications, the pollution from Electromagnetic Waves (EWs) is perpetual. Electromagnetic interferences (EMI) cause destruction and disruptive impacts on equipment and systems, affecting both ordinary use and specialized, expensive instruments utilized in research facilities. The EMI may lead to unreliable signals and radio frequency (RF) interference. Materials capable of neutralizing EMI effects are essential to minimize deterioration caused by undesired currents and voltages, instrument blockage, incorrect results, and to minimize measuring time. The GrInShield project aims to solve the aforesaid issues by creating innovative shielding graphene-based nanomaterials that are resistant against EMI.

9:50 Impact of Substrate Parameters on Sheet Resistance Measurements Using iSiPDR at 10 GHz
Lukasz Nowicki (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland & QWED Sp. z O. O., Poland); Malgorzata Celuch (QWED, Poland); Marzena Olszewska-Placha (QWED Sp. z o. o., Poland)

This manuscript investigates the impact of substrate properties on sheet resistance measurements using a 10 GHz scanner employing an inverted Single Post Dielectric Resonator. Our study focuses on carbon coatings deposited on quartz wafers, utilizing retro-modelling to predict the effects of variations in permittivity and thickness of the substrate. Through experimental analysis and predictive modeling, we elucidate the substrate's influence on sheet resistance, providing practical guidelines for thin film measurements on different substrates.

MIKON 1P1: Emerging Technologies

Room: Building C-13, room 1.28
Chairs: Tomasz Karpisz (National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA), Ilona Piekarz (AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland)
8:30 Microwave-To-Optical Converter of Single Photons in Rydberg Atomic Medium
Sebastian Borówka (University of Warsaw, Poland)

We present a microwave-to-optical converter device based on six-wave mixing in rubidium vapors. We demonstrate a coherent upconversion of microwave radiation at 13.9 GHz frequency to an infrared beam at 776 nm wavelength. Using single photon detection we demonstrate the readout of converted single photons at 3.1% atomic efficiency. The converter exhibits an instantaneous conversion bandwidth of 16 MHz, a tunable bandwidth of 59 MHz, and an operational dynamic range of 57 dB. At the lower end of conversion working range we are able to demonstrate the conversion of free-space microwave thermal photons.

8:50 Influence of Chip Conductor Material on On-Wafer Calibration
Tomasz Karpisz (National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA); Jacob Pawlik (NIST, USA); Johannes Hoffmann (Federal Institute of Metrology METAS, Switzerland); Sarah Evans (NIST, USA); Christian Long, Nathan Orloff and James Booth (National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA); Angela Stelson (NIST, USA)

Measurement of on-chip circuits and devices requires accurate calibration methods. Selecting an appropriate calibration for a broad frequency spectrum from MHz to THz while being traceable directly to SI is challenging. The multiline Thru-Reflect-Line (TRL) calibration method is a promising candidate for on-wafer measurements, however due to spatial requirements for standards its use can be limited only to higher frequencies. This study presents comparison of footprint of TRL calibration sets as well as influence of different conductor material. We show that the calibration error can be reduced by using bigger difference between longest and shortest line while conductor material plays a less significant role.

9:10 Analog Beam Steering Without Phase Shifters Enabled by Periodic Modulation
Grzegorz Bogdan and Yevhen Yashchyshyn (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

This short communication gives an overview of a beam-steering time-modulated antenna array (TMAA) featuring the widest bandwidth and the finest beam steering among all TMAAs presented in the literature. The design does include any phase-shifters. Instead, the beam steering is achieved by periodic switching of antenna excitations in the feeding network. Results of measurements show, that the TMAA provide similar beam-steering functionality as conventional phased-array; however, without the need of high-resolution phase-shifters.

9:30 A Neural Network Approach to the Design of Two-Focal-Spot Terahertz Lenses
Paweł Komorowski (Military University of Technology, Poland); Mateusz Kaluza (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland); Przemysław Zagrajek (Military Institute of Technology, Poland); Agnieszka Siemion (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

A novel design method for terahertz (THz) diffractive optical elements is presented. The algorithm utilizes a dedicated diffractive convolutional neural network to emulate radiation propagation and optimize the designed structure's phase delay map. Two-focal-spot THz lenses operating at 140~GHz have been designed using the proposed and referential methods. Both structures have been manufactured using FDM 3D printing and verified experimentally. The neural network-based algorithm allowed to obtain new, unintuitive shapes of optical elements.

9:50 FLASH2020+ RF Generation and Distribution System Upgrade Overview
Maciej Urbanski, Bartosz Gąsowski, Krzysztof Czuba, Bartłomiej Kola, Pawel Jatczak, Tomasz Owczarek and Andžej Šerlat (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland); Julien Branlard (Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron, Germany); Daniel Kühn (Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Poland); Frank Ludwig and Heinrich Pryschelski (Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron, Germany); Katharina Schulz (Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Germany)

The Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) has been used for almost 20 years. In 2017, it was decided to perform a program of significant improvements and upgrades to the system to provide better beam performance and maximum energy. One of the upgrades was the complete redesign and delivery of the Main RF Reference Oscillator, RF reference distribution, and frequency conversion components, forming a new RF reference generation and distribution system for FLASH. The modules designed by ISE, in cooperation with DESY, present significantly better performance in terms of phase noise but are also significantly smaller and thus easier to maintain, service, and redesign for other facilities and RF frequencies. Based on already published materials, this contribution overviews the designed RF system components.

MIKON D3: Sensing & Tracking

Room: Building C-13, room 0.32
Chairs: Artur Rydosz (AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland), Bogusław Smólski (Military University of Technology, Poland)
8:30 Remote-Based Cardiovascular Monitoring Using Self-Injection Locked Radar − A Position to Study
Rifa Atul Izza Asyari (University of Southern Denmark, Denmark); Kuan Yuan Lee (National Sun Yat-Sen University, Taiwan); Tzyy-Sheng Jason Horng (National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan); Daniel Teichmann (University of Southern Denmark, unknown)

In continuation of our work, this paper describes further steps towards the detection remote-based technique for cardiac motion monitoring using a flexible transmitarray antenna operating at 5.8 GHz. Using a self-injection-locked radar, we conducted measurements across four distinct chest locations. Our analysis of the collected data reveals significant disparities in the signal amplitude and waveform characteristics at different chest positions. These findings underscore the influence of the specific location of the chest on radar signals, providing more detailed insight into the complex heart motion patterns. Our findings highlight the importance of considering chest positioning when deciphering radar-derived cardiac monitoring data. This understanding is vital for the advancement of more accurate and efficient techniques in cardiac healthcare, using the capabilities of radar technology for sophisticated medical purposes.

8:50 A Six-Port-Based Tracking System for Automated Landing of Fixed-Wing UAVs
Kai C Huebner and Bartosz Tegowski (Hamburg University of Technology, Germany); Alexander Koelpin (Hamburg University of Technology & Chair for Electronics and Sensor Systems, Germany)

This contribution presents a measurement system for tracking fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) during gear-less landing on automated, mobile, and rail-based runways. It relies on a transmitter located in the UAV and six-port-based angle-of-arrival measurements. A demonstrator operating in the 24-GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band is designed, manufactured, and characterized. It guarantees a precision better than one degree, and up to 0.02 degree in optimal conditions as well as real-time capabilities with 500 samples per second. A real-world proof-of-concept experiment validates the approach.

9:10 Nonlinear Distortion Effects of Vibration-Sensing Interferometric Radar Systems Due to Self-RCS
Bartosz Tegowski (Hamburg University of Technology, Germany); Alexander Koelpin (Hamburg University of Technology & Chair for Electronics and Sensor Systems, Germany)

This contribution investigates the accuracy of interferometric continuous-wave radars depending on their own radar cross section (self-RCS) in the context of mechanical vibration analysis. The self-RCS is determined by the overall physical entity of the system including the radar antenna as well as the housing. The backscattering by the radar re-illuminates the target, which ultimately leads to a nonlinear dependency between its motion and the measured phase. This nonlinear distortion is studied in theory and validated by measurements demonstrating phenomena such as harmonic generation and intermodulation, which depend on the self-RCS.

9:30 Automatic Defect Detection in Ballistic Inserts Using Terahertz Imaging
Kamil Adam Kamiński, Norbert Pałka and Marcin Maciejewski (Military University of Technology, Poland); Przemysław Zagrajek (Military Institute of Technology, Poland)

This paper presents a concept of an automatic defect detection system in ballistic inserts utilizing time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) scanner. Measurements were conducted using a fast terahertz scanner based on electronically controlled optical sampling (ECOPS). In the defect detection stage, methods including histogram analysis were employed, enabling automatic detection of defects within ballistic inserts.

MIKON CAD WKSH5: CAD for Electromagnetic Modelling

Part III Hands-on/Live demo
WIPL-D (Wipl-D software)
Room: Building C-13, room 0.31

Meeting_AOC: AOC Polish Chapter meeting (by invitation)

Room: Building C-13, room 0.38

MIKON CAD WKSH6: CAD for Electromagnetic Modelling

Part III Hands-on/Live demo
EM Invent (Invensim software)
Room: Building C-13, room 1.27

IRS POSTER: IRS Poster Session

Room: Building C-13, Hall
Chair: Konrad Jędrzejewski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)
Evaluating Synthetic Data Potential for 60 GHz FMCW Radar Simulations with Measurements
Philipp Reitz, Timo Maiwald and Norman Franchi (Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany); Robert Weigel (Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany); Maximilian Lübke (Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Germany)

This paper proposes a fully integrated simulation environment for an FMCW radar system in an indoor environment operating at 60 GHz. The simulation of the entire signal processing chain, starting with a CST simulation of the antenna pattern and extending to the radar signal processing, enabled the demonstration of the radar hardware's and the channel's inherent properties. Measurements and simulations have revealed the inherent fluctuation paths of a human target by showing a variation of 10 dB in the reflection power of the human in measurements. Our results demonstrate that synthetic datasets can be considered valid alternatives in radar detection. The channel properties can be examined by investigating different up-tilt configurations, and problems such as ground reflections caused by side lobes and multipath propagation within the human target can be further investigated.

Implementation and Comparison of Imaging Methods for Ground Penetrating Radar
Mathias Kromer, Reza Aliabadi, Philip Arthur and Marlene Harter (Offenburg University, Germany)

This work presents the comparison of the commonly used B-scan imaging method with a delay and sum (DAS) beamforming algorithm in ground penetrating radar (GPR). Utilizing an implemented ultra-wideband (UWB) stepped frequency GPR, using only in-phase data, real-world measurements are compared and discussed. The reduced complexity of the proposed system could increase the speed of data acquisition and processing as well as reduce system cost while providing similar measurement accuracy. This could be of interest for applications such as the localization of underground utility piping, archaeology or mine detection.

Unsupervised SAR Change Detection Using Autoencoders
Sandhi Wangiyana (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

Change detection is a vital task in remote sensing analysis. One of its useful aspects is disaster assessment. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) can provide images in all weather conditions, which is beneficial for detecting changes. An unsupervised approach is proposed in this study to learn representations of SAR data and used the encodings from adjacent timeframes to differentiate event-specific changes. The Autoencoder trained on flood images was capable of detecting changes from other events such as wildfires and landslides as shown by a high AUPRC score. Distinct changes for each event results in event-specific threshold value that optimizes the binary change detection task.

Moving Target Detection for FDA-MIMO Radar Based on Two-Step Radon-Fourier Transform
Chen Xijia and Jun Hu (Sun Yat-Sen University, China); Xiao Yu (Sun Yat-sen University China, China); Shiyou Xu, Rui Guo and Yue Zhang (Sun Yat-Sen University, China)

When Frequency Diverse Array multiple-input multiple-output (FDA-MIMO) radar implement coherent accumulation detector for moving targets, it is easy to encounter the across range unit (ARU) effects. Besides, due to the frequency offsets across adjacent array elements, serious Doppler spread (DS) will occur between received channels, making it impossible to be coherently accumulated and dramatically reducing the detection performance of the system. Aiming at this issue, a method of FDA-MIMO Radar motion target detection based on Radon-Fourier Transform (RFT) is proposed, that is Two-Step RFT (TSRFT). Firstly, the received channels are divided into two parts for conjugate multiplication, which achieves multi-channel accumulation before RFT. Then RFT is used to obtain a rough estimate of speed and reuse the speed estimation value for 1D-RFT target detection, which reduces computational complexity compared to using traditional RFT. Simulation results reveal that the proposed method improves detection performance by suppressing DS and ARU effects.

Comparison of Selected Estimation Methods of Interference Level in Radio Channel
Maciej Mazuro, Pawel Skokowski and Jan M. Kelner (Military University of Technology, Poland)

In the dynamic landscape of wireless communication, spectrum sensing algorithms play a crucial role in the evolution of Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs). As CRNs adapt dynamically to varying spectrum conditions, robust spectrum sensing becomes pivotal. In the realm of spectrum sensing, accurate estimation of noise power is paramount for reliable decision-making. Three distinct methods for estimating noise power are: Daubechies wavelet-based methods, Bayesian methods and Median filtering which is, a non-parametric method, proves effective in estimating noise power by analyzing the central tendency of signal samples. The forthcoming analysis will contribute to the understanding of spectrum sensing algorithms within the context of CRNs, aiding in the selection of the most effective method for real-world applications.

Analyzing Bistatic Motion Parameters Monte Carlo Simulations of Satellite Configurations for Radar Applications
Marcin Kamil Baczyk, Jan Dzwonnik, Alicja Misterka and Rafał Najda (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

The increasing problem of space debris from more satellite launches poses a significant risk to spacecraft and critical satellite operations. This paper looks at the need for better ways to detect and keep track of space debris to prevent collisions. We review different methods like space-based sensors, computer models, and ground radars, all of which have challenges, including missing coverage, difficulty detecting small debris, and complex calculations. Our study focuses on bistatic radar as a way to better search for debris by looking at distance, speed, and acceleration in space. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we aim to track small debris more accurately, helping to manage space traffic and avoid crashes. Our results show that improving bistatic radar settings could greatly help find small debris, making space safer for satellites and spacecraft.

Spectral Inverse Filtering in Mode S Signal Processing
Ondřej Šimon (University of Defence & Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic); Jiri Vesely (University of Defence, Czech Republic)

Secondary Surveillance Radar systems play a pivotal role in aviation safety, relying mostly on the Mode S signal format for aircraft tracking. However, challenges such as garbling persist due to overlapping responses from different aircraft, particularly affecting passive surveillance systems. To address these issues, approaches like spectral inverse filtering have been proposed in authors previous work [1] for simpler Mode (SIF/IFF) signal formats. This paper explores the theoretical background and practical implementations of spectral inverse filtering within the context of Mode S signal processing, aiming to mitigate garbling effects and enhance radar data extraction capabilities.

Localization Accuracy Assessment of Tactical Radio Based on Acoustic Doppler Effect in Laboratory Conditions
Kacper Bednarz, Jarosław Wojtuń and Rafal Szczepanik (Military University of Technology, Poland)

In the article, we evaluate the possibility of locating modern tactical radio using the Signal Doppler Frequency (SDF) method. Using an acoustic signal, we show how to emulate the Doppler effect in laboratory conditions. We use the L3 Harris AN/PRC-152A tactical radio as a transmitter. The research is carried out on the proposed concept of building a location sensor. We test a software-defined radio (SDR) platform that can be used in SDF-based localization. We use SDR with low size, weight, and power consumption that can be mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). We show the localization accuracy results for different carrier frequencies emitted by the radio.

Performance Analysis of MIG Detectors in Weibull and K Distributed Clutter
Jinguo Liu (China); Xiaoqiang Hua (National University of Defence Technology, China); Yongqiang Cheng, Kang Liu, Yang Zeng and Hongqiang Wang (National University of Defense Technology, China)

Radar target detection based on information geometry theory is a new detection technology. This method transforms the problem of target detection into the problem of distinguishing target and clutter on the manifold. The target and clutter metrics are performed on the echo-built manifold, which is advantageous for detection under low SCR conditions. In practical application scenarios, Weibull-distributed clutter and K-distributed clutter are important distributions for describing clutter.Therefore, based on matrix information geometry (MIG) detectors, this paper analyzes the performance and summarizes the performance differences of MIG detection methods under the two clutter backgrounds. Finally, the parameters of the simulation clutter data are changed to analyze the performance changes of different matrix CFAR. The results show that as the different parameters of clutter vary, the longer the trailing of the clutter probability density function leads to a degradation of the detection performance. This will facilitate the selection of appropriate metrics for different clutter environments.

A Compact, Programmable X-Band Multi-Channel RF Receiver with High Dynamic Range for Doppler Weather Radar System
Anirudh Kumar, Priyanka Pai and Kavitha V (Bharat Electronics Limited, Bangalore, India); Yachamaneni Sandeep (Bharat Electronics Limited Bangalore India, India)

This paper presents the design of a compact, programmable X-Band multi-channel receiver used for Doppler Weather Radars Systems by combining two different gain channels, called high gain and low gain channels, to achieve the required high dynamic range of 100dB. Gain differences between these two channels and linearity in output power are maintained such that during processing of these differential channel gains a smooth transition between channels is achieved. This paper also describes a unique mechanical design structure of the receiver, with a 2-deck approach in order to maintain high isolation between the channels. An inbuilt microcontroller circuitry is provided for controlling and monitoring the receiver through Ethernet thereby providing an on-the-go gain and phase matching facility for the radar system during receiver operation without disturbing any hardware. The major specifications achieved are isolation between the channels of 65dB (min), noise figure 1.8dB max, gain matching ± 0.4dB, phase matching ± 10° and receiver sensitivity of -112dBm for IF level output of 3dB above noise floor. The module has been realized & tested, to meet all the target specifications successfully, and has been integrated in the X band Doppler Weather Radar system.

Vortex Wave Radar Imaging with UCA and Phase Coded Waveform
Kang Liu, Hongyan Liu, Hongqiang Wang, Chenggao Luo, Zhenghui Gong and Huaitie Xiao (National University of Defense Technology, China)

The orbital angular momentum (OAM) beam has shown great prospects of radar applications, due to the OAM diversity characteristics. However, the radiation energy convergence is still a hard problem to be solved for radar target imaging in realistic scenario. In this paper, a novel OAM beam generation method is developed based on the uniform circular array (UCA) and phase coded waveform, which can collimate the beams with different OAM modes. Furthermore, the echo demodulation and the imaging methods are proposed to reconstruct the target profiles in the range and azimuth domain. Simulation results validate that the OAM-based radar imaging can achieve higher azimuth resolution than the conventional real aperture imaging. This work can advance the development of vortex wave radar technology and radar system.

Directed Energy Weapons: Dissecting Effects and Potential Use
Kacper Karcz (Military University of Technology & Air Force Institute of Technology, Poland); Zygmunt Mierczyk (Military University of Technology, Poland); Arkadiusz Kalinowski (Air Force Institute of Technology & Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become more accessible and widely used, with applications ranging from military surveillance to weaponization. Because of their impressive speeds, maneuverability, and ability to evade detection, small and agile UAVs present significant challenges to traditional interception methods. Directed energy weapons (DEW) are a highly effective countermeasure that is currently undergoing extensive research and development. High-power electromagnetic effects can significantly impact electronic systems. These effects can lead to poor operation, circuit malfunction, or complete failure of electronic devices. High-power electromagnetic fields, such as those generated by microwave weapons, can induce unwanted currents and voltages in electronic circuits, leading to the disruption or destruction of semiconductors, microchips, and other electronic components. However due to difficulty of detecting small UAV's and their speed the time for counteraction, never minding decision making, is extremely short. This characteristic render DEW pointless if sufficient intensities for certain impact on UAV are not generated at once. However the spatial distribution of microwave radiation can be unpredictable and random scattering and interference can cause unexpected distributions and the negative effects of electromagnetic fields on people and the environment were first observed at the end of the nineteenth century. This paper provides findings on the efficacy and thresholds of high power microwave pulses on UAVs, as well as their impact on cells cultures in a controlled laboratory setting. Methods An investigation into the impact of high-power microwaves (HPMs) on AVs and cells cultures was conducted. A research study utilized an impulse compressor-based HPM generator. This source produces a sine wave with a frequency in the range of 2995-3003MHz. The generating tube is supplied with electricity from an HV modulator based on PFN (Pulse Forming Network) technology, i.e. a pulse forming line connected to a specially designed impulse transformer. The microwave tube producing microwave radiation is connected through a matched microwave waveguide filed with sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) or nitrogen to the radiation emitter, which may be a parabolic antenna or a horn (cone) antenna. Compression enables the generation of impulses with a field magnitude of up to 50 kV/m and a power of 3MW. Employed measurement stands included an HPM generator in both land and sea setups on military training grounds, as well as reverberating and anechoic chambers in laboratory. Conducted tests included analyzing the response of UAV and its components when subjected to intense HPM radiation. High-power d-dot and b-dot microwave probes were utilized, along with field intensity loggers, to measure and analyze generated filed distributions. Marx's generator coupled with TEM cell enabled the generation High Power ElectroMagnetic (HEMP) impulses of fields as high as 2 MV/m which give insight on impact high voltage transient pulses with wide and/or very wide bandwidth (HV-WB/UWB) on living organism on molecular level for determining the biological mechanisms of phenotypic and genotypic changes occurring under the influence of these kind of weapons on human resources. The HEMP pulses impact was conducted on four types of mammalian cells: Leydig cells from the male gonadal interstitium, mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), skin fibroblasts and prostate cancer cells. The HPM pulses impact was conducted on five types of mammalian cells: Leydig TM3 cells - a line derived from the interstitium of mouse testes, human epithelial cells from the lens of the eye, human fibroblasts from the skin, neuroblastoma cells derived from the rat nervous system and human epithelial cells derived from prostate cancer. Results The experiments presented instances of both soft and hardkill UAV loss caused by HPM impulses. The results of experiments show that field magnitudes above 50V/m can cause softkill effects, also referred as lock-up, which translates to UAV systems are unable to operate and inevitably crash. Furthermore, burnout effects were repeated at intensities above 50kV/m. These effects were partly caused by the destruction of electronic components by heat and discharge arc. Plasma formation was repeatedly induced with a tealight candle used for a light source in reverberation chamber. Additionally, the researchers report instances where radiation directly damaged the structure of UAV mechanical parts. The failure of faraday shields due to structural flexing has been illustrated in the discussion, which indicates that directed microwave weapons are a suitable countermeasure against unwanted UAVs. HEMP pulse research has revealed a number of transient changes in life processes with no alteration in DNA content. HPM pulse research shows changes in DNA of healthy cells reversible after 4 hours and changes related to mitochondria that affect, among others, on the energy state of the cell and cell cycle control. Findings shows intensive cell division of the examined prostate cancer cells and neuroblastoma cells as aftermath of HPM irradiation. Conclusions The study's findings emphasize the effectiveness of HPM pulses as a practical method for defending against unauthorized UAVs. Through the utilization of advanced techniques for precise control and manipulation of electromagnetic radiation, it becomes feasible to render UAVs ineffective by exploiting their electronic and structural weaknesses. Current microwave technology can address tread that unwanted militarized UAV pose. To ensure the reliability of HPM weapons as effective shields against UAVs, it is crucial to address the implementation of a suitable beam control system and the ability to adjust the generator system to scale the radiation intensity regarding the desired impact. The findings from experiments evaluating the genotoxic effects following exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields at microwave frequencies, with varying physical parameters, remain uncertain. The majority of research efforts have not found evidence of direct genotoxic or mutagenic effects following this particular type of exposure to different types of cells within a short period of time. It is worth noting that the analysis of these results should take into account the limitations arising from the differences between the in vitro and in vivo environments, potentially impacting the interpretation and generalization of the obtained data. Nevertheless, presented results shed light on aspects that should be further investigated in this context.

MIKON CAD WKSH7: CAD for Electromagnetic Modelling

Part III Hands-on/Live demo
AM Technologies (Keysight EDA System Design - SystemVue software)
Room: Building C4, room 345

Wednesday, July 3 10:10 - 10:40

Coffee5: Coffee break

Wednesday, July 3 10:40 - 12:20

IRS JCS: Joint Communication and Sensing

Room: Building C-13, room 1.31
Chairs: Piotr Samczynski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland), Volker Winkler (Hensoldt Sensors GmbH, Germany)
10:40 Pilot Tones Injection in Golay Sequences for PAPR Reduction in OFDM-Based JRC Systems
Andrea Quirini, Barbara Iafrate and Fabiola Colone (Sapienza University of Rome, Italy); Pierfrancesco Lombardo (University of Rome La Sapienza, Italy)

This paper investigates the integration of pilot carriers into Golay complementary sequences for peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction in joint radar and communications (JRC) systems employing Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) waveforms. While using Golay sequences as OFDM codewords allows to achieve PAPR values below 3 dB, the insertion of pilot tones can disrupt their optimal properties. Two approaches are proposed to address this challenge: restricting the transmitted codeword set to Golay sequences sharing desired pilot tone configurations or forcing predetermined pilot sequences onto Golay sequences to create Quasi-Golay sequences. Analysis reveals a trade-off between PAPR reduction and communication throughput: the Golay-based approach offers optimal PAPR but reduced data rates, whereas the Quasi-Golay -based approach provides higher data rates at the expense of slightly higher PAPR values. Evaluation through simulations demonstrates the performance of these approaches and their implications for JRC systems. This study underscores the importance of careful consideration of pilot carrier integration in Golay-based PAPR reduction techniques for efficient JRC system design.

11:05 Bistatic Reflectivity and Micro-Doppler Signatures of Drones for Integrated Communication and Sensing
Heraldo Cesar Alves Costa, Saw James Myint, Carsten Andrich, Sebastian Giehl and Christian Schneider (Technische Universität Ilmenau, Germany); Reiner S. Thomä (Ilmenau University of Technology, Germany)

The integration of wireless communication and radar sensing is gaining the interest of researchers from wireless communication and radar societies. Sensing in Integrated Communication and Sensing (ICAS) systems differs from the traditional radar system in the configuration of transmitter-target-receiver, the operating frequency bands, and the transmitting waveform. It is necessary to understand how target electromagnetic signatures behave in this context. Therefore, this paper presents measurements and analysis of two important target signatures, reflectivity and micro-Doppler, for sensing in ICAS. These target signatures are measured in the state-of-the-art measurement system, Bistatische-Radar-Messeinrichtung (BiRa).

11:30 Performance Limits for Drone Applications with Integrated Communication and Sensing in 6G Networks
Volker Winkler (Hensoldt Sensors GmbH, Germany); Benjamin Knoedler (Fraunhofer FKIE, Germany)

A future design goal for 6G networks is the possibility to use the transmitted OFDM signal also for sensing applications beyond the communication purpose. The transmitter, which probably provide the highest power, are base stations, but in case of uplink or sidelink transmissions the radiation of user equipment can also be used. This leads to bistatic radar configurations with moving transmitter and receivers, where the underlying use case is the installation of user equipment on drones for target detection. The achievable accuracy is derived in this paper for multi-static measurements and tracks. The position of non-cooperative transmitters can also be determined with passive emitter tracking (PET) receivers. Both type of measurements can be fused by Kalman filtering. Besides target detection the operation as bistatic synthetic aperture radar is a interesting use case in order to generate images of the ground. This requires an assessment on the constraints for valid transmitter and receiver configurations.

11:55 Ambiguity Function Analysis of Hyperbolic Fractional Fourier Transform in Joint Radar and Communication Applications
Mohammad Reza Mousavi (Aalen University of Applied Sciences, Germany); Stephan Ludwig (Aalen University, Germany)

The hyperbolic fractional Fourier transform (HFrFT) as a generalized form of the fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) based on complex transform orders is introduced. This paper defines the continuous-time hyperbolic fractional Fourier transform (CHFrFT). Further, a closed form of the discrete hyperbolic fractional Fourier transform (DHFrFT) is derived. The ambiguity function (AF) of the HFrFT signal is calculated, mathematically. The performance of the proposed transform in radar signal processing by analyzing the AF and in wireless communication systems based on the bit error rate (BER) analysis, is evaluated. The simulation result shows that HFrFT can be a suitable technique in joint radar and communication (JRC) applications.

MIKON MM1: Microwaves and Dielectric Materials

Room: Building C-13, room 1.30
Chairs: Marzena Olszewska-Placha (QWED Sp. z o. o., Poland), Jovana R Prekodravac, Dr. (Vinca Institute of the Nuclear Sciences-National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Serbia)
10:40 Nanorobotic Integration with Millimeter-Waves: Advancing Precise Free-Space Sensing
Kamel Haddadi (University of Lille / IEMN CNRS8520, France); Nawal Al Saleh (University Lille, France); Denis Pomorski (Université de Lille, France); Mohamed Sebbache (University of Lille / IEMN CNRS8520, France)

This work proposes a novel approach to advance non-contact millimeter-wave sensing capabilities through the fusion of microwave characterization techniques with nanorobotics. Firstly, we introduce a WR15 waveguide six-port radar operating around 60 GHz for precise measurement of free-space reflection coefficients. Precise knowledge of the standoff distance between the antenna and the material under test (MUT) directly impacts the accuracy for extracting electromagnetic properties of the MUT. Therefore, the MUT is mounted on a piezoelectric nano-positionning stage with resolution of ± 30nm over a centimeter-scale distance.

11:00 Microwave and THz Characterization of Dielectric Properties of Bulk Glass-Ceramic Composites and ULTCC Substrates
Marzena Olszewska-Placha (QWED Sp. z o. o., Poland); Jobin Varghese (Fraunhofer IKTS, Germany); Beata Synkiewicz-Musialska (Lukasiewicz-Institute of Microelectronics and Photonics, Poland)

In this work, new ultra-low temperature co-fired glass-ceramic composite intended to serve as a dielectric substrate for microwave and millimeter wave applications is investigated. The new material is subject to characterization of dielectric properties in a wide frequency spectrum using resonant methods and time domain spectroscopy. The presented measurement methodology involving different measurement techniques and frequency ranges allows for comprehensive characterization of new ceramic materials at consecutive development stages, supporting optimization of a fabrication process. Dielectric constant (loss tangent) of the newly developed ULTCC substrate, which is intended to be lower than 15 (0.01), creates a perspective for its future application as dielectric substrates for electronic systems.

11:20 Thermal Characterization of a Fabry-Perot Open Resonator
Bartłomiej Salski, Piotr Baprawski, Piotr Czekala, Matthew Krysicki and Pawel Kopyt (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

A Fabry-Perot open resonator has become a versatile tool for the broadband room-temperature microwave characterization of various kind of materials, including dielectric films, low-loss liquids and metals. An emerging need for the measurements at elevated temperatures has prompted the study of its thermal properties presented in this paper. It is shown that the Fabry-Perot open resonator as an ultra-sensitive fixture is capable of quantitatively detecting such barely visible effects as changes of the air refractivity with temperature and humidity. In addition to that, it is shown how the effective electric conductivity of silver-plated spherical mirrors changes with frequency and temperature. The study is concentrated on a double-concave geometry of the resonator operating in the 14-50 GHz range.

11:40 Towards a Robust BCDR Design for Out-Of-Plane Permittivity Measurements
Malgorzata Celuch (QWED, Poland); Marzena Olszewska-Placha (QWED Sp. z o. o., Poland); Lukasz Nowicki (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland & QWED Sp. z O. O., Poland); Wojciech Gwarek (QWED Sp. z O. O., Poland)

The paper presents the electromagnetic modelling and mechanical considerations for the design of a Balanced-type Circular Disk Resonator (BCDR). The purpose of the work is to develop a robust in-house methodology for measuring the out-of-plane component of complex permittivity of materials at microwave and mmWave frequencies. In this summary, a novel concept of a thick central electrode manufactured as a pair of discs on a double-sided PCB substrate is proposed, evaluated by modelling, implemented, and validated in a BCDR prototype.

12:00 Microwave Measurements of High-Loss Liquids with Transmission Line and Resonant Methods
Michał Marcin Kalisiak (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland); Marzena Olszewska-Placha (QWED Sp. z o. o., Poland); Wojciech Wiatr, Piotr Czekala, Arkadiusz Lewandowski and Bartlomiej Salski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland); Łukasz Usydus (Central Office of Measures, Poland)

The paper presents a comparison between transmission/reflection (T/R) and resonant methods employed for the characterization of complex permittivity of high-loss liquid. The liquid under test is 50% aqueous solution of propan-2-ol. The T/R method with a meniscus-removal algorithm utilizes a 7 mm coaxial line in a semi-open test cell configuration and the complex permittivity is measured in 0.2-18 GHz bandwidth. For the resonant method, a dielectric resonator cavity operating in TE01delta mode at a nominal frequency of 2.45 GHz is utilized. For both methods, the dielectric constant and loss tangent of the 50% aqueous solution of propan-2-ol are extracted revealing good agreement of the obtained results and confirming their applicability for the characterization of high-loss liquid materials.

MIKON 1P2: Filters & resonators - analysis & design

Room: Building C-13, room 1.28
Chairs: Rafal Lech (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland), Yevhen Yashchyshyn (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)
10:40 Modal FEM Analysis of Ferrite Resonator
Malgorzata Warecka, Rafal Lech and Piotr Kowalczyk (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland)

This paper is a brief description of the results presented in 10.1109/LMWC.2022.3154532. The Finite-Element Method (FEM) is applied for modal analysis of ferrite-loaded spherical resonators. To improve the efficiency of the numerical calculations, the body-of-revolution (BOR) technique is utilized. Due to the frequency-dependent ferrite permeability, FEM leads to a nonlinear eigenvalue problem that is challenging to solve. To this end, Beyn's method is proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is confirmed by comparing with the results obtained analytically and with the measured data.

11:00 Polarization-Sensitive Mechanically Tunable Microwave Filter Using Metallic Photonic Crystals
Sanaz Zarei (Sharif University of Technology, Iran)

A tunable, polarization sensitive microwave filter based on a reconfigurable dual-layered two-dimensional metallic photonic crystal is presented. The filter consists of a metallic plate with periodic holes and metal pillars which are anchored in a substrate material. The diameter of the pillars is smaller than that of the holes and the lateral position of the pillars with respect to the holes is tunable. We study the transmission of the device for linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation, which is polarized parallel and perpendicular to the displacement of the movable membrane, respectively. The tuning range spans from 20.18 GHz to 26.58 GHz for perpendicular polarization and from 20.18 GHz to 18.42 GHz for parallel polarization. The 3 dB operation bandwidth varies between 3.82 GHz and 6.44 GHz for perpendicular polarization and between 3.42 GHz and 3.82 GHz for parallel polarization. Experimental data are in good agreement with finite element method (FEM) simulations.

11:20 Frequency-Variant Double-Zero Single-Pole Reactive Coupling Networks for Coupled-Resonator Microwave Bandpass Filters
Muhammad Y Sandhu (Gdansk University of Technology, Pakistan & Sukkur IBA University, Pakistan); Maciej Jasinski and Adam Lamecki (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland); Roberto Gómez-García (University of Alcalá, Spain); Michal Mrozowski (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland)

In our recent work [1], we introduced a new type of frequency-variant reactive coupling (FVRC) circuits for coupled-resonator filters. The FVRC circuit consists of a bridged-T network with four reactive components. This circuit has a highly nonlinear frequency-dependent transimpedance characteristic and can be used as an in-line coupling between two resonators, creating up to one transmission pole and up to two transmission zeros. For this reason, this new class of frequency-variant coupling is called double zero single pole (DZSP) coupling networks. The number and location of the poles and zeros depend on the component types and values in the bridged-T network. The transmission zeros can be located below, above, or on both sides of the pole. Moreover, some configurations allow independent control of the zero positions. The transmission pole is located in the passband of the filter, increasing its order. The transmission zeros can be placed on the imaginary axis to improve the selectivity of the amplitude response, or as a complex pair of zeros to shape the group delay profile. We propose six types of DZSP circuits based on the number and location of the poles and zeros they generate. The FVRC circuits can significantly improve the filter response allowing for developing compact in-line microwave filters with increased selectivity or improved group delay profile. However, achieving these characteristics requires an efficient method for filter synthesis. The first step in the synthesis is finding the characteristic polynomials of the target response, which can be done using an analytic method or an optimization-based approach. The filter is then represented by its coupling matrix with FVRC acting as non-ideal frequency-variant inverters. The FVRC circuit itself is represented by its impedance matrix of a two-port network. The next step is to find the values of all entries in the coupling matrix to achieve the desired response. Since the coupling matrix entries are nonlinear functions of frequency, this step involves solving an inverse structured nonlinear eigenvalue problem (ISNEVP) [2]. Once the coupling matrix of the filter has been found, we proceed to the final step of implementing the filter in a chosen technology. FVRCs can be implemented in waveguide and microstrip technologies. In microstrip technology, we use shorted or open-ended stubs, coupled lines, and transmission line sections, while in waveguide technology, we use posts of incomplete heights and various shapes. The proposed method is validated with several examples of filters with FVRC circuits. We show two variants of a third-order filter with FVRC that introduces one pole and two transmission zeros below (variant I) or above (variant II) the passband, with simulation results of waveguide implementation and fabricated circuits in microstrip technology for each variant. A microstrip fifth-order filter with four transmission zeros (two on each side of the passband) has also been fabricated and measured. The obtained results show a good agreement between the target and the simulated or measured responses.

11:40 Electromagnetic Coupling Between Fields and Resonators - Modes, Resonant Frequencies and Forces
Adam Abramowicz (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

The electromagnetic coupling is analyzed from the point of view of forces between coupled fields and coupled resonators. The electromagnetic couplings always change resonant frequencies of coupled resonators as well as impedances of coupled transmission lines. Even more important is that electromagnetic couplings always create forces that work in the same manner as gravity forces under the condition that two coupled modes are exited simultaneously. The forces between coupled resonant modes are calculated for typical rectangular cavity resonators. It can be shown that E-M coupling can be related to the gravity force.

MIKON TUT4: Technical Writing & Speaking

Room: Building C-13, room 0.32
Chairs: Malgorzata Celuch (QWED, Poland), Michal Mrozowski (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland)

How to Write a Paper for IEEE Journals and Navigate the Review Process - George E. Ponchak (IEEE MTT-S)
Talking about Talking: Making your Verbal Presentations Memorable and Compelling - Erin Kiley, (IEEE MTT-S)

IRS SIGPRO: Signal Processing for Radar

Room: Building C-13, room 0.38
Chairs: Damian Gromek (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland), Stephane Kemkemian (Thales Defence Mission Systems, France)
10:40 Radar Detection Based on Pareto Modeling of Air Targets RCS
Cyrille Enderli (Thales Airborne Systems, France); Stephanie Bernhardt (Thales Systemes Aeroportes, France); Marc Montecot (Thales DMS France, France)

The range of air targets encountered in air-to-air radar modes is evolving. In addition to airliners or fighters, it also includes a broader range of platforms such as furtive targets or drones. Additionally, the frequency band used by modern waveforms is also widening. These changes raise the question of the relevance of Swerling models to evaluate radar performance. In this article, we compare different fluctuation models and their associated detection performance, using measured data both in flight condition and in anechoic chamber. We show that the Swerling model remains well suited for the simple case of a face-to-face target, even an atypical one, within a limited band. However, generalizing it with the Generalized Pareto model makes it possible to take into account the diversity of the presentation angles of the target, and the widening of the transmission band

11:05 Application of Non-Uniform Sampling to Avoid Aliasing in the Precipitation Doppler Spectrum
Sultan Abdul Kader Syed Mohamed (Robin Radar Systems & TU Delft, The Netherlands); Tworit Dash and Oleg Krasnov (Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands); Jelle P. Bout and Rob Van der Meer (Robin Radar Systems, The Netherlands); Alexander Yarovoy (TU Delft, The Netherlands)

The problem of aliasing in precipitation Doppler spectrum with uniform pulse repetition time is addressed. This study focuses on de-aliasing such Doppler spectra using non- uniform sampling techniques, namely, Log-periodic and Periodic non-uniform sampling. These techniques reduce the ambiguous main lobes caused by aliasing (by going beyond the observable frequency limit) into ambiguous sidelobes that are distinguishable from the original spectra. The SNR is further enhanced by using an Iterative Adaptive Approach (IAA) algorithm. The performance of Doppler moment estimation is presented after applying the IAA algorithm on simulated precipitation-like radar echoes. However, the ambiguous sidelobe suppression is highly dependent on the spectral width of the Doppler spectra.

11:30 Slow Time Ambiguity Suppression in Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Images Algorithm Using Up-Sampling
Piotr Serafin, Michał Górny and Dymitr Pietrow (Military University of Technology, Poland)

Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) technique allows to obtain high resolution images of observed objects that are moving with respect to the radar. This may be an added feature to an air defense radars helping in classification procedure of the objects. Air defense radars in surveillance modes usually employ low pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs), which cause the echo signal spectrum to be ambiguous in Doppler frequency domain. Depending on the radar central frequency, the object's velocity and the PRF the duration time of the Doppler-unambiguous raw signal can be relatively short, reducing the obtainable resolution of the ISAR image, and there may be several spectrum aliases that would result in ghost targets in the image. In this paper a method of extending the Doppler frequency unambiguity range in a low PRF radar by up-sampling the raw ISAR signal is presented. The proposed method utilizes the spectrum concatenation, rotation and filtering to eliminate aliases in the frequency domain. Thanks to this a long unambiguous raw signal history if available for image synthesis algorithms.

11:55 Improving Ranging Accuracy of OFDM Radar System Using Interpolation of DFT Samples
Jaehoon Jung (Seoul National University, Korea (South)); Sohee Lim (Samsung Electronics); Jihye Kim and Seong-Cheol Kim (Seoul National University, Korea (South))

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) waveform is being increasingly used in radar sensing because it enables joint radar-communication system in a single platform. However, the bandwidth of the OFDM radar cannot be sufficiently increased due to the given sampling requirement, which results in limited range resolution. Therefore, additional signal processing needs to be performed to enable accurate sensing of targets. This paper proposes a method for improving the ranging accuracy of the OFDM radar system using interpolation of discrete Fourier transform (DFT) samples. The DFT magnitude ratio of two DFT samples is used to refine the coarse frequency estimate. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can estimate the range of targets much more accurately than the conventional DFT-based method. In addition, the proposed method showed robust estimation performance even when the signal-to-noise ratio is low or when there are multiple targets.

Wednesday, July 3 12:20 - 14:00

Lunch3: Lunch

Room: Building C-13, room 1.31, Building C-13, room 0.31, Building C-13, room 1.30, Building C-13, room 1.28, Building C-13, room 0.32

MIKON Poster2: Active & Passive Devices & Components

Room: Building C-13, Hall
Chair: Ilona Piekarz (AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland)
On Biconvex Lens, Its Scanning Properties and Application in Multibeam Antenna Arrays
Andrzej Dudek (AGH University Krakow, Poland); Slawomir Gruszczynski and Krzysztof Wincza (AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland)

In this paper, beam scanning properties of a constant-index biconvex (BC) lens are explored. It is shown that changing the lens geometry from plano-convex (PC) to BC while maintaining constant focal length, lens aperture, and thickness leads to a 2.1 times increase in the scanning angle (from ±18.11° to ±38.14°) and a 4.3 times increase in the scanning solid angle (from 0.31 sr to 1.34 sr). The utilization of the BC lens also results in a lower lens volume and the overall size of lens antennas, however, at the expense of a maximum gain reduction that is not greater than 2.9 dB. The proposed lenses were printed on a 3D printer and the concept has been validated by the measurements of four-beam lens antenna arrays operating at 24 GHz.

A Compact Cross-Shaped Groove Gap Waveguide-Based 3-dB Directional Coupler
Davood Zarifi (University of Kashan, Iran); Ali Farahbakhsh (Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Iran); Michal Mrozowski (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland)

The present paper proposes a new design of a cross-shaped groove gap waveguide-based 3-dB directional coupler for Ka-band applications. We use groove gap waveguide technology for high power handling and to avoid fabrication difficulties of printed and hollow waveguide structures in mmWave bands. The proposed structure exhibits a fractional bandwidth of 30% centers at 30 GHz for |S11| < -20 dB. The phase balance is 90 ± 2.5◦ and amplitude balance of -3 ± 0.5 dB from 26 to 34 GHz. The presented coupler can be considered as a robust option for Ka-band and mmWave applications.

Resonant Linear and Nonlinear Properties of Graphene and Silicene in Terahertz Range
Volodymyr Grimalsky (Autonomous University of State Morelos (UAEM), Mexico); Jesus Escobedo-Alatorre (Autonomous University of State Morelos, Mexico); Yuriy Rapoport (University of Warmia and Mazury, Poland); Anatoliy Kotsarenko (Autonomous University of Carmen, Mexico)

The resonant linear and nonlinear properties in THz range of 2D one in graphene and silicene placed into an external magnetic field are investigated theoretically. The linear resonant dependencies of the tensor complex conductivity are computed from the kinetic theory. When the electromagnetic frequency is close to the cyclotron one, the conductivity increases sharply. The dependencies of the tensor conductivity on frequency coincide with ones obtained from the hydrodynamic theory under realistic electron concentrations and collision frequencies. The same is valid for the nonlinear dependencies of the densities of electric current on the applied electric field. Thus, the nonlinear hydrodynamic equations are valid to describe the nonlinear resonant electromagnetic wave propagation in the multilayer structures dielectric-graphene or silicene.

Near-Shore Sea-Wave Monitoring Using FMCW Radar
Assil Chawraba (University of Genoa & Lebanese University, Italy); Daniele D. Caviglia and Andrea Randazzo (University of Genoa, Italy); Hussein Chible (Lebanese University, Lebanon)

The assessment of water wave properties in near shore regions is of utmost importance in several applications, such as for tasks like sea state monitoring. This study presents a methodology based on the adoption of a low-cost Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar system for extracting information about the wave parameters. This approach offers a reliable means to gather essential information about wave characteristics in near shore areas. The approach has been preliminary assessed through experimental measurements. The obtained findings highlight the capability of the adopted short-range radar to obtain meaningful information about the near-shore sea state.

Analysis of Drone Signals Based on Change Point Detection Algorithm
Grzegorz Fotyga (Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland); Bartosz Bossy, Paweł Żukowski and Aleksander Nowak (Hertz Systems, Poland)

The work presents an algorithm characterized by high precision and efficiency in identifying signals related to data transmission between the controller and the drone. Using an efficient change point detection algorithm and parallel analysis capabilities, this method facilitates rapid signal analysis. These features make the proposed algorithm a solid basis for developing an effective anti-drone defense system.

Preliminary Tests of RF LW Polish Digital Time Signal Reception in Lithuania
Tomasz Aleksander Miś (Warsaw University of Technology & Institute of Radioelectronics and Multimedia Technology, Poland); Maciej Gruszczyński and Albin Czubla (Central Office of Measures, Poland); Jozef Modelski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

This paper presents the basics of the newly-introduced Polish digital time signal service on 225 kHz and its test reception in Lithuania using a prototype receiver. The basic performance of the receiver is presented, along with the definition of the base service coverage in international European scale.

Linear Array of Microstrip Antennas with Sector Radiation Pattern Operating in the X-Band
Hubert Hanusiak (PIT-RADWAR S.A., Poland); Rafal Lech (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland)

In this paper a linear antenna array utilizing sector radiation pattern is presented. The Fourier transform method is used for synthesis, from which the obtained excitation coefficients determine the resultant radiation pattern for an arbitrary sector. Moreover, the influence of a single radiating element radiation pattern is considered which is used to act as a counterweight to compensate the degradation which occur at the sector boundaries, by modifying the array factor. Theoretical examples for this phenomenon are presented, whereas for the purpose of this paper a nine-element linear array with 90° sector was designed and manufactured in order to verify this concept.

The Influence of Heating Object on Slotted Waveguide Radiation in Near-Field Microwave Heating
Chien-Lun Hung, Zheng-Xin Wu and Hong-Hua Shen (National Penghu University of Science and Technology, Taiwan)

In various microwave heating methods, near-field microwave heating utilizes one or multiple antennas to radiate microwaves onto the heating object. In near-field scenarios, the presence of the heating object may influence the input impedance of antenna. Mismatch between the microwave generator and the antenna reduces radiation power, thereby lowering microwave heating efficiency. This study investigates the influence of the heating object on the near-field radiation of the slotted waveguide. The effects of the distance between the heating object and the slotted waveguide, as well as the dielectric constant of the heating object, on the radiation of the slotted waveguide are examined. Furthermore, methods for improving impedance matching of the slotted waveguide in the presence of a heating object are also proposed.

Microstrip Planar Antenna for 5G 26 GHz Band
Adam Slowik (Military University of Thechnology, Poland); Miroslaw Czyzewski (Military University of Technology, Poland); Krzysztof Nowak (5-Th Communication Battalion, Poland)

The construction, simulation and measurement results of the microstrip planar antenna designed for 26 GHz 5G band have been presented in the paper. The antenna was designed on the Rogers 3003 substrate, to obtain high efficiency and parameters stability in the operating band. Project design of the antenna in CST simulation software was made. Based on the design, the prototype antenna array was manufactured in department local laboratory. Basic parameters of the antenna were measured under laboratory conditions. Measured reflection characteristic is similar to simulation results. To analyze signal feed and matching network, simple 2x1 antenna array was designed and practically manufactured. Manufactured prototype antenna has bandwidth about 5,3 GHz with 27 GHz center frequency, so 18,5 % relative bandwidth was obtained. Compared to the classic patch radiators, additional elements such as side slots and shunt-stubs were used. These elements allowed for the expansion of the operating bandwidth.

Switched Beam System with a 4x4 Butler Matrix in Metamaterial Technology for K-Band Applications
Adam Slowik (Military University of Thechnology, Poland); Adam Rutkowski, Miroslaw Czyzewski, Patrycja Maria Pomarańska and Waldemar Susek (Military University of Technology, Poland)

A 4x4 Butler matrix based switched-beam system with 1x4 horn antenna array is designed and measured. The Butler matrix was developed using metamaterial technology. The measurement results indicate a wide operating band of the device covering the range from 18 GHz to 24 GHz. This system can work both as a transmitter and as a receiver.

Optimized Simulation for Radio Transmission Project
Leonardo Aleixo (UFPA, Brazil)

The presented work applies optimization methods together to signal prediction models for within the range of urban geography, developing convex graphical analysis. The study proves with numerical results and compared the Log-Distance and MMSE-Mean Least Squared Error equations, the development of polynomial modeling and meta-heuristics. With analysis of the behavior and dispersion of the signal transmitted in a confined environment, and in the study of the response of electromagnetic impulses in free and wooded areas. Geographic coordinates define ideal iteration points through numerical results, demonstrating a new combined method as an alternative in transmission analysis in telecommunications, with expansion in the development of a more complex programmable computerized system for the industry.

Permittivity Extraction of Anisotropic Media Using TE and TM Modes in Rectangular Waveguides
Andrzej Dukata, Waldemar Susek, Miroslaw Czyzewski and Patrycja Maria Pomarańska (Military University of Technology, Poland)

Based on our previous work, a brief description of the theory of using TE and TM modes to determine the permittivity of nonmagnetic uniaxial anisotropic media without changing the position of the sample is presented. The extraction procedure is based on the use of two pairs of reflection coefficients and propagation coefficients in a manner similar to the classical Nicolson-Ross-Weir method for isotropic media. The obtained simulation results for an artificial uniaxial anisotropic dielectric material constitute a promising basis for experimental research.

Improvement of a Low-Cost Coaxial-Waveguide-Transition Through Coating with Aluminum
Marius Falk (Hochschule Trier, Germany); Volker Lücken (Trier University of Applied Sciences & Chair for Integrated Signal Processing Systems, Germany); Andreas R. Diewald (Hochschule Trier, Germany)

In this paper a new concept of metallic coating and manufacturing is developed based on an already modeled and produced low-cost WR90 Coaxial-Waveguide-Transition (CWT). The difference lies in applying multiple thin layers of aluminum foil and modeling, as well as constructing it in the form of a plug-in kit. The deembedding of the aluminum prototypes reveals the effects of increased conductivity and reduced irregularities in the form of significantly improved reflection and transmission parameters. In conclusion the application of the low-cost concept with ongoing development and further approximation to the simulation can indeed be considered practical.

Comparative Analysis of RSSI Interpolation Accuracy: Kriging vs. Linear Methods for Indoor Localization
Robert RKawecki, Piotr Korbel and Slawomir Hausman (Lodz University of Technology, Poland)

The article presents kriging as the potential alternative interpolation method for radio received signal indicator distributions. Reference maps of Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) are used for indoor localization systems. The study compares two methods of interpolating RSSI radio maps - linear interpolation and kriging. It is verified that for a smaller number of samples selected for interpolation, the kriging method demonstrates higher interpolation accuracy compared to standard linear interpolation.

Wednesday, July 3 13:00 - 14:00

Meeting: Sekcja Mikrofal i Radiolokacji - Meeting (by invitation)

Room: Building C-13, room 0.38

Wednesday, July 3 14:00 - 15:40

MIKON CLOSING: Plenary closing session

Room: Building C-13, room 1.31
Chairs: Michal Mrozowski (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland), Kamil Staniec (Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland)
14:00 A Key Enabler for the Next Generation of Mobile Communication
Dirk Heberling (RWTH Aachen University, Germany)


14:40 Conference Summary
Andrzej A. Kucharski (Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland)


IRS HW: Radar Hardware

Room: Building C-13, room 1.30
Chairs: Piotr Samczynski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland), Felix J Yanovsky (National Aviation University, Ukraine)
14:00 A 2 GHz to 40 GHz Gilbert Cell Mixer in 0.15 μm GaN Technology
Mantas SAKALAS (Baltic Institute of Advanced Technology (BPTI), Lithuania)

This paper presents an active double-balanced mixer circuit achieving 2 GHz to 40 GHz bandwidth, designed in UMS 0.15 μm GaN process. Distributed Gilbert cell topology was chosen to achieve broadband impedance matching along with inherent LO to IF isolation and sufficient Conversion Gain (CG) results with LO power level considerably lower than as required by passive mixer counterparts. Designed as a proof of concept, the circuit demonstrated a flat CG response of approx. −5 dB up to 45GHz when employed as a frequency down-converter and up to 36GHz when used as an up-converter. The LO to IF leakage suppression was better than 19 dB up to 30GHz with no filtering employed. The LO power before starvation was 12dBm, whereas the input referred 1 dB compression point was 11.5dBm and the double sided noise figure was in range 7.6 dB to 12.8 dB.

14:25 Measurement of Human Vital Signs Based on High-Resolution mmWave Micro-Doppler Radar Signatures
Bartosz Falęcki, Karol Abratkiewicz and Piotr Samczynski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

The paper focuses on non-contact measurement of human vital parameter estimation based on analyzing micro-Doppler signatures of radar signals. The frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar operating at a frequency of $122$ GHz was used for measurements. The cadence-velocity diagram (CVD) obtained from the spectrogram and the displacement function obtained by phase demodulation were used in the processing. A measurement process was implemented, human vital parameters were measured, and thorax movement was observed in spectrograms and displacement plots. For the selected measurement, the respiratory and heart rates were determined with high certainty when using the CVD-based method. At the same time, the heart rate is not directly visible in the FFT from the displacement function. The results may help develop a more extensive and robust noise measurement system for continuously observing life activities.

14:50 Experimental Validation of Joint Radar and Communication System with PSK-LFM Waveform and Burg-Aided Resolution Enhancement for Moving Targets
Muge Bekar, Ali Bekar, Christopher J. Baker and Marina S. Gashinova (University of Birmingham, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

In this paper, the performance of the phase shift keying linear frequency modulated (PSK-LFM) waveform that enables joint radar and communication system simultaneously is experimentally evaluated for moving target detection. The PSK-LFM waveform embeds communication data using multiple PSK symbols into the LFM signal that is commonly used in radar systems. Such waveform is utilized in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) array to obtain the angular position information of the targets present in the scene. To simultaneously enable all transmitters in the MIMO array, code-division-multiplexing (CDM) approach is used by assigning unique bit sequences to each transmitter to prevent mutual interference. Further, to achieve enhanced angular and velocity resolutions, the use of Burg algorithm is investigated through experimental data.

15:15 Doppler Effect Emulation for Testing USRP B200mini-Based Location Sensor
Rafal Szczepanik, Jarosław Wojtuń and Kacper Bednarz (Military University of Technology, Poland)

This paper focuses on testing the suitability of the USRP B200mini platform for radio emitter localization using the Signal Doppler Frequency (SDF) method. We show how to emulate the Doppler effect in laboratory conditions for different scenarios. For each scenario, we estimate the localization accuracy. We compare our measurement results with simulation studies.

IRS AI: AI, ML and other novel methods

Room: Building C-13, room 1.28
Chairs: Stefan Bruggenwirth (Fraunhofer FHR, Germany), Łukasz Maślikowski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)
14:00 Segmentation and Classification of Sub-THz ISAR Imagery
Morgan Coe and Gruffudd Jones (University of Birmingham, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Marina S. Gashinova (University of Birmngham, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Mikhail Cherniakov, Marco Martorella and Leah-Nani Alconcel (University of Birmingham, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

This paper outlines a method for segmentation and classification of ISAR images generated at sub-THz frequencies for the purposes of space domain awareness. Image segmentation is achieved using statistical region merging. Simulated ISAR imagery is segmented into simple regions, which are used to train a machine learning model to predict the classes within a series of test images. The results indicate that the use of support vector machines for statistical inference has great potential as part of a broader classification process, able to use multiple predictors to draw distinctions between a number of classes.

14:25 Low Doppler Resolution Radar-Based Target Classification for Clutter Suppression
Tobias Brosch and Christoph Neumann (Hensoldt Sensors GmbH, Ulm, Germany); Roland Graef (Hensoldt Sensors GmbH, Germany)

Highly sensitive radars and a more challenging environment lead to more and more clutter detections. The situational picture becomes crowded and overwhelming for the operator. For high Doppler resolution radars we have shown, that micro-Doppler based target classification can be used to distinguish different targets as well as clutter from each other. It is, however, unclear, how well such approaches perform with low resolution Doppler radars (LRDRs) with as low as 8 Doppler bins and a Doppler velocity separation of 6 to 8 m/s to separate flying targets from clutter like birds, insect swarms, wind turbines, and many more. Here, we first present an in-house dataset from an air surveillance radar, associated challenges, and a baseline legacy implementation previously published. Next, we present two state-of-the art models based on convolutional neural networks and transformer architectures and discuss the results. It is shown, that the modern approaches clearly supercede the baseline implementation and achieve a classification performance, that can be used to greatly improve the operational usage. Quantitative evidence as well as situational pictures demonstrating the operational performance improvement are presented.

14:50 AI for Optimized Raw Data Quantization in SAR Systems
Nicola Gollin (German Aerospace Center, Germany); Michele Martone (German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany); Gerhard Krieger (DLR, Germany); Paola Rizzoli (German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany)

Next-generation SAR systems will feature high-resolution wide-swath acquisitions, resulting in a significant increase of the onboard data volume to be acquired by the system. This causes severe constraints in terms of onboard memory requirements and downlink capacity. In this scenario, an efficient onboard quantization of the raw data is of utmost importance, representing a trade-off between achievable product quality and consequent on-board data volume. In this paper, we investigate the use of artificial intelligence (AI), and in particular of deep learning (DL), for flexible and on-board SAR raw data quantization. The aim is to derive an optimized and adaptive data rate allocation given a set of desired performance metrics and requirements in the resulting focused SAR image without relying on a priori information on the acquired scene. The obtained bitrate maps (BRMs) can then be dynamically used as input to a state-of-the-art BAQ quantizer to perform the on-board raw data digitization. The proposed method aims at directly linking the characteristics of the SAR raw data to performance parameters computed in the focused SAR domain, without the necessity for performing on-board focusing. For optimizing the proposed DL model architecture, we consider multiple target performance parameters such as the Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio (SQNR), the InSAR coherence loss or the interferometric phase error, extending the capabilities of the architecture and, ideally, providing multiple bitrate estimations for a single input scene at a time, depending on the specific application requirement. The proposed method allows for an efficient joint optimization and reduction of the data rate and of the resulting performance setting a new paradigm for data reduction in future SAR systems.

15:15 A Multi-Layer Perceptrons Neural Network for 3D Human Target Imaging via MIMO Through-The-Wall Radar
Guangjia Huang, Jun Hu and Junyu Lin (Sun Yat-Sen University, China); Xiao Yu (Sun Yat-sen University China, China); Yue Zhang, Rui Guo and Shiyou Xu (Sun Yat-Sen University, China)

Through-the-wall 3D imaging is promising for concealed human target sensing, as more details can be provided. Conventional imaging techniques, such as the back projection (BP) in multiple-input-mutiple-output (MIMO) through-wall radar (TWR), suffer from poor resolution due to limited aperture and artifacts introduced by grating lobes. In this paper, we propose an imaging neural network based on multi-layer perceptrons (MLP) to enhance TWR image formation performance. The network intuitively takes the radar channel-range profiles as the input and directly outputs high-quality 3D imaging results. It adopts MLP-Mixer as the backbone and effectively integrates features from various channels. Specifically, we design a dataset construction method that utilizes point clouds captured by a stereo camera, providing high-resolution labels and naturally preventing the image from grating lobes and broadening, The network achieves high-quality image formation in real-measured data even with training solely on the simulated dataset. To further mitigate the target flickering, we fine-tune the network using a small amount of real-measured data.

IRS PASV1: Passive/Bistatic part1

Room: Building C-13, room 0.32
Chairs: Pierfrancesco Lombardo (University of Rome La Sapienza, Italy), Mateusz Malanowski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)
14:00 Validating EM Propagation Software Alongside Passive Bistatic SAR Data
Joe William Bryan (University of Birmingham & Microwave Integrated Systems Laboratory (MISL), United Kingdom (Great Britain))

This paper presents the initial steps in validating EM propagation software results to experimental data collected by a passive bistatic DVB-T system. The paper details the validation process of the software, and presents the first results in merging the simulated and SAR data. The early simulation results show good coherence to SAR imagery.

14:25 Target Acceleration Estimation in a Passive Radar Using Pulse OTHR as an Illuminator
Karol Abratkiewicz, Piotr Samczynski, Gustaw Mazurek, Mateusz Malanowski, Zbigniew Gajo, Jakub Julczyk and Michał Bartoszewski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

This paper presents an efficient approach to non-iterative and single-snapshot target acceleration estimation in passive radars with a pulse over-the-horizon radar (OTHR) as a source of illumination. The method was developed within iFURTHER, an EU-funded project studying a Cognitive Network of HF Radars for European Defence under the framework of the European Defence Fund. The proposed algorithm's description shows how the target Doppler rate can be estimated for each observed target simultaneously. Next, the method is experimentally validated using the signal recorded by a lightweight software-defined radio (SDR). A non-cooperative target's acceleration was estimated in less than the processing integration time, thus making the presented technique capable of working in real-time.

14:50 Quantifying Performance Benefit of Adaptive Active-Passive Mode-Switching Using Experimental Data
Jacob Fromage, Rikki Masson, Matthew Ritchie, Piers Jerome Beasley and Kevin Chetty (University College London, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

In this paper we investigate the potential benefits of implementing an adaptive active-passive mode-switching algorithm to a multi-function radio frequency (RF) system for sensing. This research was performed using experimental radar data captured during a trial of a hybrid active-passive capable software defined radio (SDR) based radar. An outline of the system used during the experiment is included within the paper, as well as an overview of the experiment itself. Details of the post-processing performed on the data and results produced from running the algorithm on the experimental data are shown. The performance benefits of a real-time application of the algorithm are quantified and verified in the form of figures and tables. In some cases a 60% reduction in active transmission time is realised, as well as a 20% increase in mean SNR over time when compared with data not implementing the algorithm. The strengths and limitations of the algorithm in its current form are discussed as well as directions for future work.

15:15 Rocket Launch Detection Using VHF DVB-T Passive Bistatic Radar
Marcin Zywek (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

This article presents unique results of detecting a small rocket in its launch phase using a passive radar in the VHF band using a DVB-T signal. It is shown that such an object, possessing significant acceleration in the initial phase of flight, can be successfully detected by applying appropriate techniques, such as selecting the proper integration time and using an extended cross-ambiguity function. The detection results align with simulations, which demonstrate that propagation effects such as multipath can cause detection fades. Additionally, the launching rocket may have a dynamically changing bistatic RCS, which also affects its detectability.

Wednesday, July 3 15:40 - 16:10

Coffee6: Coffee break

Wednesday, July 3 16:10 - 17:50

MIKON WKSH2: Load-Modulated Balanced Amplifier: From First Invention to Recent Advances

Prof. Anding Zhu, PhD, FIEEE
School of Electrical & Electronic Eng.
University College Dublin
Room: Building C-13, room 1.31
Chair: Anding Zhu (University College Dublin, Ireland)
16:10 Load-Modulated Balanced Amplifier (LMBA) for Emerging Wireless Communications
Kenle Chen (University of Central Florida, USA)


16:35 Load Modulated Balanced Amplifier Using Continuous-Mode Technique
Ruibin Gao (Chongqing University, China)


17:00 Wideband Sequential LMBA Design Considering the Balance PA's OFF-State Impedance
Luis Nunes (Universidade de Aveiro - Instituto de Telecomunicacoes, Portugal)


17:25 LMBA and OLMBA: Achieving Multi-Mode PA Operation
Jean-Baptiste Urvoy (Cardiff University, United Kingdom (Great Britain))


IRS TRK: Tracking

Room: Building C-13, room 1.30
Chairs: Peter Knott (Fraunhofer FHR, Germany), Andrzej Witczak (Military University of Technology, Poland)
16:10 Enhanced 3D Radar Target Detection and Tracking Using Extended Kalman Filtering for Ambiguity Resolution
Titouan Tyack (ISAE-SUPAERO, France); Laurent Ferro-Famil (ISAE-SUPAERO, University of Toulouse & CESBIO, University of Toulouse, France); Damien Vivet (ISAE-SUPAERO, France)

Any radar sensor admits an unambiguous field of view outside of which the apparent state of a target does not correspond to its actual one. In order to tackle this issue, this work presents a 3D multi-target detection and tracking approach for resolving radar ambiguity in range, Doppler and angle. First, range-Doppler detection is achieved by combining a foreground detector with a modified constant false alarm rate detector. Next, an extended Kalman filtering with 3D model constant velocity constant heading is implemented. The measurement multiplicity is calculated using maximum likelihood at the innovation calculation step. Lastly, track management using a Bayesian process is presented. All these algorithms have been tested on both real and simulated data so as to assess estimation performance and the ability to resolve ambiguity. An RMSE in position of 0.6m between estimates of radar tracking and GNSS/IMU/wheel odometry fusion was obtained for tracking two rovers covering a total trajectory of more than 70m.

16:35 Modification of Newton Method for Solving Coordinate- Trajectory Problems in Passive Automatic Tracking Systems
Felix J Yanovsky and Roman Pantyeyev (National Aviation University, Ukraine); Vladislav Popkov (Bitrek Research and Production Enterprise Limited, Ukraine)

In this paper, we propose a modification to Newton's method designed for solving systems of nonlinear equations that arise in multistatic passive radar systems for estimating the coordinates of detected objects and constructing their trajectories. We investigate and prove the efficiency of using the same Jacobian matrix determinant of partial derivatives for several steps of iteration, which significantly reduces computation time while maintaining the necessary accuracy of calculations. Additionally, we analyze the effectiveness of the proposed method for constructing continuous trajectories of aerial objects during brief losses of their emitted signals. The modified version of Newton's method suggested here is advisable for use in solving coordinate-trajectory problems in passive automatic detection systems and for constructing movement routes of aerial objects.

17:00 Testing Different Multi-Target/Multi-Sensor Drone Tracking Methods Under Complex Environment
Esra Alhadhrami (Sorbonne University Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates); Amal El-Fallah-Seghrouchni (LIP6 - University of Pierre and Marie Curie, France); Frederic Barbaresco (Thales Air Systems, France); Raed Abu Zitar (Sorbonne University-Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates)

This paper investigates multi-target tracking with multiple unbiased sensors under complex environments including clutters and false alarms. The goal is to test different data association techniques such as the Global Nearest Neighbor (GNN) method and Joint Probability Distribution Association Filter (JPDAF), which are applied using two different radars. Tracking is also applied with the fusion of multiple sensors based on the JPDAF measurements fusion method and track-to-track Covariance Intersection fusion method. Standard Metrics are used to compare all possible cases with different scenarios of ground truths. The performance metrics are the SIAP's Continuity, Ambiguity, Spuriousness, Positional accuracy, Velocity accuracy, Rate of track ID number changes, OSPA distance, and RMSE. Ten scenarios with different ground truths were used to test the six trackers. The tracking techniques showed variations in performance quality when all were tested under similar environmental conditions with some superiority in many cases for fusion-based techniques. This agrees with common sense but the paper has proven that with Monte Carlo simulations based on the 10 different scenarios. The work here is a baseline for future work that will use machine learning techniques to adapt the gating threshold along with the track-to-track fusion weighting parameter in the context of the complex environment described here.

IRS ADV: Advanced Radar Techniques and Applications

Room: Building C-13, room 1.28
Chair: Damian Gromek (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)
16:10 Performance Estimation of Quantum Radar Systems in Practical Scenarios
Alberto Lupidi (CNIT & RaSS, Italy); Marco Passafiume (University of Toronto & RaSS Lab (CNIT), Canada); Emanuele Costa (Leonardo Spa - Electronic Division, Italy); Fabrizio Cuccoli (RaSS CNIT & Dep. of Electronic and Telecommunications, Univ of Firenze, Italy); Ugo Zanforlin and Massimiliano Dispenza (Leonardo Labs - Quantum Technologies Lab, Italy)

This paper delves into the potential of quantum radar, leveraging entangled photons for improved performance compared to classical radar. Quantum illumination offers advantages in noisy environments, lowering intercept probability, and enhancing detection. Critical aspects, including detection range impact, realistic scenarios, and engineering challenges are explored. Receiver architectures like OPA and PC demonstrate quantum advantage, while the theoretical FF-SFG receiver promises to achieve the upper bound quantum limit. Scenarios from short to medium-range detection reveal quantum radar advantages, but long-range detection remains challenging due to high-frequency attenuation. Further research and technological advancements are essential for practical quantum radar applications.

16:35 Radar-Based Condition Monitoring for Enhanced Efficiency and Safety in Industrial Processes
Robin J. Schmitz (Ruhr University Bochum, Germany); Michael Vogt, Maximilian Roitzheim and Markus Hammes (Krohne Messtechnik GmbH, Germany); Christian Schulz, Jan Barowski and Ilona Rolfes (Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany)

In the diverse field of process industry, a plethora of technical processes are leveraged. Among these, liquids are often involved, being stored, transported and processed in tanks and reactors. Tailored to such applications, this contribution seeks to introduce and evaluate a novel technique for condition monitoring (CM). Within this technique, radar systems are employed and their functionality is augmented, enabling not only precise and accurate level measurements of liquids, but also distinction between different process conditions (PCs). For this purpose, distinguishing quantitative features are extracted from range-Doppler radar measurements. Thereafter, a classification is performed applying methods from machine learning. The potential of our proposed technique has been experimentally evaluated with respect to commonly encountered PCs. A frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) Doppler radar system, operating in the V-/W-band, has been utilized for the measurements. It is demonstrated that the selected PCs can be distinguished with almost 98% accuracy, by extreme gradient boosting (XGB) along with quantitative features such as the peak-to-average power ratio.

17:00 A Convolutional Gaussian Pulse Method Based on an Envelope Analysis Using a 24 GHz FMCW Radar
Aly Marnach (Police Luxemburg, Luxembourg); Volker Lücken (Trier University of Applied Sciences & Chair for Integrated Signal Processing Systems, Germany); Andreas R. Diewald (Hochschule Trier, Germany)

Non-contact vital sign monitoring is crucial for minimizing patient interference. One of the advantages is that the patient will not be affected by sensors attached to the body. In this publication, a new signal processing method for heartbeat extraction is presented, based on Hilbert Transform envelope analysis, which is extended by a convolutional method with Gaussian pulses. Also, a plausibilty check for the detection of heartbeats in time domain is presented. The method is applied on radar measurements recorded by a dedicated 24 GHz vital sign FMCW radar. The proposed radar system hardware consist of three separate modules: a 2TX / 4RX MIMO radar front-end, a filtering-amplification module and a data acquisition module for the data transfer. All parts are developed in the Laboratory of Applied Radar and Optical Systems (LaROS) at the Trier University of Applied Sciences. The results are compared with an ECG system from GE Healthcare (CARESCAPE Monitor B650) as reference, confirming the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

17:25 Layer Thickness Estimation with Ground Penetrating Radar by Using Convolutional Neural Networks
Reza Aliabadi, Mathias Kromer and Marlene Harter (Offenburg University, Germany)

Prior knowledge of subsurface layers is crucial in many applications, particularly infrastructural projects. Ground Penetrating radar (GPR) is a preferred measurement technique for investigating subsurface layers due to its non-destructive nature when probing the ground. However, interpreting GPR data is not trivial and requires the experience of the user. In this paper, the possibility of using one-dimensional Convolutional Neural Networks (1D CNNs) is investigated to estimate the thickness of up to two different subsurface layers with different electromagnetic characteristics. For this purpose, the network is trained on a synthetically generated stepped-frequency GPR Ascan dataset. The predicted thickness results using the trained 1D CNN showed good accuracy with a relative error of 2.6 % and 9.2 % for the first and second layers, respectively.

IRS PASV2: Passive/Bistatic part 2

Room: Building C-13, room 0.32
Chairs: Marcin Kamil Baczyk (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland), Mikhail Cherniakov (University of Birmingham, United Kingdom (Great Britain))
16:10 On the Challenges for Autonomous Multi-Static Cooperative Airborne Radars
Stephane Kemkemian (Thales Land and Air Systems)

a multi-static radar system has an RF illuminator, which may be detectable by a third-party system, and one or more receivers that provide detection and geolocation of targets discreetly. Such an airborne system also allows mobility and long-range detection of low-altitude targets. The system discussed here is cooperative: the waveforms used by the system are knowledgeable by all the nodes of the system. We do not use opportunistic transmissions unlike PCL systems. As this system is likely to operate in adverse conditions, it must be autonomous, in particular it do not systematically rely for its synchronization on signals like those from GNSS, which may be unusable (absent, jammed or spoofed). This paper discusses three main challenges to overcome for making such system efficiently operating: -the synchronization of the oscillators, -that of the waveforms as well as the multiple beams forming at reception allowing the wide area search function and tracking.

16:35 Numerical Method of Position Estimation for Multistatic Passive Radar
Piotr Szelągowski (PIT-RADWAR S.A. & Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

Passive radar is a radar that does not emit signals but uses other sources of illumination. To determine the position of an object in a passive radar, distance measurements from at least three transmitter-receiver pairs are needed. The paper presents an adaptation of the maximum likelihood estimator to determine the position of an object based on multiple (three or more) bistatic or DToA measurements. The estimation quality factor was introduced. Stability of the numerical solution was analyzed.

17:00 Investigation on Plot-Based Localization and Tracking in Multi-Static Passive Radars
Marcin Kamil Baczyk and Karolina Kasperek (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

In this study, we introduce a novel approach for object localization and tracking in passive radar systems, emphasizing the direct utilization of plots without the intermediate step of bistatic tracking filter application. This methodology aims to enhance the probability of early object detection, particularly in scenarios characterized by low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) levels. The paper delves into the implications of this method on the probability of object detection and the likelihood of false track generation. Through comprehensive simulations, we demonstrate that the proposed technique improves the detection probability in challenging environments and maintains a manageable rate of false tracks.

17:25 Helicopter Detection in Multi-Band Passive Radar
Marek Ciesielski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

This paper presents an implementation of helicopter detection functionality in a multi-band passive radar system. The effectiveness of helicopter detection was examined based on the Coherent Processing Interval (CPI) and the radar's operating band, including FM radio, DVB-T2 television, and GSM network frequencies.

MIKON TUT5: Fundamentals of Microwave Modelling and Characterisation for Dielectric Property Determination

Room: Building C-13, room 0.31
Chair: Kamel Haddadi (University of Lille / IEMN CNRS8520, France)

Transmission Line Techniques: Understanding the basics of transmission line theory and its application in microwave characterisation. Case Study: Open-Ended Coaxial Probe. - Prof. Kamel Haddadi, Univeristy of Lille, France
Free-Space Techniques: Introduction to free-space methods for non-contact dielectric property determination. Case Study: broadband measurement technique for characterisation of lossy dielectrics in sub-THz frequency range. - Dr. Malgorzata Celuch, QWED Sp. z o.o., Poland
Resonance Techniques: Fundamentals of resonant frequency analysis and quality factor determination, with applications to material measurements. Case Studies: cavities (including SCR)., dielectric resonators (SPDR, SiPDR, RuDR, BCDR). - Prof. Yevhen Yashchyshyn, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Scanning Microwave Microscopy: Overview of scanning microwave microscopy techniques. Case Study: high-resolution dielectric property mapping at the nanoscale. - Prof. Kamel Haddadi, Univeristy of Lille, France

MIKON CAD WKSH8: CAD for Electromagnetic Modelling

Part III Hands-on/Live demo
Altair (FEKO software)
Room: Building C-13, room 0.38

MIKON CAD WKSH9: CAD for Electromagnetic Modelling

Part III Hands-on/Live demo
QWED (QuickWave software)
Room: Building C-13, room 1.27

MIKON CAD WKSH10: CAD for Electromagnetic Modelling

Part III Hands-on/Live demo
Dassault Systèmes (CST Studio Suite software)
Room: Building C-13, room 3.06

Wednesday, July 3 17:50 - 21:00

Event3: Young Sci. Meeting

Building H14

Thursday, July 4

Thursday, July 4 8:30 - 10:10

IRS MULTID: Multidimensional Radar Imaging (SS)

Room: Building C-13, room 1.30
Chairs: Marcin Kamil Baczyk (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland), Patrick Berens (Fraunhofer FHR, Germany)
8:30 3D ISAR Imaging of an In-Air Rotating Drone Using Sparse Recovery and Multi-Channel Interferometry
Ahmad Hamad (Fraunhofer FHR, Germany)

With the emergence of drones in many real-life applications, detecting and recognizing different flying objects became necessary. 2D ISAR imaging of flying objects helps recognize the various objects in the air. 3D ISAR imaging helps to further enhance the identification of the flying object. Interferometry introduces the capability to reconstruct 3D ISAR images by resolving the height along the baseline. In this paper, we apply sparse recovery techniques to real data of an in-air rotating drone to first form 2D ISAR images from multi-channels. Interferometry is then used to reconstruct the final 3D ISAR image.

8:55 Features of Multi-Aspect SAR Imaging Observed in an Experimental Evaluation
Patrick Berens and Ingo Walterscheid (Fraunhofer FHR, Germany)

Multi-dimensional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging includes different approaches to get more information about a target, because the reflectivity of objects in a SAR image strongly depends e.g. on the radar frequency, polarization, and viewing angle. In this paper we focus on the analysis of multi-aspect SAR, where a scene is imaged from multiple aspect angles. Objects appear very different in SAR images with a data collection from different directions. The benefits but also the challenges of multi-aspect SAR are addressed using two different objects, a church and a basalt quarry, as an example.

9:20 Exploring the Capabilities of 3D ISAR Imaging with FMCW X-Band Radar: Real-World Object Detection and Identification
Marcin Kamil Baczyk (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

This paper presents the results of a project focused on applying 3D Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) imaging utilizing an FMCW X-band radar system. By employing the Polar Format Algorithm (PFA) for image processing, we have successfully demonstrated the system's ability to detect and identify various moving objects with high precision. Our findings underscore the practical utility of 3D ISAR technology in real-world scenarios, showcasing its potential to contribute significantly to advancements in surveillance and reconnaissance applications. While not introducing new imaging techniques, this study emphasizes the robustness and reliability of existing methodologies in processing and analyzing real-world data. The results highlighted in this paper affirm the contemporary technology's capacity to meet the challenges posed by dynamic and complex environments.

9:45 Multi-Dimensional Airborne SAR Imaging at 94 GHz
Michael Caris (Fraunhofer FHR, Germany); Stephan Palm (Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques FHR, Germany); Stefan Sieger (Fraunhofer FHR, Germany)

In this paper we present multi-dimensional SAR measurements performed with the Fraunhofer FHR MIRANDA-94 system. MIRANDA-94 is a beam-stabilized multichannel frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar with up to 3 GHz radar bandwidth at 94 GHz center frequency with a dual polarized receive antenna. In this paper we focus on high resolution multi-aspect and multi-polarization data acquired on linear and circular trajectories.

IRS SPC: Radar Techniques for SSA and Spaceborne Radars (SS)

Room: Building C-13, room 1.28
Chair: Konrad Jędrzejewski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)
8:30 The SCA Wind Scatterometer Protoflight Model on MetOp-SG Satellite B1: Integration, Test Status and Performance Overview
Sylvain Sanchez and Andreas Schlaich (Airbus Defence and Space, Germany); Allan Østergaard (European Space Agency, The Netherlands); Friedhelm Rostan (Airbus DS GmbH, Germany); Francisco Javier Benito Hernandez (Airbus Defence and Space, Spain)

The SCA instrument is a C-band wind scatterometer, which forms part of the EUMETSAT Polar System Second Generation (EPS-SG) mission. Fully space qualified in December 2022, in January 2023 it has been delivered for integration on one of the two MetOp-SG satellites. The paper presents an overview on the SCA Instrument space qualification results, the thereof predicted in-orbit mission performance and ongoing satellite test results.

8:55 Bistatic Detection of LEO Satellites from Very Long Distances Using LOFAR Radio Telescope
Konrad Jędrzejewski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland); Mariusz Pożoga (Space Recearch Center, Polish Academy of Science, Poland); Andrzej Modrzewski and Michał Karwacki (PIT-Radwar S.A., Poland); Krzysztof (Chris) Kulpa (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland); Hanna Rothkaehl (Space Recearch Center, Polish Academy of Science, Poland)

The paper presents the results of experimental investigations on the capabilities of detecting very-long-distance space objects moving in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) based on bistatic measurements using the antenna array of a LOFAR (LOw-Frequency ARray) radio telescope and a non-cooperative radar illuminator operating in the VHF band. In this system, the signal transmitted by the non-cooperating radar is recorded using a relatively simple reference signal receiver located near the illuminator. The sensitive antenna array of the LOFAR radio telescope enables the reception of weak echo signals reflected from space objects orbiting in LEO, even those located very far from the illuminator and receiver in the bistatic sense. The detection of very distant and high-speed objects is made possible through the utilization of a dedicated object motion compensation method.

9:20 Passive Observation of Starlink Satellites Using LOFAR Radio Telescope
Konrad Jędrzejewski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland); Mariusz Pożoga (Space Recearch Centre, Polish Academy of Science, Poland); Piotr Wójtowicz, Mateusz Malanowski and Krzysztof (Chris) Kulpa (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland); Hanna Rothkaehl (Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Science, Poland)

The paper presents the results of bistatic radar measurements devoted to the passive observation of Starlink satellites using a LOFAR (LOw-Frequency ARray) radio telescope. As the illuminator of opportunity in the analyzed passive radar system, a digital radio transmitter was employed. The presented idea allows for passive detection and monitoring of small satellites moving in LEO (Low-Earth Orbit) in the selected part of outer space.

9:45 Preliminary Results of Detection Utilizing DVB-S2 Based Polarimetric Passive Radar
Konrad Gronowski (PIT-RADWAR S.A. & Warsaw University of Technology, Poland); Anabel Almodovar-Hernandez (University of Alcala, Spain); Sandra Gutierrez-Serrano (University of Alcalá, Spain); Pedro Gomez-del-Hoyo and Piotr Samczynski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland); Maria-Pilar Jarabo-Amores (University of Alcalá, Spain)

Digital Video Broadcasting satellites (DVB-S and DVB-S2) present a high potential for passive radar due to their continuous illumination, transmission bandwidth and geostationary orbit. Their viability as an Illumination source for passive coherent location is already confirmed in the radar literature. In this paper, the use of polarimetry diversity in the surveillance channel of a DVB-S2 based passive radar is proposed to improve the detection performances of a single polarization DVB-S2 based passive radar. The designed signal processing scheme considers the combination of one single polarization reference channel and dual-linear polarization surveillance ones exploiting the depolarization effects on the target's scattered signal. A measurement campaign was carried out to analyse the advantage of the proposed processing scheme exploiting polarimetry diversity in the surveillance acquisition channel. The satellite version of the passive radar demonstrator IDEPAR from the University of Alcala was adapted to allow the acquisition of two linear polarizations in the surveillance channels. The radar demonstrator was deployed in a semi-urban scenario where a cooperative vehicle with a GPS recorder was used as a cooperative target for validation purposes. The detection outputs concerning the use of polarimetry based radar processing were compared with the single polarization case. Results show an improvement in the detector performance when polarimetry diversity is applied. The proposed processing approach reduced the false alarm rate while slightly increasing the detection probability in comparison with the best case of single polarization radar processing.

MIKON WKSH3: Microwave and Millimetre-Wave Characterisation of Materials

Room: Building C-13, room 0.32
Chair: Marzena Olszewska-Placha (QWED Sp. z o. o., Poland)
8:30 Introduction to the Workshop


8:40 Material Characterisation with Resonant Methods in 1-30 GHz Frequency Range
Marzena Olszewska-Placha (QWED Sp. z o. o., Poland)


9:10 Material Characterisation with a Fabry-Perot Open Resonator in 10-130 GHz Frequency Range
Bartlomiej Salski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)


9:40 Developing Good Practices and Standards for Material Characterisation for 5G & 6G Technologies
Lucas Enright (Colorado School of Mines, USA)


IRS NOISE: Noise and Multistatic Radar Technology (SS)

Room: Building C-13, room 0.38
Chairs: Marina S. Gashinova (University of Birmngham, United Kingdom (Great Britain)), Łukasz Maślikowski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)
8:30 Experimental Study of Reverse Forward Scatter Radar with a Dedicated Reflector
Jared Taylor and Edward Hoare (University of Birmingham, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Marina S. Gashinova (University of Birmngham, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Mikhail Cherniakov (University of Birmingham, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

Reverse forward scatter radar (RFSR) is a novel sensor which features a monostatic radar (MR) that illuminates the target against a background reflector. The crucial distinction from any other MR is that the forward scattering (FS) effect is exploited to measure the target using its forward scatter cross section, rather than the monostatic radar cross section (RCS). The first RFSR experimental measurements are shown with verification that the measured amplitude matches the expected values set by previous work on the theoretical power budget. Finally, the application of RFSR to stealth target detection is validated by showing the RFSR signature of a low RCS foam target is the same as that of a relatively higher RCS aluminum (Al) foil target of the same shape and size.

8:55 Experimental Study of Target Signatures in Reverse Forward Scatter Radar with Spatially Distributed Reflections
Jared Taylor and Edward Hoare (University of Birmingham, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Marina S. Gashinova (University of Birmngham, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Mikhail Cherniakov (University of Birmingham, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

Reverse forward scatter radar (RFSR) is a monostatic radar that uses a background reflector to measure the forward scattered signals from a target. A spatially distributed reflector is used in the background for the first time to record the RFSR signature of a target. The results experimentally verify previous theoretical work by matching a measured and simulated signature. The ability of RFSR to measure stealth targets against a spatially distributed background reflector is demonstrated by showing that the RFSR signatures of two different targets are identical. The targets have the same shape and size but significantly differ in the backscatter radar cross section (RCS).

9:20 Extending the Noise Radar Detection Range Using Tx Signal Shaping
Krzysztof (Chris) Kulpa and Łukasz Maślikowski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

The continuous wave noise radar detection range is limited by the dynamic range of the receiver, which has to handle both long-range weak echoes and strong Tx-Rx signal leakage and strong echoes of ground clutter. One possibility to overcome this problem is to apply interrupted illumination, similar to the pulse radar case, but with duty factor around 50%. For far targets, the echo is received in the time when there is no transmission and no saturation occurs. For close range echoes saturation can still be present as return power is high, but the time of such problem is limited to short time after emission - depending of the product of light speed and range to the clutter. To avoid saturation at reception, the transmitted signal can be appropriately modulated in amplitude to achieve both full detection range without blind zone and linear reception within available dynamic range

9:45 Power Spectral Density of the Received Signal in Noise Radar at the Presence of Antennas Leakage
Konstantin Alexandrovich Lukin (IRE NASU National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine); Kubilay Savci (Koç University & Turkish Naval Research Center Command, Turkey); Andy Stove (Stove Specialties & University of Birmingham, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Yasin Ahmet Erdogan (Turkish Naval Research Center Command, Turkey); Łukasz Maślikowski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

During range calibration measurements of Noise Radar, a periodic structure in the Power Spectral Density of the radar receiver has been detected. We showed that this effect is due to summation of the radar returns and transmit/receive antenna leakage signals when a reflector is placed in the near zone, but beyond the coherence length of the transmitted noise signal. Theoretical consideration of the effect and comparison of the theoretical results with the experimental ones are presented.

Thursday, July 4 10:10 - 10:40

Coffee7: Coffee break

Thursday, July 4 10:40 - 12:20

IRS CLOSING: IRS Closing Session

Room: Building C-13, room 1.31
Chairs: Peter Knott (Fraunhofer FHR, Germany), Jacek Misiurewicz (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)
10:40 Active/Passive Radar Networks and New Challenges in Modern Passive Radars
Piotr Samczynski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)

The presentation will show the concept of a deployable multi-band passive/active radar network. The results of passive radar systems operating on their own, as well as in cooperation with active radars, will be shown, and the selected results obtained during the NATO STO APART-GAS (Active Passive Radar Trials - Ground-based, Airborne, Sea-borne) trials will be discussed. Additionally, the future applications of passive radar will be presented, including the new frontiers in modern passive radars relating to passive radar using new wideband illuminators of opportunity, such as WiFi, 5G/6G, DVB-S and STARLINK, and the required signal processing techniques. Finally, the talk will be summarized, showing potential ways to develop modern passive radars.

11:10 Closing Keynote (TBD)
Peter Knott (Fraunhofer FHR, Germany)

MIKON WKSH4: Microwave and Millimetre-Wave Characterisation of Materials

Room: Building C-13, room 3.06
Chair: Marzena Olszewska-Placha (QWED Sp. z o. o., Poland)
10:40 Hands-On Session with Real-Life Fixtures for Material Characterisation
Marzena Olszewska-Placha (QWED Sp. z o. o., Poland); Bartlomiej Salski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland)


12:00 Questions & Concluding Remarks


Thursday, July 4 12:20 - 14:00

Lunch4: Lunch