Program for 2020 IEEE PES Transmission & Distribution Conference and Exhibition - Latin America (T&D LA)
Monday, September 28
Monday, September 28 10:30 - 12:00 (America/Montevideo)
SHORT-BIO: Álvaro Portillo (M'84-SM'01) was born in Uruguay in 1954. He received the graduate degree in electrical engineering from the Uruguay University, Montevideo, Uruguay, in 1979. He was with the Uruguayan electrical utility (UTE), up to 1985, in activities related with transformers acceptance, installation and maintenance. From 1985 to 1999, he was with MAK (Uruguayan manufacturer of transformers); from 2000 to 2007, he was a Consultant with TRAFO (Brazilian manufacturer of transformers); and since 2007, he has been a Consultant in software tools development for transformer design with WEG (Brazilian manufacturer of transformers). Since 1977, he has been a Professor at the Uruguayan Republic University, Uruguay, now responsible for all postgraduation courses about transformers. He also works as a consultant of electric utilities in the elaboration of technical specifications and design review of power transformers. He is a Task Force Leader within CIGRE JWG A2/C4.52.
ABSTRACT: The converters transformers are an integral part of HVDC power systems. More a more are used around the world HVDC systems for the energy transmission in long distances, back-to-back stations to frequency conversion, and networks with long submarine cables. In these systems the converter transformers are one of the most expensive and most critical pieces. The design of converter transformers presents a lot of challenges compared with conventional transformers and converter transformers present a high failure rate in service. The coexistence of high AC and DC voltages put specific requirements on the dielectric insulation design of this type of transformers.
The short-circuit design is critical in the case of a failure in the thyristors of the converter and the thermal design and hot-spot determination require detailed thermal-hydraulic models. Also, non-sinusoidal currents give rise to additional losses which are to be considered. The non-sinusoidal currents that flows in the windings present greater demands than the usual ones in the on-load tap-changer that must be considered in their design and selection. The dielectric connection from the valve windings to the HVDC bushings, that connect the transformer with the converter, are highly complex and are developed and tested one by one for each different design. From the manufacturing point of view the drying and impregnation of pressboard barriers between windings is of paramount importance to avoid partial discharges. Finally, the testing also presents a lot of particularities including a lot of tests to probe the DC dielectric withstand of the transformer insulation structure that require very special test equipments.
Monday, September 28 10:30 - 11:30 (America/Montevideo)
SHORT-BIO: Dr. David Elizondo has more than 25 years of electric power systems experience, integration of renewable energy into the electric power system and has extensive utility-based project experience with key analysis tools such as PSS/E, PSLF, Power Factory, Power World and ETMSP. Dr. Elizondo works in the transmission team within Quanta Technology and is responsible of managing and conducting studies for interconnections of diverse types of generation into the electric power grid.
ABSTRACT: Application of energy storage technologies in planning, and operations control of electric power systems. The tutorial begins with a review of the background and history of energy storage technologies including a description of the main storage media currently in use. The potential of energy storage applications in the transmission, generation and control centers segments is presented in detail through a description of more than 15 energy storage projects already installed around the world. The tutorial also includes a review of the energy storage market for Latin America, as well as some specific applications that are being evaluated in Mexico, Brazil, Colombia and Chile. The tutorial presents the regulations that have been designed to stimulate energy storage in the United States of America as well as the current state of regulations in Latin America. The most beneficial applications for the electric power system are presented in detail, such as the use of energy storage to more effectively integrate renewable, solar and wind generation, investment deferral, and congestion relief. The tutorial ends with a review of the state-of-the-art software and hardware of battery-powered energy storage systems and the vision of the future.
El tutorial inicia con una revisión de los antecedentes y el historial de la tecnología de almacenamiento de energía incluyendo una descripción de los principales medios de almacenamiento existentes en la actualidad. El potencial de aplicaciones de almacenamiento de energía en los segmentos de transmisión, generación y centros de control es presentado a detalle a través de una descripción de más de 15 proyectos de almacenamiento de energía ya instalados alrededor del mundo. El tutorial también incluye una revisión del mercado de almacenamiento de energía para Latinoamérica, así como algunas aplicaciones específicas que están siendo evaluadas en México, Brazil, Colombia y Chile. El tutorial presenta las regulaciones que han sido diseñadas para estimular el almacenamiento de energía en Estados Unidos de America así como el estado actual de las regulaciones en Latinoamérica. Las aplicaciones de mayor beneficio para el sistema eléctrico de potencia son presentadas en detalle, tales como el uso del almacenamiento de energía para integrar de forma más efectiva la generaciónrenovable, solar y eólica, diferimiento de la inversión, y alivio de la congestión. El tutorial finaliza con una revisión del estado del arte del software y hardware de sistemas de almacenamiento de energía con baterías y la visión hacia el futuro.
Monday, September 28 12:00 - 12:30 (America/Montevideo)
Monday, September 28 12:30 - 13:30 (America/Montevideo)
T2 A: TUTORIAL: "Importance of Partial Discharge Measurement in Electromechanical Assets" (Español, 12:30-13:30 GMT-3)
SHORT-BIO: Jorge Fernandez Daher, egresado de la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad de la República, Uruguay, en 1987, con el título de Ingeniero Industrial opción Electrónica. Cuenta con 40 años de actividad laboral, siempre relacionado con ensayos, mediciones e investigación y desarrollo en áreas de media y alta tensión. Su actividad principal ha sido y es el diagnóstico del equipamiento eléctrico de media y alta tensión. Ha tenido actividad normativa durante toda su actividad laboral participando en la confección de normas tanto a nivel local en Uruguay como internacional a través del IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). Desde 1987 ha tenido activa participación en diversas posiciones dentro del IEEE tanto a nivel local como internacional. Actualmente es presidente del Capítulo de Potencia e Instrumentación y Medidas en Uruguay, ha sido Presidente de Sección en Uruguay y presidente de la Instrumentation & Measurements Society del IEEE. Ha desarrollado actividad docente tanto en Uruguay como en diversos países de Latinoamérica (Chile, Perú, Bolivia, Argentina, Costa Rica, México, Guatemala y Panamá). Ha trabajado en diversas empresas del ramo eléctrico y actualmente es socio director de CIEA INGENIERIA ELECTRICA.
ABSTRACT: Las instalaciones de alta tensión están sometidos a estrés de diversas fuentes a lo largo de toda su vida útil. Esto daña la aislación que es en la mayoría de los casos el punto débil del equipamiento. Existen varios métodos de diagnóstico dieléctrico que colaboran con el mantenimiento de la seguridad y la confiabilidad del funcionamiento de las instalaciones. La medición de descargas parciales es un método confiable y no invasivo que puede utilizarse en cualquier momento, ya sea con las instalaciones fuera de servicio como en servicio. La actividad de DP puede evaluarse a lo largo del tiempo para tomar decisiones estratégicas con respecto a la oportuna reparación o reemplazo de componentes afectados antes de que ocurra un interrupción inesperada y costosa. En este tutorial se demostrarán las diversas técnicas de detección de descargas parciales, se darán las nociones básicas del fenómeno y se mostrarán ejemplos en casos reales para un mejor entendimiento.
T2 B: TUTORIAL: "Optimal Dispatch of High-Penetration Renewable Energy Integrated Power System" (Español, 12:30-13:30 GMT-3)
SHORT-BIO: Ruben Antonio Chaer currently works at the Administración del Mercado Eléctrico (ADME) of the Uruguay as Techincal Manager and at the Instituto de Ingeniería Eléctrica (IIE) of the University of the República Oriental del Uruguay. Ruben does research in Electrical Engineering. Their current project is 'SimSEE'
ABSTRACT: The Uruguayan system has incorporated 1500 MW of wind energy and 220 MW of solar energy. The installed capacity of solar plus wind power exceeds the daily peak of the system's Load in 70% of the days of the year. The programming of the optimal operation of the National Integrated System, therefore presents a challenge in that it is not known with certainty what resources will be available for the operation in the coming days. The Electricity Market Administration (ADME) in cooperation with the Electrical Engineering Institute (IIE) has developed a set of tools, in open-source mode, that allow the calculation of optimal operating policies assimilating the forecasts of the different variabilities (hydro , wind, solar, demand).
In this tutorial, an introduction is made to the problem of optimal operation in a system with high variability in its resources and the tools developed for modeling such variabilities for generation and assimilation of forecasts. It shows how these tools are in operation in Uruguay and how, based on them, the information of the probabilistic dispatch of the following 168 hours is generated continuously every hour. This information has undoubtedly an important value for the operation. As an example that is useful to visualize the probability that the different plants are necessary, it allows estimating possible blocks of exportable energy and evaluating the risk associated with committing said blocks to a price. Another possible application would be to use the Spot price projection of the following hours to encourage the development of Responsive-Demands in the future.
- TUTORIAL: "Optimal Dispatch of High-Penetration Renewable Energy Integrated Power System"
- In this tutorial, an introduction is made to the problem of optimal operation in a system with high variability in its resources and the tools developed for modeling such variabilities for generation and assimilation of forecasts. It shows how these tools are in operation in Uruguay and how, based on them, the information of the probabilistic dispatch of the following 168 hours is generated continuously every hour. This information has undoubtedly an important value for the operation. As an example that is useful to visualize the probability that the different plants are necessary, it allows estimating possible blocks of exportable energy and evaluating the risk associated with committing said blocks to a price. Another possible application would be to use the Spot price projection of the following hours to encourage the development of Responsive-Demands in the future.
Monday, September 28 13:30 - 14:00 (America/Montevideo)
Monday, September 28 14:00 - 15:00 (America/Montevideo)
SHORT-BIO: Ing. Gustavo Giannattasio, MBA, PMP Senior Member de IEEE, Member of the Board of the IEEE Technology and Engineering Management Society, Member of the Board. IEEE IoT Standardization committee. IEEE Smart Cities initiative P2784 editorial team. Invited expert to ITU U4SSC Smart Cities working group, IEEE TEMS Uruguay Chapter Chair, IEEE COMSOC Chapter Chair, Session Chair COMSOC WF5G , Session Chair ITU AI4G, Technical Program Chair IEEE International Smart Cities Conference Trento IT, Tutorial Chair International Smart Cities Conference Wuxi CN , Past IEEE region Latinamerica Director,
ABSTRACT: Participants will have access to the development models and platforms and a technological update that includes protocols, communications with an emphasis on 5G and Low Power Wide Area. Information will be available on options to venture into various areas of application development. Some relevant protocols for IoT will be compared after the first part of detailed architectures. Novel Protocols like QUIC will be detailed and the importance of the DTLS protocol for IoT applications using UDP. Finally a chapter on IoT security and details the IOTA Architecture of Distributed Ledger for IoT Applications with examples on the electric market and Industry 4.0 will be presented.
T3 B: TUTORIAL : "Risk Assessment in Active Distribution Network Planning" (Español, 14:00-15:00 GMT-3)
SHORT-BIO: Associate Researcher, Professor and Consultant at the Institute of Electrical Energy (IEE), UNSJ - CONICET, Argentina. Chair of the "Smart Distribution Grid" R+D+I Group and the "Caucete Smart Grid" Project at IEE. Docente de capacitación; "REGULACION EN MERCADOS DE ENERGIA ELECTRICA Y REDES INTELIGENTES", Curso de Posgrado 2020
ABSTRACT: The challenges of planning active distribution grids will be presented, taking into account the uncertainties of distribution energy resources as well as some modern techniques for risk assessing. They will be seen from a conceptual point of view and with some practical application cases. Presentación resumen, de la capacitación Virtual de Posgrado 2020: "REGULACION EN MERCADOS DE ENERGIA ELECTRICA Y REDES INTELIGENTES". CONSULTAS por el curso al Dr. Ing. Mauricio Samper, E-MAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org PAGINA WEB: www.iee-unsjconicet.org/reid
Monday, September 28 15:00 - 15:30 (America/Montevideo)
Monday, September 28 15:30 - 16:30 (America/Montevideo)
SHORT-BIO: Ignacio Varese is a Computer Science Engineer, PMP with a Master of Business Administration (MBA). More than 20 years of experience in technology projects in Uruguay and in several Latin American countries. Co-founder of Blockbear Software Solutions, Co-founder of BlockFashion and Co-founder Uruguay Blockchain Summit UY.
ABSTRACT: The course is taught by professionals in the sector with the aim of acquiring knowledge of the fundamentals of Blockchain, Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, in turn knowing in depth Blockchain technology and the different existing platforms and learning Smart Contracts and their applications. Examples of use cases in different industries will be seen.
Tuesday, September 29
Tuesday, September 29 9:00 - 9:10 (America/Montevideo)
SHORT-BIO: Jorge Fernandez Daher received the degree in Electronic Engineer from the Universidad de la República Oriental del Uruguay in 1987. He currently owns an engineering company providing test and measurement services in medium and high voltage networks. In the past he has worked in the national electrical utility laboratory where he developed a number of testing technicques. He has served in a number of positions in IEEE, both in his country and internationally. He has been Chair of the local IMS Chapter and Section Chair in Uruguay, Vice President Membership and President of the Instrumentation and Measurement Society. He is also a Distinguished Lecturer in the Power and Energy Society. He has been involved in standards development for over 20 years. He holds a patent for partial discharge measurements. His technical interests are in the areas of testing, diagnostic and measurements in medium and high voltage equipment.
Tuesday, September 29 9:10 - 9:30 (America/Montevideo)
Op1: Welcome IEEE TDLA 2020 Opening Session: "The Electric Utility of the Future" (English, 09:10-09:30 GMT-3)
SHORT-BIO: Frank Lambert is a Principal Research Engineer and the Associate Director of the National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC) at Georgia Tech. He has more than 43 years of experience in transmission / distribution system design, construction, operation, maintenance, automation, and R&D and is responsible for interfacing with NEETRAC's members to develop and conduct research projects dealing with transmission and distribution issues. Frank was part of NEETRAC's management team at its launch in 1996. Previously, he was Distribution Manager at Georgia Power Company responsible for AM/FM/GIS, Distribution Automation, and Construction Management Systems. During his career with Georgia Power, he served as a field Distribution Engineer, field Transmission Engineer, Research Engineer, Network Underground Test Supervisor, Research Manager, and Manager of Network Underground. Frank received his BEE and MSEE degrees from the Georgia Institute of Technology and is a registered Professional Engineer in Georgia.
Tuesday, September 29 9:30 - 9:50 (America/Montevideo)
Op2: UTE Uruguay National Grid Presentation (Español, 9:30-9:50 GMT-3 Uruguay, Argentina, Brazil time)
SHORT-BIO: Silvia Emaldi Ficcio, egresó de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de la República en diciembre de 1988 con el título de Ingeniero en Sistemas de Computación. Ingresó a UTE en el año 1986 como Programadora en la División Sistemas de Información. Posteriormente se desempeñó como Analista de Sistemas y en el año 1988 se integró al Proyecto de Mejora de la Gestión de UTE donde se especializó en administración de bases de datos, pasando luego a gestionar también los sistemas operativos, las comunicaciones y los Centros de Cómputos de UTE. En el año 1993 accedió a la Subgerencia de Base de Datos y Soporte Técnico, luego a la Gerencia de Sector Técnicas de Sistemas y en 1998 al cargo de Gerente de División Sistemas de Información, unidad que ha recibido en dos ocasiones (1998 y 2005) el Premio Nacional de Calidad. Participó desde el año 1993 en distintos proyectos de mejora de la gestión, destacándose su participación en ANTEL, BROU, OSE, Aduanas, Presidencia de la República. Desde 2008 ocupa el cargo de Gerente de Área de Servicios Corporativos de UTE. En el año 2011 obtuvo el título de Master en Dirección y Administración de empresas (MBA), IEEM-Universidad de Montevideo. Actualmente ocupa la Presidencia de UTE.
ABSTRACT: UTE, Uruguay National Grid, faces a new challanges for 2020-2025 period; new tariffs to the customers and new regulations, to reach; overall efficiency, improve electric mobility, renewable energy blockchain certificates, smart grids, and infractrusture like the 500KV North ring.
Tuesday, September 29 9:50 - 10:30 (America/Montevideo)
K3: KEYNOTE: "The return of the Jedi: parallel processing revisited with GPUs in power system computation" (English, 09:50-10:30 GMT-3)
SHORT-BIO: Vladimiro Miranda was born in Porto, Portugal. He graduated in Electrical Engineering in 1977 and received the Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from FEUP, the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto, Portugal, in 1982. He joined FEUP in 1981 and joined INESC in 1985, a top R&D institute in Portugal where he came to be coordinator of the area of Power Systems during the 90's. Prof. Miranda is an IEEE Fellow and member of the IEEE Distinguished Lecturer Program. He was a member of the Board of directors of INESC TEC Portugal an R&D private non-profit organization recognized by the Ministry of Science and with the University of Porto as the main associate for 18 years until June 2018. He has been responsible for many research projects at international level, in the European Union, United States and Brazil, and has authored or co-authored over 200 publications, especially in areas related with Power Systems and the application of Computational Intelligence to Power Systems.
ABSTRACT: Parallel processing, and for a reason, twenty years ago, was a promising technique but the expectations were never fulfilled, the idea never delivered in industrial applications and environments. Yet, the idea of speeding up computing by having multiple processes computed in parallel, instead of in series, has undeniable merits. Theoretical or academic proposals on how to achieve parallelization of algorithms never found a feasible way into the market, because of costs, maintenance, specialized training of human resources, etc. However, the pressure to speed up calculations remained relentless - and became aggravated in recent times with the progressive decentralization of system operation and control and the enlarged share of responsibilities at the distribution level, the growing penetration of Artificial Intelligence tools, the increasing need to have real time assessment of the dynamic evolution of the power system and other reasons. A new option has been emerging in recent times, however: the application of Graphic Processing Units (GPU) to scientific calculation. In a way, with GPUs we witness parallel processing reborn from the ashes. The reasons for why GPU may be a game changer will be discussed in the keynote address, and examples of success will be discussed. One example will be on the application of Convolutional Neural Networks to power system problems, and how they can be trained and retrained in real time in a GPU environment - two cases will be visited, related to the classification of dynamic events in transmission networks and to the recognition of breaker statuses in distribution networks; a third significant example will be presented, the implementation in a GPU of sequential Monte Carlo power system reliability analysis, accelerated with Cross-Entropy, with remarkable speed-up gains. Finally, speculations will be advanced on further uses of GPUs in power system simulation and control, together on a discussion on why GPU is different from all previous attempts to speed up computing in power systems.
Tuesday, September 29 10:50 - 11:50 (America/Montevideo)
- VO1A.1 Optimal Demand Side Management for the Sparse Scheduling of Smart Charge of EVs
- In this article, we provide a proof of concept realization of the proposed demand response scheme described in , modelling an EV-aggregator offering smart charging coordination services to several Electric Vehicles (EV). The aggregator model promotes a distributed smart charge coordination of the EVs optimizing energy costs and energy charging profiles. This proposal considers EV's battery health constraints and mobility constraints and promotes spars day-ahead charging profiles. We use a distributed scheme with the aim objective of preserving the integrity of the private information of the active agents and scalability issue. The sparsity solution is identified using the alternating direction method of multipliers. The model proposed alternates between promoting sparsity of the charging profile accomplishing EV's constraints and minimizing energy cost. We assume a decentralized communication between the participants of the optimization problem, exchanging adequate signal prices and power profiles keeping the integrity of the private information of each active agent.
- VO1A.2 Forecasting Hourly Electricity Demand of Uruguay for the Next Day Using Artificial Neural Networks
- This article presents different models applying computational intelligence to forecast the total hourly electricity demand of Uruguay for the next day. Short term electricity demand forecasting is crucial to optimize the economic dispatch of electricity generation, improving the rational use of resources. It also allows improving energy efficiency and demand response policies related with smart grids. Classical statistical models have been applied to predict electricity demand but with the recent development of computational hardware and the vast amount of data available from various sources, computational intelligence models have emerged as successful methods for prediction. In this article, two artificial neural network architectures are presented and applied to forecast the total electricity demand of Uruguay for the next day. The first architecture combines Long Short Term Memory units (LSTM) with fully connected neural networks layers, and the second architecture improves the first by adding a Convolutional Neural Network as first layer (CNN+LSTM). Both architectures use a dropout technique to avoid overfitting. An ExtraTreesRegressor model is used as benchmark to evaluate both architectures. Three steps of data preprocessing are carried out, including treating missing values, removing outliers, and standardization. Considering the high computing demands of the applied techniques, they are developed and executed on the high performance computing platform provided by National Supercomputing Center (Cluster-UY), Uruguay. Standard performance metrics are applied to evaluate the proposed models. The experimental evaluation reports successful forecasting results: the CNN+LSTM model has a mean absolute percentage error of 4.3% when applied to the prediction of unseen data.
- VO1A.3 Design of Demand Response Programs: Customer Preferences Experiences in Colombia
- This paper presents the design and application of a research tool developed to identify preferences of users to participate in demand response (DR) programs. The proposed research tool was applied to the Colombian case discriminated in five different regions for industrial, commercial and residential uses. The results of the research tool evidenced the willingness of users to engage in DR programs if they are given the appropriate incentives (the most wanted incentive being a reduction of the electricity bill). The time of the day at which they would participate in such program is mainly at night in the range of 18h to 24h. It was also found that pedagogic programs would be needed since a high percentage of surveyed users do not even check their electricity meters, or only do it every month when the electricity bill comes.Presenter bio: Electrical engineer and Magister from the University of Antioquia, specialist from the National University of Colombia. Master and Doctor in power systems from the Pontiﬁcia Universidad Católica de Chile. IEEE Senior Member. Management Leader of the Colombia Inteligente smartgrid collaborative network.
- VO1B.1 Recloser - Fuse Coordination on Rural Feeders Having Distributed Generation by Using Specific Energy
- The integration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) implies a major challenge for the protection of the distribution network, where the origin of the energy and its direction was known. The DER can change the direction and shape of the fault current, and in the protection system can cause selectivity failures. Particularly, coordination among reclosers, sectionalizers, and fuses is affected, with possible loss of coordination. Selectivity of a typical protection system is studied, using time-current methodology, and the "specific energy versus time" as an additional tool. The advantage of coordination through this methodology is that the protection is immune to fault current variability, allowing coordination between micro-processed devices and fuses. Modeled example is presented using MatLab Simulink, simulating a typical feeders. It is concluded that the incorporation of the specific-energy in the coordination studies, provide a powerful tool allowing the analysis of the coexistence of modern micro-processed protections with traditional ones.Presenter bio: Juan Carlos Gómez is an Electromechanical Engineer graduated at the Cuyo National University, Argentine. He is Doctor in Philosophy of the Science (Ph.D.) graduated at the Sheffield Hallam University, England. Today he is Full Professor at the Engineering School, Rio Cuarto National University, Argentina.
- VO1B.2 Probabilistic Analysis Based on Steady-state Voltage Level Compliance Indicators for LV Distribution Networks with High PV and EV Penetration
- The modification and modernization processes of the electrical networks, which aim to decarbonize and decentralize the power generation, have introduced new components in secondary distribution networks. Photovoltaic (PV) microgenerators and electric vehicles (EV) are highlighted components to reach environmental objectives. However, high PV microgeneration and EV penetration cause technical and economic problems on secondary distribution networks, mainly related to steady-state voltage variation. In this context, this paper proposes a probabilistic economic analysis approach based on steady-state voltage level compliance indicators for low voltage (LV) distribution networks with high PV and EV penetration. The Brazilian National for Electrical Energy (ANEEL) establishes limits for steady-state voltage indicators, known as relative duration of precarious voltage transgression (DRP) and relative duration of critical voltage transgression (DRC). Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to evaluate PV generation and EV demand uncertainties. The proposed approach was tested on a real LV distribution network with high PV and EV penetration, quantifying costs by the DRP and DRC indicators violation.Presenter bio: Received B.Sc. and M.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering in 2011 and 2014, respectively, from the Federal University of Amazonas (UFAM), Brazil. He is currently a Ph.D. student at the Federal University of Pará (UFPA), Brazil. Also, he is participating in the GSEI research group. Since 2015, he has been assistant professor at the Department of Electricity, UFAM. His research topics are Electrical Power Systems with emphasis on smart grids, distributed energy resources, electric vehicles and modeling, control, and monitoring on low voltage distribution networks.
- VO1B.3 Stochastic Analysis of Hosting Capacity in Low-Voltage Networks with PV-plus-Storage Systems
- The reduction of residential-scale battery energy storage (BES) systems prices and subsidies besides the increase in electricity prices motivate consumers to update their photovoltaic (PV) systems toward PV-plus-storage systems. In this paper, we propose a stochastic analysis to determine the hosting capacity in low-voltage (LV) networks with PV and PV-plus-storage systems. Uncertainties in sizes and locations of PV systems and the location of energy BES systems are considered. The analysis considers two operational modes of inverters: at unity power factor and following a voltage control curve. Results indicate that the use of PV-plus-storage systems improves the hosting capacity. The selection of the operational mode of inverters must be carefully done, as it can increase power losses. The proposed method is useful to utilities for making-decision about actions that mitigate the overvoltage.
Tuesday, September 29 11:50 - 12:30 (America/Montevideo)
- VO2A.1 Analysis of Consumer-Centric Market Models in the Brazilian Context
- In recent years, the large deployment of distributed energy resources (DERs) in low voltage networks is changing the traditional approach to power systems. This massive change is pushing towards new solutions to improve energy trading in low voltage networks. Consumer-centric options, such as full peer-to-peer (P2P) and energy community markets (CM) are seen as viable options to increase the active participation of end-users in the electricity markets. This work studies the full P2P and CM market approaches applied to the actual regulatory framework in Brazil, evaluating and comparing both approaches to be potentially applied in Brazil. A case study based on a typical Brazilian neighborhood is designed, allowing to assess the behavior of consumers and prosumers in both markets. The results show the economic viability of both models, considering the social welfare and the penetration of distributed generation in the system. An important conclusion under the current regulatory framework is that the CM can have greater benefits over the full P2P, as long as the distributed generation is enough to confer near self-sufficiency to the energy community.
- VO2A.2 Unified Power Quality Index Method Using AHP for Consumers Sensitivity Evaluation
- Considering the modernization of distribution grids, with high level of distributed generation (DG) penetration, massification of power metering and increasing use of power electronics devices, the power quality evaluation gets even more relevant. In this context, it is important that the power quality evaluation methods evolve as well, using different approaches that allows dealing with large amounts of data, considering the specificity of the grid and also, generates results with easy understanding for the power quality management teams. The presented study proposes applying the Unified Power Quality Index utilizing the AHP decision method in order to consider the different consumers sensitivity to power quality phenomenon. The proposed method was applied in a real power quality campaign with a large amount of data with a wide range of consumers and the results have shown the feasibility and benefits of the method.
- VO2B.1 Distributed Parametric Identification of Low Frequency Oscillatory Modes in Multiple PMU
- This paper analyses performance in the estimation of low frequency oscillatory modes utilizing Prony's method of parametric identification applied to multiple signals (multi-Prony) in distributed form. The analyzed methodology applies the multi-Prony method by area and integrates local modal estimates in a consensus optimization process that determines a global solution for the entire system. In each area, multiple measurements are processed corresponding to ringdown data, recorded in case of contingencies by PMUs (Phasor Measurement Units) of a WAMS (Wide Area Monitoring Systems). The distributed method of optimization and consensus used here is based on the distributed ADMM (Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers) algorithm. The performance of the distributed Prony method is evaluated by processing known analytical signals and synchrophasorial voltage measurements recorded at low voltage by the MedFasee BT Argentina Project: Observatory of the Dynamics of the Sistema Argentino de Interconexión (SADI). The results show that more precise oscillatory modes are obtained with the distributed multi-Prony method than with the simple Prony method when processing a single signal or a set of signals in a centralized way.
- VO2B.2 Towards a Colombian Power System Fully Supervised with PMU: Scalability Test of the iSAACnet Communications Network
- The Synchrophasor initiative in Colombia, led by the Colombian Electric Power System Operator XM, has deployed a Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) aimed to increase the supervision capabilities, promote new automatic control/protection schemes and improve situational awareness. Currently there are over 120 phasor measurement units (PMU) installed across the country, all of them integrated to the National Control Center (CND by its Spanish name). As the energetic transition of the country continues, several changes in the regulatory framework will take place in the short term, and as a consequence it is expected that in the next five years about 2000 new PMU will be deployed in substations, conventional power generators and renewable energy resources. The continuously growing amount of data produced by the WAMS compared with the traditional approach poses new challenges from the point of view of signal processing, data management and network infrastructure. Since 2008, XM has conceptualized and implemented a communications network dedicated to information traffic associated with the operation of the national electricity grid, mainly synchrophasors. iSAACnet, as it is known, works under the publisher / subscriber paradigm, in which information flows on a data bus and each node can produce or consume information on demand, with the particularity that in iSAACnet each node is an intelligent decision device (iDD) capable of performing advanced processing and serve as multiprotocol gateway. iSAACnet is currently composed of six nodes distributed in substations, the data bus is backed by a multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) network. This paper reviews the history of the use of synchrophasor measurements in Colombia, and shares the efforts that XM has made to achieve in the short term having a scalable communications network oriented to the management and processing of information associated to the national grid operation.
Tuesday, September 29 12:30 - 13:30 (America/Montevideo)
Tuesday, September 29 13:30 - 13:40 (America/Montevideo)
- VP1.1 Disaggregation of Cold Appliance Loads from Smart Meter Data Processing
- In a context where an increasing flexibility is required from the demand side in distribution systems, cold appliances such as refrigerators can offer a continuous and non-negligible flexibility potential. Nevertheless, efficient demand response schemes based on cold appliances inevitably rely on the accurate estimation of their actual load not only at an aggregate level, but directly at the household level. Therefore, we propose two novel approaches to disaggregate the load profile of cold appliances from residential smart meter data. Both approaches are complementary and exhibit a MAE generally lower than 40W with 1- to 15-minute resolution data at the household level. Their applicability is finally demonstrated on more than 4000 loads.Presenter bio: I am a PhD student from 2016 at the power systems laboratory of ETH Zurich, led by Gabriela Hug. My focus is on data analytics and artificial intelligence for the operation and planning of distribution grids, especially at the low-voltage level. I have notably worked on the disaggregation of flexible residential loads during a recent 5-month visit at the department of power systems and electric machines in the University of Costa Rica.
- VP1.2 Cybersecurity for Smart Substation
- We are currently undergoing an incredible digital transformation in our power distribution substations with the implementation of intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) in TCP / IP network in accordance with the standards established by IEC 61850 for substation protection and control. The use of information sharing and interoperability among IEDS are technical characteristics in smart substations. With the advent of this digital technology, which bring us a huge framework of opportunities for improvement in its operation and maintenance, we also have a weakness to be considered and studied that is cybersecurity, as already occurs in the corporate network of companies. The proposal of this project was to develop a diagnostics, studies, benchmarking analysis and the application of a cybersecurity action for distribution substations protection and control system.
- VP1.3 A Customer Journey Mapping Approach to Improve CPFL Energia Fraud Detection Predictive Models
- Non-Technical Losses have a profound economical impact in distribution utilities; hence, reducing them and pursuing revenue recovery makes up for an essential means to secure utilities' financial health. In that regard, this paper proposes a compound method that combines a Logistic Regression predictive algorithm with the concept of Customer Journeys, in order to enhance the accuracy of the fraud detection method traditionally applied in CPFL Energia (a major Brazilian utility). Every interaction of each CPFL's customer is taken in consideration to track fraudulent customers record and identify suspicious patterns, with the purpose of adding new data to the present model and better refining its outcome, thus reducing false-positives and achieving both greater accuracy and recovered revenue amounts, besides better operational efficiency. The proposed methodology was field tested, resulting in a 2.2 times greater fraud inspection success rate, and the model was effectively implemented on the internal processes of the company's department responsible for fraud detection and revenue recovery.
Tuesday, September 29 13:40 - 13:50 (America/Montevideo)
- VP2.1 Smart Charging Solution to Mitigate Electric Vehicles Recharge Demand Impacts on the Electric Grid
- Studies have been showing that massive penetration of electric vehicles with non-controlled recharges can turn into a great threat to the distribution grid. In order to mitigate these impacts, this work presents the development of technical solutions tested in a living laboratory, named e-Park. These solutions are strategies and tools to enable a faster, but harmonic, growing penetration of electric mobility allowing the use of its infrastructure as an ally to monitor and control of the distribution grid energy demand. The e-Park intents to integrate different technologies, such as photovoltaic generation, battery energy storage system, level 2 (mode 3) charging stations and V2G, to test and validate the solutions. This work achieves this goal by deploying a software tool that manages vehicle recharges and optimize energy resources use, always respecting the electrical distribution grid energy demand limits.
- VP2.2 Demand Response Program for Supercomputing and Datacenters Providing Ancillary Services in the Electricity Market
- In this article, we studied a negotiation approach for the participation of datacenters and supercomputing facilities in smart electricity markets providing ancillary services, an important problem in modern smart grid systems. Different demand response strategy were studied for colocation datacenters to commit power reductions during a sustained period, according to offers proposed to tenants. The negotiation algorithm and a heuristic planning method for energy reduction optimization were experimentally validated over realistic problem instances that model different problem dimensions and flexibility of the datacenter clients. The obtained results indicate that the proposed approach is effective to provide appropriate frequency reserves control according to monetary incentives.
- VP2.3 Estimating National End-Use Demand Curves Through Sub-measurements and Energy Surveys
- National end-use demand profiles can allow a better design of energy policy toward energy efficiency and peak demand shift, which in turn brings economic benefits to users and addresses the climate change crisis. This paper presents a methodology to produce national end-use demand curves using end-use data and nationwide energy surveys. Using the information gathered through monitored end-use data (e.g., power demand and time of occurrence) and the information provided in the surveys (e.g., availability of appliances and time of use), the approach produces realistic load profiles for appliances at the interviewed customers. The methodology is illustrated using real, residential monitored data in Costa Rica from 2018 and the nationwide residential energy survey carried out in the same year. The deployment of the methodology provides national end-use profiles for the seven most relevant appliances considering weekdays and weekends. Results show that water heating system and stoves are the main drivers of the differences among the demand peaks of weekdays and weekends and highlight that the refrigerator, water heating systems, and lighting are the appliances that consume the most in Costa Rica.
- VP2.4 Impact of Demand Response on Generation Expansion Planning in the Brazilian Interconnected Power System
- Demand response is defined as the change in electricity use by consumers from the normal consumption pattern in response to changes in energy price or the receipt of incentives to induce lower energy at higher price points or when reliability of the system is impaired. Demand response can improve system adequacy and substantially reduce the investment need to meet peak demand, shifting consumption to times of low demand and adding stability to the system. This paper presents a methodology for demand response to participate in generation planning and to compete on equal terms with other supply-side energy resources such as hydroelectric, thermal and wind power plants. Modeling is performed endogenously in the planning model. The methodology is applied to the Brazilian electric system in the medium term energy planning for a 10-year horizon and the results indicate that, with demand response, there is a considerable impact on the generation expansion on the study horizon, postponing and avoiding the construction of power plants.Presenter bio: My name is Glaysson Muller, Brazilian, electrical engineer, with master's and doctorate degree at Coppe-UFRJ [http://www.coppe.ufrj.br/], with the guidance of Professor Djalma Falcão [http: //www.nacad.ufrj.br/~falcao/]. The main theme of the doctoral thesis is the impact of new technologies and smart grid on the long-term demand in Brazil [http://pee.ufrj.br/teses/index.php?Abstract=2016032902]. I have been working for six years in the Energy Research Office (EPE), which aims at supporting the Brazilian Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) energy policies with studies and research on energy planning covering electricity, oil, natural gas and its derivatives and biofuels. Our studies cover the areas of engineering, economics, modeling, policy and environment. In the office, I carry out studies in the area of smart grids, demand response and energy planning, in the area of generation and energy demand.
- VP2.5 Multi-Level Optimization Model for Electrical Energy Demand with User-Supplier Interaction
- Demand Side Management (DSM) is a new paradigm in the context of Smart Grids (SG) to improve the quality of electrical energy and optimize the demand profile. Several researchers have been proposed based on a one-level optimization method to optimize a load profile however, not may have been proposed a two-level method. In this work, a two-level optimization method is presented, which optimizes the electrical cost of the user and the micro-grid demand profile. To solve the problem, two objective functions are formulated, and a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used, establishing an "indirect control" of the loads. The proposed algorithm allowed minimizing the electrical cost and improved the demand profile with the user-supplier interaction. Furthermore, the supplier does not need to know user behavior to optimize the demand profile in the grid.Presenter bio: PhD student in Engineering Sciences at the National University of Cordoba (2017) and a Mechanical and Electrical Engineer (2015) graduate of the National University of Cordoba. He is a team research in the CIDTIEE of Cordoba Regional Faculty belonging to National Technological University. He has experience in the design of transformer stations and electrical installations. His areas of interest are Smart Grids, Demand Management and Electrical Power Systems
- VP2.6 Review of Deep Learning Application for Short-Term Household Load Forecasting
- The load forecasting is important for the distribution system operation and expansion planning. The main methodologies for load forecasting using deep learning are Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and Convolution Neural Networks (CNN). LSTM is specialized in time series; on the other hand CNN is specialized in image recognition. The residential consumption can be treated as a time series and a two-dimensional dataset. Therefore, CNN can be used to extract data characteristics from the residential consumption dataset. Thus, this paper reviews the main methodologies for residential load forecasting such as CNN, LSTM, and CNN-LSTM. Then, the methodologies are compared with each other. The mean square error (MSE) and root mean square error (RMSE) are used as metrics. The dataset is from real residential consumers in Ireland. The result shows a similar performance in training and testing. The best results are found when CNN and LSTM are used together.
Tuesday, September 29 13:50 - 14:00 (America/Montevideo)
- VP3.1 Aplicación Del Método Point Estimation Para El Cálculo De Flujo De Carga Probabilístico En La Red De Transmisión Uruguaya
- Las energías renovables están revolucionado el mercado y las redes eléctricas. Estos cambios presentan un desafío para todos los agentes del sistema eléctrico; en particular, para aquellos que quieren predecir o planificar el estado de la red eléctrica a futuro. En los últimos años, la naturaleza intermitente de estas fuentes de energía se ha vuelto un problema para la planificación que muchos han intentado solucionar, proponiendo distintos métodos. Desde 2013, UTE, la compañía eléctrica nacional de Uruguay, está implementando algoritmos para resolver el cálculo de flujo de carga probabilístico basados en el Método Montecarlo. En este trabajo se propone el uso de Point Estimation, un método alternativo más rápido que Montecarlo, aunque menos preciso, y que cuenta con un fuerte respaldo en publicaciones científicas recientes. Se presenta una aplicación real del algoritmo Point Estimation a la red uruguaya y se lo compara con el Método Montecarlo clásico. Los resultados sobre el sistema uruguayo son prometedores, mostrando que el método permite captar el desempeño general del sistema en un tiempo al menos un orden menor que Montecarlo.
- VP3.2 Planning Energy Distribution Systems in an Environment That Accelerates the Use of Distributed Energy Resources
- Renewable Energy Systems and Distributed Energy Resources are expected to transform the future of system planning and operation. Although there is a widespread awareness that disruptive technologies will require innovative roles from distribution utilities, there is a new set of rules and regulations that remains distant. This paper presents the planning electrical system adaptation with disruptive technology, with future planning distribution system needs and the opportunities to include new business models in these further planning. The current way planners use to develop energy sector studies and the recent techniques used to incorporate distributed power generation and storage systems are argued. The currently Integrated Distribution Planning is presented with the techniques and interconnections applied. Broader expectations about the future transition in the energy sector are presented. The future efforts, opportunities, and challenges to accelerate this incorporation are discussed. Using these new concepts the Integrated Distribution Planning is updated with modern business models targeting best Distribution Investment Roadmap and robust economic and financial results expressed by Enterprise Value.
- VP3.3 Optimal Allocation of Distributed Generation and Reactive Power in Simplified Distribution Systems
- This work presents a novel strategy to solve a short-term planning problem for electrical distribution systems (EDSs) by taking advantage of the implementation of a simplification technique. This simplification technique removes nodes and circuits from the original EDS to reduce the number of variables to be considered in the planning stage. The planning problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming problem and its solution determines the optimal allocation of capacitor banks (CBs) and wind-based distributed generation (DG) units. To validate the proposed strategy, three different test cases are analyzed using a 134-node system and its respective simplified 23-node EDS. Numerical results show that similar investment plans for the both systems can be obtained.Presenter bio: I am currently a PhD candidate in short-term planning of large electrical energy distribution systems through equivalent systems at UNESP - Faculty of Engineering of Ilha Solteira, São Paulo, Brazil; under the guidance of Prof. Dr. José Roberto Sanches Mantovani. Graduated in Mechatronic Engineering - National University of Engineering (UNI) (2014), Lima, Perú. I specialized in Aeronautical Engineering at Tecsup (2014) and studied four years of Electronic Engineering at the National University of Callao (2008). I have experience in test bench automation in the thermal machines laboratory, research assistant and practice teachers in the mechanical engineering laboratory courses at UNI-FIM (2018).
- VP3.4 Prioritization of Isolated Communities for the Development of Renewable-Energy Projects in Wide Geographical Areas
- This work aims at proposing a user-oriented tool for the ranked selection of isolated communities when implementing rural electrification projects based on renewable energies. The tool takes openly-available data to evaluate the different communities and focuses at maximizing the local population benefits and it considers two steps. First, we evaluate the energy potential of different resources and establish a metric to compare them. Second, we compare several factors, such as demographic, socio-economic, social (native origin), productivity and energy potential, perform a correlation analysis to keep only those that are significant for defining a priority, and propose a weighted index that accounts for the important factors identified in the previous step. We validate the method in the Los Rios Region in Chile, where 98 communities were considered. The method can be extendable to other geographical areas following both steps and helps decision-makers such as local governments or entrepreneurs to decide where to implement electrification projects based on renewable energy.
Tuesday, September 29 14:00 - 14:10 (America/Montevideo)
- VP4.1 Necessary Characteristics of a Modern Fuse for a Smart Grid, with Distributed Generation
- The fuse has based its long preeminence on electrical systems for its reliability and relative simplicity, due to follows well known physical principles. The complexity of the today distribution electric circuits, currently requires tools that provide intelligence, with which the "Smart Grids" are constituted. The fuse, in order to maintain its presence in low and medium voltage networks, must introduce characteristics that modern switches already possess, such as: remote operation, telemetering, automatic reconnection, directionality, adaptability, etc. Such improvements should not jeopardize the breaking capacity and reliability of the fuse. So far, some improvements have been introduced, many others are yet needed. A historical survey of the fuse previous designs tending to such objectives is presented. The improvements studied and in some cases already implemented commercially are described. It concludes in the need to recreate, update and improve the fuse, in order to comply with the requirements of intelligent distribution systems.Presenter bio: Juan Carlos Gómez is an Electromechanical Engineer graduated at the Cuyo National University, Argentine. He is Doctor in Philosophy of the Science (Ph.D.) graduated at the Sheffield Hallam University, England. Today he is Full Professor at the Engineering School, Rio Cuarto National University, Argentina.
- VP4.2 Fault Behavior of Power Distribution Networks with Distributed Generation and Uncertainties
- This paper assesses the fault behavior of power distribution networks with distributed energy resources and uncertainties related with the representation of different grid components and parameters. The algorithm is based upon a impedance representation of the grid, relying on information about the network topology and electrical parameters of the feeders. In addition, distinct types of loads and distributed energy resources are represented as non-deterministic parameters, as well as the fault impedance and fault distance parameters and errors in the phasor quantities. As an outcome, the proposed method shall provide a comprehensive, but accurate estimation of the points of fault by considering a range of possible fault scenarios. Furthermore, the methodology is demonstrated in a small overhead distribution network simulated under different operating conditions.Presenter bio: linkedin.com/in/laizsouto
- VP4.3 Computational Modeling of Excitation Systems in ATPDraw
- In recent years, the growing implantation of distributed energy resources owned by independent producers have been provoking many changes in the manner electric distribution systems operate. In this sense, it is important that studies regarding the effects of the actuation of such elements in the network are performed with sophisticated and precise computational analyses in order to guarantee accurate results and to contribute towards innovation in the electric sector. Hence, this work aims to promote resources for the better performance of studies on the dynamic actuation of distributed generators, by means of providing a detailed explanation of the procedures required for the modeling and parameterization of commonly used excitation systems in distributed generation units in the simulation software ATPDraw. In addition, a case study was proposed to validate their performance while operating in a biomass generator under a contingency situation.
Tuesday, September 29 14:10 - 14:20 (America/Montevideo)
- VP5.1 Methodology to Economic Evaluation of an Electric Vehicle Parking Lot Equipped with PV and Storage
- There is a massive rollout of EVs to decarbonize the transport sector. Charging infrastructure is needed to enable that transition. Understanding the feasibility of the Electric Vehicles Parking Lots (EVPL) with and without additional technologies (i.e.: photovoltaic generation, batteries) is needed to make informed decisions considering its impact in the distribution network and also the market valuation in both short and long term planning. This paper proposes a methodology to perform an economic assessment of an EVPL equipped with photovoltaic generation, batteries, and EV chargers. The economic analysis is performed considering a long term operation of EVPL and also the adoption of different policies that impact the growth of EV penetration level. Thus, Net Present Value (NPV) and the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) are calculated to a set of different scenarios in order to obtain the best configuration in each case. Thus, it was verified that EVPL operation profitability is considerably affected by government policies and regulations. Moreover, the investment in batteries is of great importance to achieve some profit, while the PV generation in those models requires a large amount of investment but may favor higher returns.
- VP5.2 Impact of Electric Vehicles Penetration in the Interconnected Urban Environment of a Smart Cities
- This document presents a novel model to impact in the effort to increase of air quality due to CO 2 emission into atmosphere; therefore, this topic motivates to scientific community to development alternatives in relation to transport sustainability and efficiency. Electrical mobility is an opportunity to improve and have better air quality; furthermore, it contributes to reduce the noise generated from conventional technology. The problem is in relation to the location of electrical charge station (CS) when it is unexpectedly increased the electric cars mobility at urban zones. As a result, this work presents a heuristic model to solve the transport problems; furthermore, it will re-route the traffic flow from each intersection when there is a demand in direction to electric CS, and it is going to minimize the travel route. The vehicular traffic will be modeling trough topology and other variables called microscopy analyze to comprehension with other constraints in relation to traffic engineering. Additionally, this work will contribute with an optimal assignment of resources trough of optimally criteria in a transport system. Consequently, this work pretends to solve a combinatorial problem, which is based on Hungarian algorithm, and Capacitated Multi-commodity Flow Problem (CMFP) algorithms that permits solve to vehicular traffic trough of assignment, sizing, and routing problem.
- VP5.3 An Evaluation of the Actual Electric Vehicles Charging Infrastructure in Uruguay and Possible Designing Approaches
- "This paper presents those methodological, theoretical and computational tools used to plan the performance of the Electric Route in Uruguay for recharging of electric vehicles. The study focuses on service times analysis of charge points over periods of intense vehicular traffic and for prospective scenarios of high penetration of electric vehicles. The first goal is to quantify performance limits for the current recharging infrastructure and vehicles capabilities under stressful contexts, but at the same time realistic, considering existing data of traffic flows and prospective studies for possible electric vehicles penetration scenarios. Queueing Theory is the underlying framework to tack this part of the analysis. The second part of the study uses Markov Chains, whilst assumes a near future with greater driving range of electric vehicles and seeks to estimate how many additional charge points are required to provide a satisfactory level of service. Main results show that the current infrastructure is capable of fulfilling near future needs, but for some growth scenarios of the electric vehicles fleet, that infrastructure should be updated to sustain mid to long-term recharging needs."Presenter bio: Professor at the Computer Science Institute, Claudio Risso holds a MSc. degree in Mathematical Engineering from the University of the Republic, Uruguay (2010), and an Electrical Engineering degree from the University of the Republic, Uruguay (1999). He also has been a consultant in the telecommunications area for more than ten years. His research interests are in Operations Research techniques (metaheuristics, graph theory and combinatorial optimization) applied to telecommunications network design problems.
- VP5.4 Technical and Economic Feasibility of a PV Charging Station for E-bikes Considering a Lead-Acid Battery Degradation Model
- Electric mobility is a new concept that is emerging as a technically viable alternative and socially accepted to address mobility problems and pollution generated by conventional transport. However, electric mobility models require an analysis of technical and financial viability to guarantee their sustainability over time. This article presents the design of a photovoltaic station for recharging electric bicycles, calculating its financial and technical feasibility considering the replacement of batteries, the bicycle loan fee. Some simulations using Matlab y HOMER PRO were carried out to validate the PV system operation and to estimate the battery degradation.
- VP5.5 Greenhouse Gas Reduction Through the Introduction of Electric Vehicles in Urban Zones
- The decarbonizing the transportation system through the introduction of electric vehicles in urban zones has intensified in recent years. This paper presents a methodology for modeling electric vehicles in an urban zone using transportation tools to determine the decrease in greenhouse gas emission values in the main avenues and streets due to various electric mobility technologies and the analysis of charging stations in the electric network. The results of the proposed methodology are the spatial databases that can be observed in geographic information systems to assist city planners in the incentive policies for decarbonization, distribution planners in the location of the infrastructure for charging and the measurement of the impacts on voltage levels with the electric vehicle recharge at charging stations to provide information to distribution network planners.
- VP5.6 Energy Autonomy of Electric Vehicles in Topologically Irregular Cities: Case Study Cuenca - Ecuador
- This research aims to determine the autonomy of electric vehicles in topologically irregular cities. The city's mobility plan, real-time measurements of battery discharge, altitude monitoring through GPS, EVs control panel records, and surveys to estimate the use and level of penetration of this technology are used. The information is analyzed considering the current electricity pricing and regulatory aspects to determine the cost that represents the load of the EVs under these conditions. Finally, the inclusion of EVs in the distribution network is simulated to infer some consequences on the electrical energy demand profile.
Tuesday, September 29 14:20 - 14:30 (America/Montevideo)
- VP6.1 Modern Energy Consumers Representation Perspectives in the Energy Sector
- This work presents an overview of parameters regarding modern energy consumers' representation. As new energy generation technologies are implemented, attending an increasing demand and sustainability goals, the role of modern consumers changes in comparison to previous activities. The new framework of the sector implies changes broader that operational and technical, enabling a more active market, an improved usage of resources, and encouraging participation. In order to support the entry of modern consumers, new engaging initiatives must be encouraged. Groups are one way to ensure that consumers may engage themselves in the energy sector, enabling communication enhancement and demands attending. There are several consumer groups currently with different work methods and engaging initiatives. This work concerns to describing their members, their approach regarding decision-makers, and how the communication is enhanced. As groups, the work encompasses groups in the United States, Australia, Union Europe, and Brazil. As a result, the existing groups are described according to the communication, participation, and member selection parameters.
- VP6.2 Towards a Coupled Regulation and Flexible Ramp Product Marginal Pricing
- Several countries have achieved significant penetration levels of non-dispatchable generation. This integration has led to the necessity of more efficient formulations for frequency regulation ancillary services from an increasing number of technologies. One aspect that has captured particular attention is ramping capability requirements, which have increased for both frequency regulation and intra-dispatch generation ramping. In general, ramping capability requirements for frequency reserves are formulated separately from those associated with intra-dispatch movements; however, during actual operation, reserve and energy deployments are performed in a combined manner from the physical ramping capability of the unit. This work proposes a pricing rule for frequency regulation reserves considering the usage of units ramping capability for both reserves and intra-dispatch movements in a joint manner, so a co-optimization of reserves and energy considering a complete representation of ramping capability requirements is possible. An illustrative example is presented.
Tuesday, September 29 14:30 - 14:40 (America/Montevideo)
- VP7.1 Application of Energy Storage in Systems with High Penetration of Intermittent Renewables
- Nowadays, in Uruguay, a considerable amount of energy produced by renewable resources is curtailed inducing frequent substantial reductions in the spot market prices. This paper analyses the incorporation of energy storage into the Uruguayan network, taking the different perspectives of a private investor and a central planner. From the investor point of view, we investigate the option of doing energy arbitrage in the wholesale market, taking advantage of the spot price fluctuations. From the national perspective, we develop an optimal power flow planning model to perform a cost-benefit analysis of batteries' integration in reducing thermal generation. We conclude that, from a private investor perspective, fluctuations in the spot prices are not enough to make investments in batteries profitable with current prices. On the other hand, from a national perspective, results are more promising, obtaining very high revenues in some case studies.Presenter bio: Lucas Narbondo received his bachelor degree from Universidad de la República (UdelaR) in 2016. In 2019 he received a master's degree from Imperial College London in Future Power Networks. He has four years of experience as a teacher assistant in UdelaR at the Electrical Engineering Department and also experience in the power industry working for a renewable energy company. He currently works for the Secretary of Energy of the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Mining and also as a researcher at ORT University.Presenter bio: Paola Falugi received the PhD degree in systems engineering from the Universita di Bologna, Bologna, Italy. She is currently a Research Associate with the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, London, U.K. She spent four years with the Universita di Firenze, Italy, and one year with SUPELEC, France, as a Postdoctoral Researcher. Her research interests are in predictive control and control of constrained nonlinear systems, robust control, system identification, and energy network planning.
- VP7.2 Pumped Storage Case Study in Uruguay: Simulation and Value
- An hypothetical 220 MW pumped storage power plant to be incorporated in Uruguayan grid was considered. System operation modelling and an operation along 20-year simulation in order to estimate whole system supply cost savings was made applying the SimSEE tool. As outstanding results total cost much lower than the estimated without the system and some of projects main specifications should change in order to make it economically feasible. In addition, to have a better visualization how this technology might operate, simulations where run for several random weeks, including one during 2020 pandemic period.Presenter bio: I am an industrial mechanical engineer graduated from UdelaR. Currently a masters degree on energy engineering student. I also work as a lecturer at UTEC in the physics department giving mechanical energy and fluid mechanics courses of renewable energy engineering career in Uruguay.
- VP7.3 Battery System Service to Reduce PV-Farm Operating Costs
- Photovoltaic and wind farms are becoming an in- creasing market all around the world. In 2020 photovoltaic and wind farms represent 20% of the total installed capacity. This percentage will continue to increase due to several factors. Studies have shown that photovoltaic farms can operate as reactive power generators, thus providing voltage regulation capabilities. The voltage regulation must be provided even during the time where the plants do not generate and incurs additional operating costs. In addition, long underground cable networks link the PV arrays resulting in large losses to be covered. The present work studies the possibility of utilizing battery energy storage systems to reduce the operating costs incurred in the operation of PV farms. A derivative free optimization technique is used to evaluate and eventually determine an appropriate size for the battery system that is cost efficient in economic terms.
- VP7.4 A Technical Economical and Regulatory Analysis of Storage Systems Incorporation in the Uruguayan Electricity Market
- This paper studies the possibility/perspectives of introducing lithium ion battery storage in the Uruguayan electrical system, as a mean of increasing its flexibility. This storage resource was chosen among others as it is the most promising technology considering their recent remarkable advances. In order to understand the impact on the electric system, firstly a long term simulation was done so as to determine when this system would become profitable. Then three annual simulations were executed comparing the system operation (i.e. costs, the energy not supplied, CO2 emissions and generation mix), for two cases with batteries (with different participation models), and for the case without them. Finally, the regulatory aspects related to storage penetration that are under debate nowadays in the PJM and UK markets were studied in order to learn some lessons for the development of an adequate regulatory framework in Uruguay.
- VP7.5 Análise Técnica e Simulação Econômica Para Aplicações De Sistemas De Armazenamento De Energia Com Baterias Nos Sistemas Elétricos De Potência
- Os bancos de baterias aplicados ao sistema elétrico de potência podem se tornar uma alternativa técnica/ econômica para os agentes do setor elétrico nacional. Este trabalho consiste na análise técnica e econômica da utilização de Sistemas de Armazenamento de Energia (BESS), por meio de baterias de íons de lítio, conectadas em diferentes proposições de arranjos ao Sistema Elétrico de Potência (SEP). A análise técnica consiste em uma pesquisa sobre os diferentes tipos de tecnologias de baterias de íons de lítio e suas diferentes aplicações no SEP. A análise do tema pela disciplina econômica passa por um estudo da cadeia de valor da construção do BESS, pela proposição de novos modelos de negócios, e é concluída com simulações econômicas desses modelos. As simulações visam comparar o preço do kWh oriundo do BESS contra o preço do kWh fornecido pelo mercado. O resultado obtido das simulações, resultou em uma faixa de preço do MWh de R$1.550,00 a R$ 730,00(variando os cenários e tipos de sistemas). Desta forma a utilização de BESSs de forma descentralizada, possui potencial de aumentar a produtividade dos agentes integrantes do sistema elétrico de potência.Presenter bio: Luiz Felipe Vilela Fedalto (Curitiba/1984). Engenheiro Eletricista pela Universidade Federal do Parana - UFPR (2007). Possui especialização em gestão de negócios pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Mercado de Capitais - IBMEC (2010), com MBA em finanças pela Instituto Brasileiro de Mercado de Capitais - IBMEC (2010), com EMBA e gestão pela Fundação Dom Cabral (2016). Possui 12 anos de experiência no setor com a implantação de mais de 30 subestações de alta tensão na rede básica do sistema elétrico Brasileiro.
- VP7.6 Stability Effects After Massive Integration of Renewable Energy Sources on Extra-Large Power Systems
- In this work, a security metric to quantify the stability effects after integration of different levels of renewable energy sources (RES) in extra-large power systems is presented. The comparison is carried out through extensive number of Root Mean Square (RMS) simulations, using as a test system the initial dynamic model of continental Europe under different scenarios representing the implementation of combined energy strategies across Europe. The RMS simulations were performed using the commercial power system software DIgSILENT PowerFactory. The stability effects in the entire system are analysed, as result of massive integration of RES in 13 of the most significant countries e.g. those who have been modelled in more detail. The result of three study cases are presented, corresponding to the increase of different levels of renewable penetration: 10%, 20% and 30%, respectively. The results are compared in terms of the frequency response but also on the evolution of the proposed stability metric. The results suggest that countries located in the Eastern part of Europe are more sensitive to massive integration of RES than the rest of the network, from a global stability perspective.
Tuesday, September 29 14:40 - 15:10 (America/Montevideo)
- VP8.1 Analysis of Battery Energy Storage System Sizing in Isolated PV Systems Considering a Novel Methodology and Panel Manufacturers Recommended Methodology
- This paper presents the analysis of two BESS sizing methodology in solar PV systems, a proposed methodology considering predicted hourly solar radiation data and the methodology recommended by panel manufacturers. In the proposed method, Solar radiation behavior is predicted by studying and processing historical hourly solar radiation data of a location in Brazil using Box-Jenkins method and auto-regressive (AR) and time series models are used to generate hourly synthetic series. The generated series combined with hourly load demand and battery storage capacity are used in simulating a PV system and the BESS is sized considering energy deficit and supply interruption outcomes. Comparison is made between the result of the proposed methodology and that of panel manufacturers' methodology considering two case studies. Results of the analysis showed that the proposed methodology is more adequate for BESS sizing. Probability analysis is also performed using multiple radiation scenarios of synthetic solar radiation data.
- VP8.2 Bat and Grey Wolf Techniques Applied to the Optimization of the Inverse Time Overcurrent Relays Coordination Problem
- Relays have the function of identifying defects, locating them precisely and alerting the operation of the system to trigger the opening of circuit breakers, in order to isolate the defect, ensuring selectivity. The main and backup protection in the transmission systems are mainly associated with overcurrent relays. However, one of the problems arising from the use of these relays concerns about their coordination, which aims to obtain the optimum configuration of protection, so that the smallest number of consumers is left without the supply of electricity in the case of their operation. In this context, optimization techniques are applied through heuristic algorithms. Two techniques were used in this work to optimize the coordination time of the relays, being this the Grey Wolves and Bats heuristics. For the tested case, the used methodologies were successful in coordinating the relays, maintaining the selectivity of the protection system, and respecting the adjustments and restrictions imposed to the problem.
- VP8.3 Analysis of an Industrial-Residential Off-Grid Electrical System Supplied with a Mix of Thermal Renewable and Battery in the Northeast of Haiti
- The Caracol Industrial Park (PIC) is the largest employer in northeast region of Haiti. The electricity demand is supplied by a 10MW off-grid thermal plant operating mainly with Heavy Fuel Oil. The Government of Haiti (GoH) aims at achieving a twofold objective: a tariff of about US$0.16 per kWh, reduced from US$030 per kWh for industrial consumers to keep the PIC attractive for existing tenants and new investors; and to expand the number of residential customers in the Northeast. To achieve these objectives, the GoH with support of the Interamerican Development Bank and the United States Agency for International Development, finance the design and construction of two Solar Photovoltaic plants with a bank of battery to bridge short - term power fluctuation. This paper shows the technical and economic works carried out to determine the optimal capacity of the PV plants and the sizing of the battery.
- VP8.4 Customer Buses Ranking for Battery Energy Storage System Installation Through Pairwise Analyses: a Study of Case
- Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) support the operation of Distributed Generation (DG) and mitigate the issues related to the solar intermittency of Photovoltaic (PV) generation. However, the BESS benefits depend on its planning, considering the effect of DG power injection in Distribution System (DS) feeders. So, this paper presents the ranking of customer buses supplied in Low Voltage (LV)in order to install lithium BESS in DG plants based on PV systems, under a R&D project, whose goal is to study the impact of BESS in urban DS feeders. The bus ranking and BESS allocation problem was solved through Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), because this technique allows to evaluate the alternatives computing technical criteria related to electrical magnitudes, and subjective criteria related to customer aspects. The main contributions achieved were the model from the hierarchical structure of BESS allocation problem, the weights obtained with pairwise analyses resulted of specialists evaluation which reduces Saaty scale complexity, and the LV-customer-buses ranking for three different scenarios.
- VP8.5 Quadratic Approximate Dynamic Programming for Scheduling Water Resources: a Case Study
- We address the problem of scheduling water re- sources in a power system via approximate dynamic programming. To this goal, we model a finite horizon economic dispatch problem with convex stage cost and affine dynamics, and consider a quadratic approximation of the value functions. Evaluating the achieved policy entails solving a quadratic program at each time step, while value function fitting can be cast as a semidefinite program. We test our proposed algorithm on a simplified version of the Uruguayan power system, achieving a four percent cost reduction with respect to the myopic policy.
- VP8.6 The Impact of Equalization Cycle on the Storage System Lifetime in PV-based Isolated Microgrids
- Lead acid batteries are used predominantly for energy storage in isolated microgrids. In this application, they are subjected to frequent partial charge/discharge cycles, accelerating their loss of useful life. To mitigate this problem, it is necessary to apply periodic equalization charges using a dispatchable source (typically diesel generators). The use of this type of fuel is undesirable and should be minimized, requiring a commitment decision with the need to preserve the battery bank. This article investigates the frequency of these equalization charges, in order to reduce the use of fossil fuel, while the battery bank's useful life is preserved. The result obtained is close to the empirical policies practiced in the operation of isolated microgrids in the equatorial region of Brazil.
Tuesday, September 29 15:10 - 16:30 (America/Montevideo)
IP1: INDUSTRY PANEL Discussion 1: ""When things go Wrong: Large Disturbances and Blackstart" (Español, 15:10-16:30 GMT-3)
SHORT-BIO: HUGO F. PEREZ (NERC), Hugo is a Reliability professional with 20 years of experience in regulatory matters and Bulk Electric System maintenance, planning and operations. Hugo has in depth knowledge of the electric regulatory compliance construct in North America, with a background that includes direct involvement in regulatory processes with entities across the United States, Canada and Mexico. Currently, he is the Manager for North American Relations at NERC, acting as a key liaison between this organization and non-U.S. reliability stakeholders, including interaction with international government entities in this sector in several countries. His technical experience includes working as an engineer in the areas of planning, operations and maintenance of power systems. Hugo holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from the National University of Colombia (Bogota, Colombia) and a Certificate in Power Systems from The Georgia Institute of Technology. He is registered as a Professional Engineer in the state of Georgia and is a NERC Certified System Operator.
SHORT-BIO: ESTEBAN NIZOVOY (CTM), Esteban holds a degree in Electrical Engineering from Buenos Aires University, Argentina. He is a specialist in power systems, with 11 years of experience in power systems simulations, focusing on the system's operations, fault and post-operative analysis and technical feasibility studies to allow new accesses or network reconfigurations. Nowadays he develops his professional career in the Electrical Studies unit at Binational Salto Grande Hydro Power Plant. He has also worked in the Power Energy Transportation Company Transener/Transba and as assistant professor at Buenos Aires University. Today he works in CTM; Comisión Técnica Mixta de Salto Grande Argentina-Uruguay.
SHORT-BIO: JESUS EUGUI (UTE DNCU), Jesús Eugui graduated in electrical engineering from Universidad de la República, Uruguay. Since 2011 he has been with Usinas y Trasmisiones Eléctricas at National Dispatch Center. From 2011 to 2017 as a dynamic studies expert, and from 2017 as Real Time Operation support engineer working in the development of isolation and restoration policies against system collapse. Jesús Eugui se graduó en ingeniería eléctrica de la Universidad de la República, Uruguay. Desde 2011 está con Usinas y Trasmisiones Eléctricas en el Centro Nacional de Despacho. Desde 2011 hasta 2017 como experto en estudios dinámicos, y desde 2017 como ingeniero de soporte de Operación en Tiempo Real trabajando en el desarrollo de políticas de aislamiento y restauración contra colapso del sistema.
ABSTRACT: This discussion panel will show and discuss, Uruguay Black Start experience, after Argentina-Uruguay Power System Collapse, last June 16 2019 07:07. Best Practices, lessons learned, vision for the future.
Wednesday, September 30
Wednesday, September 30 9:00 - 9:10 (America/Montevideo)
Wednesday, September 30 9:10 - 9:50 (America/Montevideo)
K2: KEYNOTE: "US Utility Experiences on Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and Energy Storage" (English, 09:10-09:50 GMT-3)
SHORT-BIO: Babak Enayati received his PhD in Electrical Engineering from Clarkson University, USA in 2009. He joined National Grid, USA in 2009 and is currently the Manager of the Technology Deployment team, which is responsible for the implementation of the new technologies to meet National Grid's Intelligent Transmission Network objectives. Babak serves as the Vice Chair of the IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (SCC21), IEEE 1547-Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Energy Resources with Electric Power Systems, and IEEE P2800- Standard for Interconnection and Interoperability of Inverter-Based Resources Interconnecting with Associated Transmission Electric Power Systems.
ABSTRACT Many countries have implemented renewables portfolio standards (RPSs) to accelerate the pace of deployment of renewables generation, which are distributed across the distribution and transmission power system. As the penetration of renewable power generation increases, electricity grids are beginning to experience challenges, which are often caused by intermittent nature of some renewable generation types, sudden changes of the output power due to grid disturbances, low short circuit duty of the inverter based generators, and impact on the transmission and distribution system protection. Energy storage is being considered as a tool in the toolbox to resolve some grid reliability issues that are caused either by intermittent distributed energy resources or grid disturbances. This presentation will give an overview of the distributed energy resources and energy storage integration targets and challenges in the US. A brief overview of the IEEE 1547 standard will also be presented.
Wednesday, September 30 9:50 - 10:30 (America/Montevideo)
K4: KEYNOTE: "Cybersecurity of the Grid - Intrusion Detection in IEC 61850 Based Peer-to-Peer Communications" (English, 09:50-10:30 GMT-3)
SHORT-BIO: Dr. Alexander Apostolov received MS Electrical Engineering, MS Applied Mathematics and PhD from the Technical University in Sofia, Bulgaria. He has 44 years' experience in power systems protection, automation, control and communications. He is presently Principal Engineer for OMICRON electronics in Los Angeles, CA. He is IEEE Fellow and serves on many IEEE PES Working Groups. He is member of IEC TC57 working groups 10, 17, 18 and 19. He is Distinguished Member of CIGRE and IEEE Distinguished Lecturer. He holds four patents and has authored and presented more than 500 technical papers. He is Editor-in-Chief of PAC World.
ABSTRACT: One of the main characteristics of the modern electric power systems is their digitization based on the IEC 61850 standard. High-speed peer-to-peer communications improve the protection and automation systems functionality and performance, but at the same time they expose it to cyber threats.
The presentation first gives an overview of the GOOSE and sampled values communications defined in IEC 61850 and their role in the digitization of the grid. It then analyzes the cyber security threats and identifies the ones with the highest potential impact on the stability of the electric power system. Methods for intrusion detection based on monitoring of the GOOSE and sampled values messages are later presented.
Wednesday, September 30 10:50 - 12:30 (America/Montevideo)
- VO3A.1 Optimal Placement of Aggregators in Distribution Networks Using ZigBee Wireless Communication Technology
- In recent years, population growth in densely populated areas has resulted in increased electricity demand, which makes the distribution planning challenging. In addition, the inclusion of small scale generation within the distribution network has caused some operational issues. A possible solution to mitigate these effects is the application of smart grids in low-voltage networks. Extensive low-voltage networks with high penetration of distributed generation and the tools, techniques, and procedures available in smart grids have motivated the installation of wireless aggregators in the network, which allows the collection of operation information. Such data collected in the aggregators contributes to a better monitoring of the electrical system and provides insightful information for planners and operators. Additionally, in order to improve the operation of the electric network, a methodology of placement of wireless aggregators is proposed. Within this methodology, each aggregator is considered as a reference to group the wireless smart meters, which are installed at every end consumer. ZB's wireless communication technology is considered in this paper, which is extensively used due to its low latency, operational cost and packet data. The result of this aggregation has shown to improve the observability of the electrical system.
- VO3A.2 Power Quality Study of Fixed Capacitor Selection for Rotary 1Ph-3Ph Converters in Rural Facilities
- A rotary-converter, commonly found in remote rural facilities, is a simple arrangement of an induction machine and a capacitor able to produce a three-phase voltage when connected to a single-phase system. Such resulting voltage can feed other three-phase equipment, but its quality depends on the capacitor and load characteristics, as well as the the single-phase input voltage. To the authors knowledge, rotary converter design is mostly empirical as there is no publicly available document to design these system. To address this issue, this paper first presents an analytic expression to select the capacitance value to minimize voltage unbalance, while taking into account its effect on the quality of power under load variations and harmonic distortions from the voltage supply. Quick reference tables are also presented to design the rotary converter motor size and capacitor depending on the load demand and power factor, as well as taking into account the theoretical limit of voltage unbalance and resulting harmonic resonance characteristics.Presenter bio: Andrés Argüello (S'13) received the B.Sc., Lic. degrees (2014, 2016) in Electrical Engineering from the University of Costa Rica and the M.Sc. degree (2019) from the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Campinas, Brazil, where he pursues a Ph.D. degree. His research interests include power quality, distribution systems, distributed generation, energy storage, GIS, and optimization methods.
- VO3A.3 Distribution Network Voltage Controller in Presence of Lost Measurements
- This paper presents a centralized voltage control scheme that uses pseudo-measurements to estimate lost voltage measurements. The controller automatically selects the bus voltages which best approximate the lost one according to dissimilarity indices computed from the system's voltage sensitivity matrix. Several computer simulations were carried out to test the performance of the controller subject to the loss of single and multiple measurements in a radial distribution network with dispersed generation. For single losses, the proposed approximation resulted in better performance of the controller as compared to simply considering the measurement unavailable. For multiple lost measurements, proper selection of association limits allowed for acceptable estimations and successful controller performance.Presenter bio: Andrés Argüello (S'13) received the B.Sc., Lic. degrees (2014, 2016) in Electrical Engineering from the University of Costa Rica and the M.Sc. degree (2019) from the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Campinas, Brazil, where he pursues a Ph.D. degree. His research interests include power quality, distribution systems, distributed generation, energy storage, GIS, and optimization methods.
- VO3A.4 Comparing Chi-square-Based Bad Data Detection Algorithms for Distribution System State Estimation
- The transition from passive to active distribution networks has led to a growing use of state estimators (SEs), particularly in applications that require high quality data (e.g., demand management and fault detection). To ensure accurate estimations, a bad data detection (BDD) algorithm capable of detecting errors is needed. While these algorithms exist, network operators require understanding the benefits and limitations of these approaches before adopting a solution for their SEs. This paper compares three Chi-square-based BDD algorithms (conventional and two residual covariance matrix-based) to evaluate their performance in terms of speed and effectiveness. Comparisons are carried out using the IEEE 37-bus test feeder with different bad data scenarios. Results highlight that the conventional algorithm is faster, but its filtering capabilities is more limited. On the other hand, they show that the residual covariance matrix-based algorithms require on average 1594% and 2661% more time to achieve a detection that in certain conditions can be 1.56 and 1.67 times better.
- VO3A.5 On Evaluating Single-Phase Tripping on Distribution Networks
- Reliability and continuity improvement in distribution system protection and operation has led to the reevaluation of traditional practices in the field. Although these systems employ single-phase protection devices such as fuses, most utilities have avoided the use of single-phase tripping (SPT) schemes in their reclosers. In order to evaluate SPT implementation feasibility on reliability indices and regulatory report perspectives, this paper presents a detailed distribution feeder secondary voltage analysis when the SPT with three-phase transformers over a radial distribution feeder is implemented. Aiming on a practical application, a real overhead distribution feeder was modeled in Alternative Transients Program, allowing protection algorithm implementation and transient simulation. In this paper, three different types of independent phase-interrupting equipment are evaluated: recloser, lateral fuse and transformer fuse. The obtained results are divided into two approaches: the transient analysis, evaluating the voltage behavior on time domain, and the steady-state sensitivity analysis, evaluating the load level impact on secondary voltage level after the single-pole opening as a response to single-phase-to-ground faults.Presenter bio: Rodrigo T. Toledo was born in Brazil, 1995. He received his B.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering from UnB, Brazil, in 2019. He is currently a master student at the Department of Electrical Engineering at UnB, Brazil. His research interest focuses on power system protection.
Wednesday, September 30 10:50 - 11:50 (America/Montevideo)
- VO4B.1 Protection Relay for Secondary Ferroresonance Suppression in Coupling Capacitor Voltage Transformers
- A new protection relay to detect, suppress and mitigate secondary ferroresonance in CCVTs is presented in this paper. The new protection relay uses frequency response characteristic to detect and characterized secondary ferroresonance and an electronic switch with back to back thyristor to introduce a commutable load to the CCVT's secondary circuit for secondary ferroresonance suppression. The proposed protection relay has been verified with computer simulations and hardware experiments, which demonstrated a successful performance regarding three design aspects, namely, detection, suppression and security.
- VO4B.2 A New Approach for Directional Overcurrent Relays Coordination in Interconnected Power Systems
- This work presents a new approach for setting and coordinating directional overcurrent relays (DOCRs) in interconnected Power Systems using Constraint Programming. This technique, besides allowing the selection of settings, makes it possible to obtain the set of feasible values that can be selected. The methodology is applied in the 6 and 15 bus test systems to compare the results with other methods present in the literature, demonstrating substantial advantages.
- VO4B.3 Current Transformer Modeling for Electromagnetic Transient Simulation in Protection Systems
- The present work reviews the requirements associated with the modeling of current transformers for the study and simulation of electromagnetic transients related to protection systems. Having accurate models of this equipment becomes essential when evaluating the behavior of protection systems under certain operating conditions. The work focuses on the review of the criteria commonly used for modeling this equipment, with special emphasis on the impact of non-linearity modeling associated with the transformer's magnetic core.
Wednesday, September 30 11:50 - 12:30 (America/Montevideo)
- VO3B.1 A REFLEX Algebraic Reserve Constraint Model
- The Renewable Energy FLEXibility model (REFLEX) is a planning model that assesses the impact of renewable integration on power balance flexibility. As the model has been implemented in various commercial software, it is currently a known framework to evaluate planning scenarios of renewable integration. In order for the model to represent flexibility related to intra-dispatch system balance, an iterative process has to be performed to evaluate the adequacy of reserve coordination for all commitment decisions through dynamic simulations. This process is computationally intense, and must be performed each time the system changes. This work proposes a general model to represent intra-dispatch reserve adequacy algebraically, so the iterative process is avoided. A numerical example is provided.
- VO3B.2 Mixture Density Networks Applied to Wind and Photovoltaic Power Generation Forecast
- In this work, the training of a Mixture Density Network (MDN) type of Neural Network (NN) is presented. This network is used to forecast the power generated by wind and photovoltaic farms in Uruguay in a one week time frame. With the MDN model, not only the expected value of the hourly power generation is forecasted, but also a probability density function for each signal. This allows to provide information not only about the expected value of the power forecasted but also for how certain this value is estimated to be. The inputs of the network are meteorological values acquired from a private vendor and the output is the power generation probability density function. A comparison between the previously used models and the new one is shown and future improvements are discussed.
Wednesday, September 30 12:30 - 13:30 (America/Montevideo)
Wednesday, September 30 13:30 - 13:40 (America/Montevideo)
- VP9 a.1 Optimized Voltage and Reactive Power Control in the Context of Advanced Distribution Automation
- Voltage and reactive power control, or Volt-Var control, is an important functionality in the operation of electric distribution systems, having influence on power quality and technical losses in the network. This paper presents a tool for performing optimized voltage and reactive power control in the context of advanced distribution automation. The tool was developed as part of an R&D project and was integrated with the utility's legacy systems through an interoperability bus, also developed throughout the project. In addition to the adopted methodology, the results of the functionality application in a pilot area are presented, where it was verified the integration of the tool with the interoperability bus and its performance in relation to the objectives of this type of control, such as improvement in voltage level and reduction of technical losses in the network.
- VP9 a.2 Voltage Regulation of Active Distribution Networks Considering Dynamic Control Zones
- This paper presents a new voltage control scheme that defines the bus voltages that distributed generation units are responsible for. The zones are defined in real-time based on the current capability of the units to inject or consume reactive power and the influence that each generator has on its neighboring buses. Each voltage regulator makes sure that the pilot bus of the corresponding control zone remains within limits. The proposed control scheme was tested in a large-scale distribution circuit model extracted from the Geographical Information System of a Costa Rican power utility. The tests show that the proposed scheme performs better than the traditional voltage control at generator's terminal. In addition, the proposed scheme increases the cooperation between distributed generators to regulate network voltages. This is achieved without any communication between units or a central coordinator.
- VP9 a.3 Towards Distribution Feeders Frequency Response via Solid State Transformers
- Although Solid State Transformers have shown to be improve energy quality in distribution systems, its massive integration is a risk for the frequency stability as they prevent the loads from providing inertia and frequency respond to the system. Synthetic or virtual inertia strategies have been proposed to solve this problems in the case of wind and solar converters, but they are not directly applicable to solid state transformers. This paper propose a simple control strategy based on loads dynamic, SST and power system dynamics to provide the solid state transformer with frequency response. Study cases are presented using an ERCOT power system model and a Serbian distribution feeder model to show numerical results.Presenter bio: Received the Licenciado, Ingeniero Civil en Electricidad, and Magister degrees in Electrical Engineering from the University of Santiago, Santiago, Chile in (2015), (2018), and (2018) respectively. He is currently an Instructor and PhD student in the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Santiago, Santiago, Chile.Presenter bio: Hector Chavez (M’13) received the Licenciado, Ingeniero Civil Electricista,and Magister degrees in Electrical Engineering from the University of Santiago, Santiago, Chile in (2004), (2006), and (2006) respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Texas at Austin, Austin TX, in 2013. In 2013, he was a Postdoctoral fellow withthe Department of Electric Power Systems, School of Electrical Engineering,KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. He is currently an Assistant Professor with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Universityof Santiago, Santiago, Chile. From 2006 to 2009, he was an Instrumentation Engineer with WorleyParsons Minerals and Metals, Santiago, Chile.
- VP9 a.4 Ranking of Priorities for the Management of Distribution Transformers: a Multicriterial Approach
- One of the most important equipment of the Bulk Power System (BPS) is the Distribution Transformer (DT), which performs a great effort during critical demand. The operation of the DT is correlated to the lifetime of the insulation, consisting of general guidelines of the paper and oil. The durability of the transformer insulation is related to thermal supportability and the equivalent aging factor. Thus, its lifetime depends on the burdens supported during operation since the temperature of the windings and the insulating oil is proportional to the power loading in the transformers. Usually, Power Utilities (PU) without any previous study wait for problems to happen first, and then make solutions. This paper proposes a study of a multicriteria analysis for decision making in DT management using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. The following decision-making criteria are adopted: a lifetime forecast and equivalent aging factor of the DTs, reliability indicators, the impact of proximity to load centers and the distance from the DTs to the feeder. Based on the AHP, the objective of this paper is to provide a ranking that supports the decision making of the replacement priority or even reallocation of the equipment.
- VP9 a.5 An Approach to Advanced Distribution Automation in the Context of Smart Grid
- Recent technological advances, with advanced measurement and automation infrastructures, and sophisticated computational intelligence mechanisms, create opportunities, among others, to improve the operational efficiency of electrical systems and power quality indicators within the context of smart grids (SG). Distribution companies have corporate supervisory, control, monitoring, georeferencing and management systems and have invested in automation and modernization projects of their electric grids for this purpose. Thus, this paper presents an approach for the development of a DMS - Distribution Management System, for Advanced Distribution Automation (ADA) applications, which includes state estimator, Volt/VAr control, fault location, isolation, and self-restoration tools, so that an interoperability bus (BCIM) integrates the corporate systems with the operational management. The developed applications were tested for real networks, in a computational environment, and integrated with the environment of the NAPREI / USP Smart Grids laboratory. The results demonstrate the processes of integrating ADA applications into a commercial service bus, which communicates the company's legacy systems, of testing their applications, and its challenges.
Wednesday, September 30 13:40 - 13:50 (America/Montevideo)
- VP9 b.1 Analysis of Loss Measurements on Distribution Networks Using Relaying Equipment
- The objective of this work is to study the uncertainty associated with the measurement of energy losses in a distribution network. It is done by means of differences between input and output energies of each region. For this, the energy measurement system uses the only equipment available, intended for the protection system. It comprises protection secondary outputs of current and voltage transformers and energy measurement using protection relays. As the rated accuracy of these devices are low for energy measurement, test were done to determine if their actual errors fulfills the project requirements.
- VP9 b.2 Distribution System State Estimation: A Primer for Application Based Research
- Not surprisingly, distribution system state estimation has become a hot topic with increasing levels of customer owned/operated DER and utilities investing in more distribution automation schemes for improved operations, protection and reliability. Recent research in distribution system state estimation has largely focused on the methods of calculating the state estimate while neglecting the use or application of the tool set. Nearly all modern DMS vendors offer a stable and reliable distribution system state estimation solution. This paper is not intended to be a review document, but a primer for the application and development of how best to apply distribution system state estimation to the operation of electric distribution systems.
- VP9 b.3 Reproduction of a High Impedance Double Line-To-Ground Fault Using Real Oscillography Data
- This paper presents the reproduction of an actual high impedance fault (HIF) event of type double line-to-ground using real oscillography data and ATP-EMTP software. The event occured in an overhead distribution system connected to substation Salinopolis 13.8 kV, after two cabes broke and touched ´ a soil contact surface. The reproduction method of the mentioned event is based on simple calculation of fault currents from neutral current measurements to generate the V × I curve used in the HIF model. The results show that current signals obtained from simulation match the current measurements, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method.
- VP9 b.4 Power Quality Meters Allocation Considering Strategic Positions in Distribution Systems and Using Genetic Algorithms
- Analyzing the current economic context, the installation of power quality meters in all bus of the power systems, in order to obtain complete observability, is financially unfeasible. However, it is possible to state that the allocation of meters in strategic positions guarantees complete visibility of the entire system without the need for a meter in each bus. Thus, this work proposes that a prior analysis be carried out to find these strategic positions, in order to assist in the final allocation of the meters through Genetic Algorithms. The validation of the proposed methodology was carried out using the IEEE 34-bus distribution system. The results obtained showed that the complete observability of the entire system was guaranteed and the number of meters to be installed was reduced in comparison with the situation without no prior analysis of strategic positions.
Wednesday, September 30 13:50 - 14:00 (America/Montevideo)
- VP9 c.1 Characteristics of High Impedance Faults in Overhead Distribution Networks in Bamboo Branches
- The high impedance fault (HIF) has as one of its main characteristics the low magnitude of the current produced, causing its detection and location to be impaired for the equipment currently used to protect electrical power systems, which favors the driver remain energized, increasing the likelihood of fires and the risk of death for living beings. Records of HIF characteristics in trees are a gap in the literature, making it difficult to develop new algorithms and identification methods. This study presents details of the voltage and current characteristics of HIF in bamboo tree branches, the result of experimental tests carried out in a laboratory designed and assembled for HIF simulation in overhead distribution networks, and the capture of these oscillography was carried out by a relay commercial protection.
- VP9 c.2 Short-term Electric Load Forecasting Using Neural Networks: A Comparative Study
- Forecasting the short-term electrical demands of a distribution system is essential for efficient electric system planning and operation. A balance between generation and demand is the main requirement for efficient operation by the electric utilities. Therefore, a load forecast as accurately as possible is important to offer a good service with adequate economic viability. In this work, four types of short-term load forecasting based on neural networks are proposed and compared. A Nonlinear autoregressive neural network (NAR), a Nonlinear autoregressive neural network with external input (NARX), a Feedforward neural network (Feedforward), and a Time delay neural network (Timedelay) are modeled and simulated. A comparison among proposed neural networks is done using metrics established in the evaluation of neural networks, such as Mean Squared Error (MSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and Correlation Coefficient (R). The data used in this work was extracted from the Operating Center of a local company of distribution of electric energy. These data are pretreated using curve smoothing techniques, and then, they are used to train the selected neural networks. Moreover, a simulation using the Prophet, a Facebook® procedure to predict time series, was made to compare the results with the mentioned neural networks.
- VP9 c.3 Risk Mitigation Approaches for Improved Resilience in Distribution Networks
- Traditionally the risk analysis framework comprises two steps: the risk assessment and risk mitigation. The tracking of the operating condition for each feeder section of a distribution network using the prediction of hourly risk levels and monthly accumulated risks corresponds to the first step. In this paper, we evaluate the use of two modern approaches to risk mitigation, one commonly named as automatic fault location, isolation and service restoration (FLISR), and other as demand response management (DRM). Since the implementation of these approaches depends on distribution automation, the control actions to mitigate the risk are carried out through the distribution management system. Results reveal advantages in the implementation of FLISR and DRM for improving the distribution network resilience. The developed visualization tool with georeferenced data from a real world distribution network supports the achieved benefits.
- VP9 c.4 Evaluation of Power System Resilience Improvements in Low-Income Neighborhoods
- This article provides an evaluation of power system resilience enhancements in low-income neighborhoods. Low-income households and communities may be subject to risks of different nature, such as natural hazards and man-made attacks, hereby considered as particular cases of high-impact, low-probability events that are highly likely to damage power grid infrastructures. Such events may result in long interruption times and lead to permanent disconnection from the grid in extreme cases, and consequently, the value of load lost may be much higher than the investment cost associated with prevention and mitigation alternatives. In this scenario, this article analyzes the value of load lost and the costs associated with installation, operation, and repair of grid components affected by extreme events to determine the benefits of different strategies for power system resilience improvements targeted at low-income neighborhoods.Presenter bio: linkedin.com/in/laizsouto
- VP9 c.5 Assessment of Harmonic Distortion Associated with PV Penetration in a Low Voltage Distribution Network
- The photovoltaic penetration brings huge challenges to the distribution networks operators in different aspects related with the power quality. This paper pretends to show an assessment of the distortion of current and voltage signals caused by photovoltaic penetration of a low voltage distribution network based on a CIGRE benchmark with European configuration, which contains three subnetworks, namely residential, industrial and commercial. For this purpose ten photovoltaic systems are proposed, five in the residential, one in the industrial and four in the commercial subnetwork. All of them in five scenarios where each photovoltaic system changes its power rate according to the penetration percentage which could be 1%, 5%, 15%, 30% or 50%. The simulation is developed in OpenDSS software together with Python where the total harmonic distortion of current and voltage are calculated. Additionally, the total losses of the system are presented by each scenario. Results show that the voltage distortion in the transformer points is too small, however, the current distortion exceeds quality standard conditions, especially the residential subnetwork which achieves a current distortion around 80% in the scenario with highest penetration.Presenter bio: Johanna Castellanos is a PhD student in Engineering in the area of power and energy at Javeriana University (PUJ) in Colombia. She is a Mechatronics Engineer graduated from the Military Nueva Granada University (UMNG) in 2008. During her undergraduate, she made a university exchange at the Polytechnic University of Valencia (UPV) in Spain. He received his Master's degree in Electronic Engineering from the PUJ in 2012. From 2012 to 2016, she joined at Halliburton Latin-American as Field Professional in the Wireline & Perforating area. Her current research interest areas are related with smart grids, high PV penetration, control systems, DERs and harmonic distortion. She has been a volunteer IEEE member for 14 years working in student and professional volunteering. A part to IAS positions, she was student branch and chapter chair at UMNG (2008), SAC Team Colombia in (2009), founder chair of Colombia Section Industry Application Society Chapter (2009-2012), founder and secretary of the professional chapter of the Colombian professional chapter of Robotics and Automation (2010-2012), founder vice chair of the professional chapter of Control Systems (2010-2012). Additionally, she was the founder chair of the Santanderes subsection in the IEEE Colombia Section (2018-2020).
- VP9 c.6 Assessment of the Technical Loss Calculation Method Used in Brazilian Distribution Systems
- In Brazil, the Electricity Regulatory Agency defines that technical losses on distribution systems must be calculated via power flow simulation, with primary and secondary systems modeled in detail. However, as this approach requires a massive amount of data, the agency established assumptions to enable its implementation by all Brazilian utilities. These assumptions are currently under scrutiny by the utilities. In this context, this paper investigates the assumptions regarding load connection type, load power factor, line impedance, grounding resistance and load curve resolution, to identify whether they are indeed necessary, technically sound and what is the quantitative impact on technical losses. The study was conducted on a large database with 1,277 distribution feeders modeled in OpenDSS (over 4.5 million customers) so that truly realistic results can be obtained. Moreover, analytical derivations are presented to assess the technical correctness of all assumptions. It is found that, for the studied feeders, the assumptions seem to be reasonable, but more studies are necessary to define the load power factor and how to model reactive power compensation equipment.
Wednesday, September 30 14:00 - 14:10 (America/Montevideo)
- VP10.1 New Adaptive Protection Algorithm for Online Overcurrent Relay Setting in Interconnected Power Systems
- This work presents an adaptive protection algorithm for online coordination of directional overcurrent relays. The algorithm includes an optimization procedure for determining time and pick-up current settings in the coordination problem. The proposed algorithm is simulated in an interconnected system and the results shows that it is able to find the optimal solution in reduced times, highlighting its potential for online application and the need for such an algorithm to keep the system secure.
- VP10.2 Analyzing Short-Circuit Current Behavior Caused by Inverter-Interfaced Renewable Energy Sources. Effects on Distance Protection
- The behavior of short-circuit current caused by renewable energy sources (RESs) connected to the grid through an inverter-interface is different to the behavior of conventional sources, then as a consequence causes effects on distance protection in the transmission line emanating from the RES. Therefore an adequate representative inverter-model was developed in Matlab that consider the characteristics of the dynamic voltage support governed by the grid codes. The model simulates the control system in the inverter through an iterative process, as a result, the short-circuit currents are obtained with greater precision, which allows more accuracy in the calculation of the impedance value seen by relays on the transmission line. Furthermore the analysis is developed by symmetrical and asymmetrical short-circuit calculations, taking into account the fault resistance variation and fault location. Finally, the analysis shows the main factors causing variations in the impedances seen.
- VP10.3 Fault Location in HVDC Grids by ANN and Wavelet Transform
- With the growth of direct current transmission systems, there is a need to propose and analyze efficient methods for fault location. This research aims to obtain and evaluate the performance of a fault location algorithm on a 200 km transmission line. The two terminal VSC-HVDC system was modeled on Simulink and the data was pre-processed with Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT). Then, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used to estimate the fault location. Several scenarios were simulated, varying the resistance and fault location along the line. The low error verified in the distance estimation demonstrates the high reliability of the method in locating the fault.
Wednesday, September 30 14:10 - 14:20 (America/Montevideo)
- VP11.1 Islanding Detection and Resynchronization Based upon Wide-Area Monitoring and Situational Awareness in the Dominican Republic
- This paper shows the benefits of synchrophasor technology for islanding detection and resynchronization in the control room at Empresa de Transmisión Eléctrica Dominicana (ETED) in the Dominican Republic. EPG's Real Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS®) deployed at ETED was tested during operator training with the event data after an islanding event occurred on October 26, 2019, which caused the ETED System to split into two islands. RTDMS's islanding detection algorithm quickly detected and identified the event. The islanding situation was not clear for operators during the time of the event with the use of traditional SCADA tools. The use of synchophasor technology also provides valuable information for a quick and safe resynchronization. By monitoring the system frequency in each island and voltage angle differences between islands, operators can know the exact time of circuit breaker closure for a successful resynchronization. Synchrophasors allow the resynchronization in a relatively short time, avoiding the risk of additional load loss, generator outages or even a wider system blackout.Presenter bio: Horacio Silva-Saravia (S'10-M'19) was born in Valparaiso, Chile. He received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees from the Federico Santa Maria Technical University, Chile in 2014, and his Ph.D degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA in 2019. His research area includes power system dynamics, stability and control of renewable energy generation, and synchrophasor applications for situational awareness and wide-area monitoring. He currently works at Electric Power Group in research and development related to synchrophasor technology for operators and control centers.
- VP11.2 A Single Busbar Model for Dynamic Studies of Power Systems Frequency
- The increasingly higher penetration of renewable generation, progressively substituting classical synchronous machines, creates a scenario where the system inertia is significantly reduced. This poses new challenges for the frequency response of power systems - temporary power imbalances result now in deeper frequency excursions and greater rates of change of frequency with potential operational and protective challenges. Classical remedial actions as under-frequency load shedding, spinning reserves and primary frequency regulation play a central role along with novel technological strategies as synthetic inertia. The assessment of these alternatives for frequency control and protection requires suitable models where topological aspects of the network can be put aside. This paper describes the developing of a new modeling tool that, departing from the time response of the frequency of a system facing power imbalances, builds an equivalent single busbar model. It does so by first computing an approximation of four parameters that capture the essence of the frequency transient for the grid, which then refines using a genetic algorithm. The user can configure the set of lumped equivalent device models present in the single busbar model. Results of its application to the Argentine-Uruguayan system are described and commented.
- VP11.3 Short-term Dispatch of Renewable Sources Considering Minimization of Active Losses and Generation Costs
- The global search for diversification in energy matrix associated with technological developments have lead to an increase in the participation of renewable sources, wind and solar, requiring the redesign of models for planning and operation. In this context, this work proposes a short-term dispatch considering the presence of wind and solar plants, where the power for renewable sources is allocated according to historical load profiles. The mathematical modeling of the algorithm is performed via AMPL and to solve the problem, the interior point methodology was used, using the Knitro solver, where two different objective functions were considered: (1) minimization of active power losses and (2) minimization of electricity production costs. The tests were carried out in an IEEE standard electrical system of 30-bus, where the wind and solar photovoltaic sources were inserted, with energy production data from two generation plants located in the electrical system in the Northeast region of Brazil.
- VP11.4 Impact of Electrodes Configuration on Incident Energy Analysis Using IEEE Std 1584
- The principal injury events associated with electrical hazards are electrical shock and arc flash. Although the first event is more developed in literature, the second is the responsible for most of hospital admissions due to electrical accidents. In the last 30 years, concern about burn injuries caused by arc flash events has increasing, so much so that models to predict the energy from the arc were developed: Lee's and Doughty-Neal's models, as well as the IEEE Std 1584, are the most famous methods to predict incident energy. In this paper, it is proposed the estimation of incident energy of a 11 kV bus using the equations from IEEE Std 1584 for two different electrode configurations, then the comparison between results in terms of incident energy, arc-flash boundary and PPE categories.
- VP11.5 Excedentes Estructurales En Sistemas Con Alta Incorporación De Energías Renovables
- El sistema eléctrico uruguayo llevó adelante en los últimos años una importante incorporación de energías renovables no convencionales (ERNC). Esto se dio en respuesta a los costos decrecientes de las ERNC que con su incorporación permitían lograr una disminución del Costo de Abastecimiento de la Demanda del sistema (CAD), así como una mayor independencia de importaciones y de generación a partir de fuentes fósiles. En este trabajo se analizan los excedentes de energía eléctrica estructurales que resultan de la expansión óptima del sistema de generación según los criterios definidos en la planificación de la expansión de generación realizada en Uruguay . Se evalúa la cantidad de energía de excedentes que presenta el sistema en forma anual y quinquenal móvil en los próximos 10 años para diferentes probabilidades de excedencia, así como la cantidad de horas que estos excedentes superan ciertos umbrales. Por último se evalúa la correlación existente entre los excedentes y los aportes hídricos. Se concluye que, en sistemas como el uruguayo, con importante incorporación de generación renovable no convencional, y con la alta variabilidad interanual que presenta la generación de las centrales hidráulicas, los escenarios de expansión óptimos presentan excedentes estructurales de energía eléctrica, y los mismos en valor esperado (VE) resultan del orden de un 15% de la demanda anual.
- VP11.6 Probabilistic Optimal Power Flow Using a Matheuristic Solution Approach
- A new optimization methodology to solve the AC optimal power flow (AC-OPF) problem considering renewable energy sources (RES) is proposed. The formulation of the OPF problem comprises the minimization of generation costs and polluting gases emissions through control of power dispatch generators, position changing of the transformers, and reactive shunt compensation. A probabilistic approach is considered to deal with the uncertainties of RES and demand behavior. Thus, uncertainties in the behavior of the system are modeled using the (2m + 1) point-estimate method. The mathematical formulation of the OPF is a mixed-integer non-linear (MINLP) multi-objective model. To solve this problem efficiently, a matheuristic approach algorithm is proposed, combining the classic non-linear OPF model and the Variable Neighborhood Descent meta-heuristic (VND) algorithm. The potential of the proposed algorithm is shown through numerical experiments carried out using the IEEE-30 and IEEE-118 bus systems
Wednesday, September 30 14:20 - 14:30 (America/Montevideo)
- VP12.1 Alternativas De Expansión Del Parque De Generación Eléctrica En Uruguay Según Diferentes Modelos
- Se analizaron las diferentes propuestas de expansión óptima del parque de generación de Uruguay que surgen de utilizar diferentes herramientas de modelado disponibles para llevar a cabo la planificación de largo plazo, teniendo en cuenta las características de la composición del parque generador uruguayo. Tratándose de un sistema con un alto componente de potencia instalada de origen hidroeléctrico, la posible falla en que incurra el sistema se ve fuertemente influenciada por las condiciones de hidraulicidad, por lo que la planificación se lleva a cabo previendo posibles condiciones de sequía, considerando el promedio del 5% histórico de crónicas de aportes más secas. Adicionalmente en los últimos años se promovió la incorporación al sistema de generación uruguayo de una importante componente de energías renovables altamente variables, como son la eólica y la solar fotovoltaica. Esto planteó un desafío para su modelado, dado que las herramientas utilizadas habitualmente en la planificación de largo plazo y ampliamente probadas como el programa WASP (desarrollado en 1972 por la AIEA) fueron diseñadas para ser utilizadas en la planificación de sistemas hidro-térmicos, y no tienen en cuenta en su modelado las características de aleatoriedad intrínseca a estos recursos renovables no convencionales, lo que provocó la necesidad de adaptar a éstas los modelos existentes, y al mismo tiempo a desarrollar nuevas herramientas como OddFACE que forma parte de un paquete de mejoras sobre la plataforma SimSEE (desarrollado por UdelaR). Se realizaron simulaciones con ambos software, considerando un plazo de 20 años, que permiten analizar las diferencias que surgen en las propuestas de expansión de la generación obtenidas por ambos modelos, así como evaluar la diferencia económica que pueda existir entre las mismas. a
- VP12.2 Early Detection of Gearbox Damage, Development of ANN Forecast Maintenance Tool
- Wind turbine maintenance management worldwide has received more attention, with efforts towards reducing the costs of maintenance and downtime. The kinetic energy from the wind is converted into electric power with certain efficiency, the loss of energy is dissipated as heat through radiation, conduction and convection through the oil cooling system, on the drivetrain power, and especially on the gearbox. Data monitoring and analysis based on a continuous measurement from the wind turbine Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) is used for the development of an Artificial Neuronal Network (ANN)
- VP12.3 Potential Induced Degradation (PID): Review
- Potential induced degradation (PID) is a problem that in recent years has been the focus of research and studies on the performance of the photovoltaic module (PV) under field conditions, in view of the consequences caused by this degradation. Even with extensive material, the understanding of the PID phenomenon is still incomplete, but it must be taken into account that technological and environmental diversity are factors that imply in reversal techniques. This article aims to conduct a critical review in order to provide an overview and broad view of the literature available to promote understanding of the current state of PID research. The role is to present the definitions of the PID mechanism supported by scholars and researchers as well as the influence of temperature, humidity and tension on the progression of the PID and the detection and reversal methodologies and preventive measures in PV c-Si modules.
- VP12.4 Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Potential of Northwest Mesoregion of the State of Rio Grande Do Sul, Brazil
- Energy is indispensable for the global functioning of the economy. However, when using fossil fuels, the effects on the environment have been shown to be quite harmful, according to data from the IPCC, the UN body responsible for controlling carbon dioxide emissions and causing the atmosphere to heat up or the greenhouse effect. Thus generating energy from renewable sources is important to create a future scenario of technological and economic development without damage to our habitat. In this work, we analyze data from intensive swine farming in the Northwest Mesoregion of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to present the wasted energy potential by not transforming the biogas from the activity into electricity and how much this volume of gas generates from dioxide carbon equivalent directly into the atmosphere. By analyzing this region, with data from the Secretariat of Agriculture and Livestock, it was possible to determine an energy potential above 13 thousand cubic meters per hour (13.000 m3/h) of biogas, which means an energy potential for transformation of 37 MWh and an emission of CO2 greater than 6.5 tCO2e/h, in a conversion between the potential of Methane (21 times more polluting than CO2) contained in the biogas in a concentration around 60% and that brings a considerable calorific power to transform this biogas into electricity. For this purpose, the rules of Aneel Resolution 482/2012 and revised by 687/2015 will be used, which allows energy compensation for renewable energy thrown directly into the electricity distribution network from the application of biodigesters. Through the analysis carried out it was possible to determine that there is a high potential to generate electricity and reduce the emission of gases that cause the greenhouse effect in this region, as it concentrates, a large volume of swines in intensive livestock.
Wednesday, September 30 14:30 - 14:40 (America/Montevideo)
- VP13 a.1 Avaliação Probabilística Dos Impactos Técnicos Da Inserção De Microgeradores Fotovoltaicos e Veículos Elétricos Em Uma Rede De Distribuição
- This paper presents a probabilistic technical impacts assessment with photovoltaic microgenerators and electric vehicles connection on low voltage networks. The Monte Carlo method is applied to generate randomly: residential load variables, electric vehicles recharge demand, photovoltaic generators installed capacity and frequency inverter and battery charger phases connection. In this, CA 746 circuit is subjected 6000 daily simulations divided into 6 solar radiation scenarios. The experiments show that the proposed evaluation is robust, and electric vehicle and photovoltaic generation massive connection is problematic for secondary distribution networks.Presenter bio: Received B.Sc. and M.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering in 2011 and 2014, respectively, from the Federal University of Amazonas (UFAM), Brazil. He is currently a Ph.D. student at the Federal University of Pará (UFPA), Brazil. Also, he is participating in the GSEI research group. Since 2015, he has been assistant professor at the Department of Electricity, UFAM. His research topics are Electrical Power Systems with emphasis on smart grids, distributed energy resources, electric vehicles and modeling, control, and monitoring on low voltage distribution networks.
- VP13 a.2 Impacts of Photovoltaic Systems in Distribution Networks Using Droop Control
- Currently, distributed energy resources have vertiginous growth all over the world. This type of generation uses smaller generators, so they can be allocated close to the consumer centers, which have several advantages. However, it is necessary to study the impacts on distribution systems to guarantee if the power quality to customers is being maintained. Thus, this paper aims in studying the impacts of distributed photovoltaic generation. The main focus is voltage rises caused by solar panels. Also, active losses, the number of tap changing operation of voltage regulators, and the presence of reverse power flow were analyzed. Two droop control methods were considered: volt-watt and volt-var controls. Results show that both controls are capable of mitigating the voltage rise phenomenon caused by distributed photovoltaic generators.
- VP13 a.3 Optimal Sizing of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation in a MV Network
- This paper presents a methodology for the optimal location of photovoltaic distributed generation (DG) in balanced or unbalanced electric power distribution systems. The performance evaluation of the network is developed using the Open Distribution Systems Simulator software (OpenDSS) while the cost optimization is carried out using MATLAB optimization toolbox. A CIGRE medium voltage (MV) distribution network model is used as a test-system for sizing and locating photovoltaic generation sites. The optimization formulation considers the installation cost minimization, in addition to complying with other operational constraints. The case study scenarios shown were developed using an algorithm based on optimal analysis of installation cost for a solar plant and the grid power required to supply the total demand of the system. The results showed that DGs contribute to the improvement of the system's performance, with special enhancement of system's voltages.
- VP13 a.4 Transport Route Planning for Operation and Maintenance of Off-grid Photovoltaic Energy Systems in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso Do Sul
- Photovoltaic energy systems are sustainable options for residential off-grid electrification in remote areas. However, the activities planning of Operation and Maintenance (O&M) of these systems are a challenge in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, due to the environment complexity which presents seasonality and inaccessible routes for technical service. In this paper, the traveling salesman problem (TSP) is proposed to model the transport routing planning in photovoltaic off-grid O&M attendance. The inputs for TSP were graphs of a specific Pantanal area with routes accessing based on spent time variable as transportation modes, the monthly scheduling of O&M activities according to the energy systems specifications, and flood periods in the same Pantanal area. The results obtained were the optimal route planning according to minimal spent time and minimal transport mode variation, with great impact in the O&M total cost.
- VP13 a.5 Impacts of Photovoltaic Insertion on Distribution Losses in the Amazon
- The objective of this work is to evaluate the impacts of distributed generation on the behavior of a medium voltage distribution network located in a hot and humid region of the Amazon. Specifically, the electrical network of the Federal University of Acre will be evaluated, using the open source software OpenDSS, before and after the insertion of a power of 180kWp in one of its line sections, analyzing the changes in network losses and flow of power. In the simulations carried out, a reduction of 8.9\% was observed in the power flow of the local feeder and inversion of flow in the connection section of the photovoltaic plant, in addition to a reduction in losses in the order of 8.7% in the lines close to the photovoltaic generation. (FV). With the data obtained, it's clear that distributed generation, notably PV generation, can contribute to reducing losses in the electrical system and improving associated services.
Wednesday, September 30 14:40 - 14:50 (America/Montevideo)
- VP13 b.1 Linear Fresnel Concentrator: A Review of Its Implementation in South American Countries
- Solar energy is considered one of the most promising renewable sources for generating electricity. Among them, the linear Fresnel concentrator (LFC) emerges as a viable solution due to its lower cost, a lighter structure, better use of land compared to other solutions such as parabolic trough technology. For these reasons, LFC is being used in several applications for large-scale electricity production, as well as for generating small, medium and large-scale industrial process heat. The aim of this article is to show a status review of this technology in South American countries and to identify the challenges for its application.
- VP13 b.2 Transitórios Eletromecânicos Em Sistemas Elétricos Com Forte Geração Fotovoltaica e STATCOMs Para Suporte De Resposta Inercial
- O aumento de geração fotovoltaica afeta o desempenho do sistema elétrico em face de perturbações pelo fato desse tipo de fonte não contribuir para a energia de regulação do sistema. Na literatura, podem ser encontrados vários estudos sobre estratégias mitigadoras desse problema. Porém, boa parte desses estudos utilizam modelos muito detalhados que consideram frequências elevadas, fora da faixa de interesse dos fenômenos eletromecânicos, o que restringe as simulações a sistemas de pequeno porte. Neste trabalho, é aplicada uma estratégia inercial baseada em STATCOMs em um estudo de estabilidade transitória. São utilizados modelos eletromecânicos desses dispositivos eletrônicos obtidos a partir de uma síntese da literatura sobre o assunto. Os resultados obtidos nas simulações mostram como esses dispositivos atuam favoravelmente no balanço de potência ativa e na regulação de frequência.
- VP13 b.3 Co-Optimization in the Operation of Hydroelectric and Solar Generation in the Province of San Juan: Methodology
- This paper presents a mathematical non-linear programming model applied to the operational optimization of a regional hydroelectric power production system with multiple reservoirs that also includes renewable (solar) generation. The regional system is linked to a larger system (national interconnected system) through one or more tie-power lines. The hourly nodal market prices at the buses ends of the tie-lines are used to value power exchanges (exports or imports). These prices (or marginal costs) are parameters for the optimization procedure and their estimation is based on the mid-term operational planning published by the national system operator. The model considers cascaded hydro systems with head-sensitive plants and a DC power flow to represents the transmission network and its constraints. Optimal hourly scheduling of each plant is obtained within a medium-short term horizon ranging from one day up to eight weeks. The model is applied to the interconnected system of the San Juan province, Argentina, including the cascade hydroelectric exploitation on San Juan river composed by three reservoirs and four hydroelectric plants. The results show the optimal scheduling to maximize the revenues of the generation company that operates hydroelectric plants. The impact of non-linear production functions of hydroelectric power plants on the results are analyzed by comparison with a simplified linear modeling.
- VP13 b.4 Study of the Effect of SCR and Controller Gains on System Stability in a Grid Connected Solar Plant
- The renewable energy sources now play a vital role in power generation. The grid connected PV system consists of inverters, power plant controller (PPC) and the grid. The power plant controller measures the quantities from the point of common coupling and regulates the inverters to ensure stable operation of the system. A stability analysis study has been presented in the paper with regards to the short circuit ratio, gains of the inverter and PPC controllers. The study has been presented in terms of pole placement and their movement in the complex plane. The study shows that appropriate tuning of inverter and PPC controllers can provide stable system bahavior even at low SCR conditions.
Wednesday, September 30 14:50 - 15:00 (America/Montevideo)
- VP14.1 Rogowski Coil Design for the Measurement of High Voltage Harmonics
- National and international standards include requirements for harmonics at sub-transmission voltages. In order to prepare for future requirements at high voltages, a device for measuring these harmonics is studied. It computes the voltage harmonic content through the current consumed by the installed capacitive voltage transformers. For that, it is proposed a custom designed Rogowski coil capable of measuring very low currents, and of working in presence of high electric fields.
- VP14.2 Current Transformer Model Validation on EMTP-ATP Software
- The present work is the continuation of the revision made in paper  about the different ways of modeling a current transformer (CT) and the importance of the parameters involved. This paper presents the description of several models elaborated for electromagnetic transient studies and the tests and simulations carried out for their validation. Special focus is made on the modeling of the magnetizing branch which proves to be a critical parameter in the performance of the CT model.
- VP14.3 Uncertainty Estimation in Luminous Flux Measured with Goniophotometers Using Monte Carlo Method
- When it is difficult to apply the methodology established in the GUM to calculate uncertainty in a measurement, the Monte Carlo method can be used to find an estimate of uncertainty. In this work, the Monte Carlo methodology was applied to find the uncertainty in luminous flux, when it is measured by means of a far-field goniophotometer. The methodology was applied on three light intensity matrices from three LED sources. The maximum uncertainty found is 1.2 % with a confidence level of approximately 95.5 %. By means of mathematical calculation and simulation it was determined that the distance between the light source and the sensor is the parameter that most influences the uncertainty in luminous flux.Presenter bio: Electronic engineer of the National University of Colombia, Magister in engineering in Automation. Experience in the lighting industry and esay laboratories. Current professor of the university Manuela Beltrán in Colombia.
Wednesday, September 30 15:10 - 16:30 (America/Montevideo)
IP2: INDUSTRY PANEL Discussion 2: "Avances en Redes Inteligente (Smart Grids) en Uruguay" (Español, 15:10-16:30 GMT-3)
SHORT-BIO: Eduardo Bergerie Pagadoy, Ingeniero Electricista, egresado en 1981 de la École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Suiza. Ha realizado tareas de consultoría en varias empresas de agua y electricidad en África, América y Asia, en proyectos financiados por el Banco Mundial, la Unión Europea y otros organismos públicos y privados del sector energético. Actualmente dirige el proyecto de Redes Inteligentes y Movilidad Eléctrica, en UTE, Uruguay.
ABSTRACT: Redes Inteligentes (Smart Grids) avances en UTE Uruguay. El actual proyecto desarrollado por UTE, presenta avances a destacar si comparamos con otros países de la región y el mundo. Como que el despliegue de la infraestructura de medición alcanza el 20 % del total de los clientes. La funcionalidad de esta infraestructura permite darle visibilidad de la red de BT a los operadores de la Red de Distribución. Esto es un paso notable que nos diferencia de los que solo usan estos sistemas para facturación. También se ha desarrollado la plataforma de control activa de demanda en clientes residenciales. Avances como la gestión de termotanques para un conjunto de clientes. Una nueva APP para teléfonos celulares inteligentes, que permite visualizar los puntos de carga de Vehículos eléctricos en todo el país. Hoy son 67 puntos disponibles. Un fuerte avance en el desarrollo de un sistema de reconfiguracion automática de la red de Distribución.
Wednesday, September 30 16:30 - 17:00 (America/Montevideo)
Thursday, October 1
Thursday, October 1 9:00 - 9:10 (America/Montevideo)
Thursday, October 1 9:10 - 9:50 (America/Montevideo)
SHORT-BIO: Constantine (Costas) Vournas received the Diploma of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering from the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) in 1975, the MSc in Electrical Engineering from the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada in 1978, and the NTUA Doctor of Engineering degree in 1986. He was Professor until 2019 and is currently Professor Emeritus in the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering of NTUA. He has published 190 papers in International Journals and Conferences and has co-authored the book "Voltage Stability of Electric Power Systems". His research interests are in the area of power system dynamics, stability and control and include voltage stability and security analysis, wind generator integration in power systems, novel control applications in the distribution and transmission grid, as well as the effect of deregulation on power system operation and control.
ABSTRACT: This presentation focuses on harnessing reactive support from distributed resources and in particular from Wind Farms connected to Medium Voltage distribution feeders, in order to increase the maximum power transfer to a weak area, and thus the Voltage Stability margin of the power system. The method used is based on an emergency control signal issued when the transmission voltage falls below a specified threshold. The model used incorporates distributed resources, such as variable speed wind farms, as well as existing distribution feeder controls such as Load Tap Changer on the HV/MV transformer, and switched capacitors. Case studies using the Hellenic Interconnected System to assess the reactive support WFs can provide will be discussed.
Thursday, October 1 9:50 - 10:30 (America/Montevideo)
K5: KEYNOTE: "Scientific advice for the Uruguayan response to the COVID-19 pandemic" (English, 09:50 - 10:30 GMT-3)
SHORT-BIO Fernando Paganini received degrees in both Electrical Engineering and Mathematics from Universidad de la República, Uruguay (1990), and his MS (1992) and PhD (1996) degrees in Electrical Engineering from the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena. From 1996 to 1997 he was postdoctoral associate at MIT. Between 1997 and 2005 he was on the faculty of the Electrical Engineering Department at UCLA, reaching the rank of Associate Professor. Since 2005 he is Professor of Engineering at Universidad ORT Uruguay, and since 2019 Associate Dean of Research. Dr. Paganini has received the 1995 O. Hugo Schuck Best Paper Award, the 1999 Packard Fellowship, the 2004 George S. Axelby Best Paper Award, and the 2010 Elsevier Scopus Prize. He is a member of the Uruguayan National Academies, both in Science and in Engineering, and a member of the Latin American Academy of Sciences. He is a Fellow of the IEEE, and has served in the Editorial board of IEEE Transactions in his fields of interest: control and networks.
ABSTRACT Uruguay has so far been successfully managing its coronavirus outbreak, an outlier in a region badly hit by the pandemic. The Uruguayan President summoned in this juncture an Honorary Scientific Advisory Group, one of whose members is Dr. Paganini, coordinating the efforts in modeling and data for the epidemic. The talk will provide an overview of the different aspects of Uruguay´s response: the timeliness and strength of the initial voluntary confinement, and the subsequent enhacement of testing, tracing and isolation capabilities. These actions, in the Uruguayan demographic, geographical, and sanitary context, have enabled a situation of relative control during the last six months. We will comment on the lessons and limitations of mathematical models for the epidemic, and remark on what lies ahead for the country.
Thursday, October 1 10:50 - 11:30 (America/Montevideo)
- VO4A.1 Practical PV Hosting Capacity Determination Using Load Factor of the Distribution Transformer
- It is known that photovoltaic generation causes voltage variations and imbalances, harmonics of current and voltage, flickers, reverse power flow, additional aging in medium/low distribution transformers, and voltage regulators. A way to reduce these is to select an adequate level of PV generation in the distribution systems. PV Hosting Capacity tries to achieve this goal. This work presents a practical method to calculate the PVHC in a medium voltage feeder, analyzing the relationship between the load factor of the distribution transformer and the voltage, the current, and the active power when the PV solar penetration level changes. The results allowed conclude that there is a direct relationship between PV solar penetration level and a load factor of the distribution transformers.Presenter bio: Obtained his degree of Electrical Engineer in 1994, from the Universidad de Zulia, Venezuela. PhD. in Electrical Engineering from the Universidad de Sevilla, Spain (2004). He has worked as a professor and researcher in power system at the School of Electrical Engineering of the Universidad de Zulia and is currently a member of the MEEP research group at Escuela Colombiana de Ingenier\'ia Julio Garavito. His main areas of interest are: optimization of power systems, alternative energy, smart grids and micro grids.
- VO4A.2 Application of Hardening Strategies and DG Placement to Improve Distribution Network Resilience Against Earthquakes
- During natural disasters, distribution systems operation is severely affected by facing many failures. In this regard, it is crucial to enhance the resilience of the distribution systems (DSs) against these disasters. However, nowadays, due to limitation of resources for investment in these networks, only the most efficient measures should be implemented. In this paper, a new tri-level optimization model based on the min-max-min model is presented to improve the distribution system resilience. In this method, reviewing the past earthquakes´ consequences in Iran and some parts of the world, three strategies are taken into account: 1- hardening distribution poles 2- hardening the connection of distribution transformers on their supporting poles 3- allocating distributed generator (DG) units in candidate nodes. In this model, the system planner determines which lines and nodes to be hardened in the upper level. In the middle level, the most vulnerable lines and nodes under occurrence of natural disasters are identified. In the lower-level, the system operator decides how to reconfigure the grid by a set of switching operations to minimize the load-shedding. The proposed method is implemented on a real 48-bus distribution network in Tehran. The results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Thursday, October 1 10:50 - 12:30 (America/Montevideo)
- VO5B.1 Real-time Health Condition Monitoring of SCADA Infrastructure of Power Transmission Systems Control Centers
- The infrastructure for the supervision, control and data acquisition (SCADA) is critical for the operation of the electrical transmission network due to the complexity of the modern electrical power systems which are made of a big number of components and technical constraints for its operation. One failure in one of the many devices that are part of the SCADA could produce a failure in the supervision and control of one substation, one region or even a whole country; and because the hardware infrastructure needed to implement a SCADA system might come to be massive in terms of the numbers of devices for the communication network, servers and more; it becomes crucial to have a well-structured and efficient monitoring system for the SCADA infrastructure of any power transmission control center. In this paper it is proposed a monitoring scheme based on the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) used to get real-time data of the devices involved in these systems, such as: servers, communication switches, workstations, routers and firewalls; and also, the real-time monitoring of essential software functions, not only from the SCADA but from the Energy Management System (EMS) as well. The acquired data is processed into early warning signs (alarms), tendency graphs and visualizations with real-time data that allows the administrators to manage the SCADA infrastructure in a preventive and not in a reactive manner, which secures the operation against failures and events. This scheme was implemented in four electrical power transmission control centers in South America which operate up to 500 kV grids. The implementation showed clear benefits in the use of this novel scheme because the detection, diagnostics and solution for possible risks in the system could be managed in an earlier stage than it used to be, which incremented the availability and reliability of the SCADA system infrastructure.
- VO5B.2 Integrated Analysis of Electrical and Gas Transmission Networks Considering Primary Frequency Control
- The increasing global use of natural gas for electric power generation has motivated the study of existing interdependencies between electricity and natural gas transmission networks, which are traditionally analyzed as independent systems. Within this context, a novel approach to the integrated formulation of the natural gas and electric power flow problem is proposed in this paper. This formulation is developed in a single frame of reference that allows an integrated energy flow analysis. Contrary to the current proposals for performing this type of analysis, the generator-governor characteristics, as well as the voltage and frequency dependence of loads, are incorporated into the system of equations of the electric power flow problem. This permits a better representation of the interaction between both energy infrastructures and of their actual operating conditions. The applicability of the proposed approach is demonstrated by analyzing an integrated multi-energy system composed of the IEEE 118-bus electrical system and a 15-node natural gas infrastructure.
- VO5B.3 Stochastic Assessment and Risk Management of Transient Stability Based on PowerFactory and Python Interface
- This paper presents a novel simulation tool that exploits the feasibility of communicating DIgSILENT PowerFactory and Python to evaluate the impact of the electrical demand uncertainty regarding power system transient stability, considering the probabilistic analysis of the Critical Clearing Time (CCT). The probabilistic analysis of transient stability allows establishing a probability density function (PDF) of the CCT behavior. This PDF is calculated by means of Monte Carlo simulations in which the CCT is evaluated for each generated scenario. The bisection method is applied for calculating the CCT. This method consists in iteratively modifying the fault duration time (tf) and evaluating transient stability for each tf via the hybrid method SIME (Single Machine Equivalent). Finally, a proposal for assessing the risk involved in the transient stability assessment is structured using the concepts of Value at Risk (VaR) and Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR). The proposed methodology is tested in the 39-bus IEEE New England test system.
- VO5B.4 Planning of Generation Investments with Risks of Severe Infrequent Events
- At the end of 2019 the world suffered a pandemic called COVID-19. Undoubtedly, the main consequence was the loss of human lives and as a protection mechanism to try to avoid such losses, social isolation measures were put in place on a global scale. This social isolation caused a drop in the demand for electrical energy (around 6 \% in Uruguay) and a greater drop in the global consumption of fuels derived from petroleum, which implied a drop in fuel prices due to the impossibility of instantaneously reducing the offer. This work analyzes the consequences of these abrupt variations in Electricity Demand and in the prices of usable fuels in thermal power plants for the electricity sector. These consequences are modeled and included in the OddFace investment optimizer to obtain the optimal investment plan, taking into account the occurrence of this type of events. The changes in the risk of the profits created by thermal, wind and hydro projects and the marginal cost for supplying the system's Demand are shown. As a general conclusion, infrequent extreme events such as COVID-19 can be modeled and characterized when Planning Generation Investments Optimization.
- VO5B.5 Linear Model for Dynamic Studies of Power System Frequency
- The ongoing progressive reduction of the system inertia is posing several engineering challenges. This new scenario is very challenging for the frequency control of the power systems and requires suitable dynamical models and analysis tools. The available, well known, engineering tools for modeling and simulation of power systems are not very suitable for control and optimization purposes. This paper describes the developing of a new modeling tool that, departing from power flow and dynamic information in PSS/E format, builds a linear multi-variable model able to be used for control and optimization purposes. The general mathematical structure of the model is thoroughly described as well its application to a classical IEEE benchmark.Presenter bio: I was born in Paysandú, Uruguay on July 11th, 1992. I'm the youngest of the family, I have two older sisters. I always went to public education, first in Paysandú and by last in Montevideo when I got the electrical engineer title in 2020.
Thursday, October 1 11:30 - 12:10 (America/Montevideo)
- VO5A.1 Analysis of Decentralized Control Techniques for Multigenerator Microgrid Islanded Operation with Traditional Controllers
- The islanded operating capacity is one of the most important features of a microgrid as it allows for continuous supply even when there are interruptions in the main grid. However, the transition from connected mode to islanded mode is not trivial, especially considering the interaction of controls from different generators. The present work proposes to analyze the controls usually used in distributed generators, verifying their behavior in the face of unintentional islanding events. The study focused on decentralized controls, characterized by no need for communication among generators within the microgrid boundary. Work evaluated the impact of control parameters and switching time delay on the dynamic performance of microgrid. The results showed that the potential for improving microgrid survivability is directly linked to the choice of mode of operation and control parameters of the generators.Presenter bio: M.Sc. Power Systems Engineer with +6 years of active actuation on R&D projects applied to the energy sector. Major experience in control, protection, modeling and analysis of electrical systems. Strong operational skills on Hardware-in-the Loop (HIL) testing using Real-Time Digital Simulator for Protection Systems and Microgrids performance evaluation.
- VO5A.2 Quantification of the Impact of GHG Emissions on Unit Commitment in Microgrids
- The global climate change creates a dire need to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from thermal generation resources (TGRs). While microgrids enable the deeper penetration of renewable resources, their capabilities in combating climate change can fully come to fruition only through short-term planning approaches that expressly assess the entire breadth of impact of GHG emissions. To this end, we propose a novel unit commitment (UC) approach that enables the representation of GHG emissions from TGRs, the stipulation of GHG emission constraints, and the ex-ante evaluation of carbon tax payment. We quantify the relative merits of the proposed approach vis-aÌ-vis the classical UC approach using representative studies. The results indicate that the proposed UC approach yields lower costs than does the classical UC approach and achieves a greater reduction in costs as carbon tax rate increases. Further, increasing carbon tax rates can markedly disincentivize TGR generation under the proposed approach.Presenter bio: Ogun Yurdakul received the Bachelor of Science degree in electrical and electronics engineering from Boğaziçi University, Istanbul, Turkey, in 2016, and the Master of Science degree in electrical and computer engineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA, in 2018. He is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering and computer science with the Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany. He is currently the Head of the Energy Group, DAI Laboratory, TU Berlin. Since 2018, he has been working as a Researcher and a Lecturer with TU Berlin. He was previously employed by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, as a Research Assistant and a Teaching Assistant. His research interests include power system operations, planning, and economics; optimization under uncertainty; and forecasting and its applications in power systems. Mr. Yurdakul was a Fulbright Scholar during his studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Thursday, October 1 12:10 - 12:30 (America/Montevideo)
- VO6A.1 Analysis of Gibara 1 Wind Farm from 2015 to 2019
- As a result of the worldwide fossil fuel crisis, renewable energy sources (RES) have advanced in recent years, most notably wind energy. Cuba has a great potential for generating wind power due to its geographical conditions. The following report highlights the need to obtain concrete statistics from the start-up and operation of an experimental wind farm located in the eastern part of Cuba. The data obtained from the park has been statistically analysed, to assess the wind turbines' power curves and their similarity to those given by the manufacturer. In addition, the behaviour of the wind, the active power and energy delivered by the park and by each wind turbine are studied in this investigation; their interactions and behaviour in different seasons is analysed. Such a detailed study of a Cuban wind farm has not been carried out before. This is part of a larger project that aims to analyse the likely behaviour and impact of wind farms that are planned for the future.
Thursday, October 1 12:30 - 13:30 (America/Montevideo)
Thursday, October 1 13:30 - 13:40 (America/Montevideo)
- VP15 a.1 Fuzzy Logic-Based Controller for BESS and Load Management in a Microgrid Economic Operation
- Battery energy storage systems (BESS) play an essential role in effectively managing the power of a microgrid, maintaining a balance between fluctuating power generated from the distributed energy resources and load demand. By using this system in the time-of-use rate context, it can achieve excellent savings. This paper proposes a fuzzy logic-based algorithm developed for the Battery and Load Management System to support the operation of a microgrid with photovoltaic (PV) farm generation. Also, a comparison of financial cost savings is discussed. The software MATLAB/Simulink® was used to develop and simulate the different scenarios. Results demonstrate that the use of fuzzy logic improved the system since it was able to manage the loads and allow a lower-cost operation properly.Presenter bio: I graduated in Control and Automation Engineering at the Federal Fluminense Institute in Campos - RJ. I held the position as monitor of the Calculus subjects during my basic cycle and I had the opportunity to be the monitor of the specific subjects of my course at IFF's NAPNEE (Support Center for People with Special Educational Needs), where I could have an experience outside the curve, acquiring professional and personal learning. At the moment, I am studying the Master of Electrical Engineering at the Federal University of Itajuba. In this way, I have dedicated my studies and research to the power and energy segment, with the main focus on the topics of smart grids, hosting capacity, energy storage, and other related matters. Another object of study that is always in my interest is the use of Artificial Intelligence in power systems.
- VP15 a.2 Security-Constrained Energy Management System for Microgrids Under Uncertainty
- This paper presents a stochastic mixed-integer nonlinear programming model (MINLP) for the security-constrained energy management system (EMS) of microgrids under demand and renewable generation uncertainties. Considering a balanced single-phase representation of the network, the proposed MINLP model is transformed into a mixed-integer second-order cone programming (MISOCP) model that can be solved via off-the-shelf convex programming solvers. The proposed formulation considers photovoltaic (PV) generation, energy storage systems (ESS), direct load control (DLC) and a diesel generator (genset), which can be turned on when the microgrid is operating in isolated mode. The proposed model minimizes the average operational costs for the day-ahead scheduling. Constraints consider the operation in either grid-connected or isolated mode due to a predefined set of plausible contingencies, hence the term security-constrained. The proposed model is tested using data of the real microgrid Laboratory of Intelligent Electrical Networks (LabREI), located at the UNICAMP facilities. Results show that the proposed model is suitable for real-world applications since it provides cost-efficient and contingency-robust solutions.
- VP15 a.3 A Microgrid Islanding Performance Study Considering Time Delay in Island Detection
- Microgrids (MGs) are capable of operating in grid-connected or island modes, in addition to handling the transitions between these two modes. The most difficult transition the MG can handle is the unintentional islanding. One of the problems existing in the unintentional MG islanding comes from the need to switch between inverters' control modes. The other one is that MG may operate islanded with loads external to the MG in a period of time. In order to show this problem, two simulations are performed in this paper. The first one shows that the time delay to switch inverters' control modes could lead to MG shutdown. The second one, using just one inverter control mode with no need to switch modes, shows better results with more proper conditions to maintain the operation continuity of the MG.
- VP15 a.4 A Load Prioritization Model for a Microgrid Operation in the Islanded Mode
- This work presents a load prioritization approach for a microgrid centralized-controller operating in islanded mode. The optimization in islanded mode aims to maximize the provision of the loads while following a list of priorities, which is set by the user. Controllable loads can be dragged within the priority list according to the user's preferences. Loads and groups of loads take priority among others according to their position on the list. In addition, the user may set preferences according to: the loads and groups of loads supply options; the amount of energy that must be saved as backup for controllable and non-controllable loads for an occasional islanded mode; and which loads should be automatically shut down in that mode. We present a mathematical model to describe these options, as well as simulations and results.
- VP15 a.5 Comparison Between Black Start and Islanding Process for the Establishment of a Rural Microgrid with Biogas Generator
- Microgrid arrangements have been applied in scenarios where is necessary to offer most reliability in the electricity supply system, requiring definitions of priority loads, transition between modes of operation, among others. This paper presents an analysis of two scenarios for establishing of a microgrid operating in the rural area in the south region of Brazil with a biogas generator. In the fist scenario the islanded mode is performed by Black Start procedure while in the second intentional inslanding is performed without interruption of energy supply. This paper present the modeling of the system in the Matlab/Simulink software using real data from the implanted microgrid and the results of the simulations and the analysis of the effects of the establishment of the microgrid island from the different strategies adopted. It is confirmed the islanding allows the continuous operation of loads and the generation of microgrid without the need to interrupt the power supply as occurs in Black Start.
- VP15 a.6 Control Possibilities for Community Microgrids Considering Small Production Processes and Its Benefits to the Whole System
- The control scheme is key for providing a stable and reliable grid operation under best economical conditions primarily in rural microgrids. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of a blackstart control scheme considering small production processes and its potential benefits for the whole system. A microgrid (MG) model based on the practical features of an actual MG called Huatacondo, which is located in the north of Chile has been developed to asses the control scheme capabilities. The results show that using the blackstart control scheme combined with the knowledge of the load behavior of the processes, it is feasible to maintain the system within its normal operating conditions. This indicates that when a failure in the system occurs, the control scheme is capable of recovering the whole system avoiding a severe decline in the frequency. Thus, the system can be operated in a cost-efficient way.
Thursday, October 1 13:40 - 13:50 (America/Montevideo)
- VP15 b.1 Resilient Microgrids with FACTS Technology
- "Modern power systems around the world are rapidly evolving under a novel paradigm that is imposing new research and development requirements to improve their operational and topological conditions. The positioning of non-conventional renewable energies has endorsed the integration of distributed generation and with this the spread of electrical microgrids. These systems must face multiple operational challenges, which are more complex than those of traditional power systems. The development and maturity of devices based on power electronics and their connection to the electric grids make possible to improve the performance of microgrids in operational terms. In this sense, the microgrid resilience is a topic of major concern which has not been widely developed. As a result, this work aims to provide a thorough study of this issue and its close relation to flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS) technology. The paper analyses the control attributes and the applicability of FACTS technology to improve the stability and resilient operation behavior in microgrids."
- VP15 b.2 Enabling Communications in Microgrids: A Comparison of Fiber-Optics, LoRa, and WI-SUN
- In the microgrids subject choosing a communication technology for a new grid is not a trivial task. For this purpose, an extensive review of the available literature was conducted, and three technologies were selected: Fiber-Optics, LoRa and WI-SUN. The main content of the paper consists on the description, technical characteristics (organized in tabular form) and some relevant applications to the listed technologies. This paper aims to provide the reader the necessary resources to aid in the decision process of choosing the most suitable technology. The study concluded that Fiber-Optics and LoRa are adequate for the strict requirements of microgrids.
- VP15 b.3 Design Characteristics of a Microgrid Controller for an Uninterruptible Power Supply with a Photovoltaic Generator
- A good microgrid controller must guarantee: voltage regulation, islanding control and a safe reconnection during grid-connected and islanded modes. Also, to provide an uninterrupted power supply and a good power quality during its operation the controller needs to act over the generators and power switches. The characteristics of this actions are the objective of this paper. For this reason, the operation of a single-phase photovoltaic generator with battery is analyzed and the control actions required for an efficient management are proposed. Said actions are evaluated with a simulation that composes the generator with its internal power and control circuits in a microgrid environment. The simulation model it's implemented in MATLAB Simulink.
Thursday, October 1 13:50 - 14:00 (America/Montevideo)
- VP16 a.1 Use of DC/DC Converters Modeled as AC-DC Converters in HVDC Grids
- Due to the growing concern about the lack of traditional energy resources and environmental problems, renewable energies have received great prominence from researchers around the world. One of the possibilities for continuity of supply is through the integration of these sources and through direct current transmission (HVDC). This work analyzes the inclusion of DC-DC converters modeled as an AC-DC converter in direct current electricity transmission systems. They were implemented in the computational tool PSCAD ™ / EMTDC ™ in a permanent and transient situation (short circuit on the DC side). It was found that the proposed model for DC-DC converters resulted in a stable behavior for the analyzed DC network.
- VP16 a.2 Power Transformers Assessment Applying Health Index and Apparent Age Methods
- The power transformers conditions assessment are essential for the management of these assets by companies. In order to provide a tool to aid this process, a Health Index methodology along with the apparent age strategy, is applied to power transformers of the Santo Antonio Hydroelectric Plant in Brazil. This method is adapted to the plant reality and its transformers monitoring data, resulting in an assessment based on the global state and load history of the equipment.
- VP16 a.3 Power Transformers with PCB-Contaminated Mineral Oil: The Natural Ester Fluid as a Replacement Alternative
- The 2001 Stockholm Convention was convened to draft a global treaty for the regulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and established an agreement to carry out the total removal of contaminated sources of PCBs (one of the POPs) by 2025 and their total destruction by 2028. PCBs were the basis of synthetic oils used as electrical insulating fluid in transformers. Decontamination processes using several chemical-physical treatments removes PCB present in the molecules of the contaminated insulating fluid. Natural ester insulating liquid can be a substitute alternative to replace PCB-contaminated mineral oil. A real case will be presented with a 16 MVA, 88 kV power transformer with PCB-contaminated mineral oil and the field process to exchange it by a new natural ester fluid.Presenter bio: Mr. Roberto Ignacio da Silva is a professional with 24 years of experience in engineering and product development of capital goods equipment in the energy sector in multinational industries like GE, ABB and Bosch. At ABB, Mr. Roberto was Mechanical Engineering Manager for Power Transformers leading the whole portfolio of mechanical design during 12 years. Mr. Roberto is pursuing a PhD in Energy Policy at the University of Sao Paulo's Institute of Energy and Environment. He has a MSc in Energy at the University of Sao Paulo, holds an MBA in Engineering and Management Products and Services from the University of Sao Paulo and a BSc in Mechanical Engineering from Braz Cubas University. Member of Cigré acting on committee A2 Transformers, member of Brazilian standards committee (ABNT) for mineral oils and other insulating fluids (synthetic and natural) and secretary of ABNT committee for Power Transformers.
- VP16 a.4 Dissolved-Gas Analysis for Nitrogen-Blanketed Transformers
- Nitrogen-blanketed transformers gradually flush out oxygen and fault gas in the course of temperature-driven head-space pressure regulation. Consequently it is possible in many such transformers for intermittent or moderate fault gas production to go unrecognized if fixed limits are used to detect abnormal gassing. The use of cumulative data and fault energy indexes can partly counteract the effect of gas loss and make fault gas production apparent. Four examples are discussed to show how this works.Presenter bio: Scientist for Delta-X Research Inc.
- VP16 a.5 Structures in Power Lines and Ice Overload on Cables
- Ice storms and related ice loads on overhead lines could result severe in the power system, if this transmission line is associated to a power plant or urban functioning, specially, if there are not a high voltage ring for reliability. The objective of this research is to propose a new methodology for estimate ice loads due to Andean mountain over 4500 masl, based on international standards, meteorological observational data, national and the best practices for power system construction. The decision about an overhaul or replacement of transmission line systems come with a long-term commitment, "this is particularly important considering that many researchers predict more intense and more frequent climatic hazard in the future".Presenter bio: IEEE Senior member/IEEE PES PERÚ Vice Chairman Professor Ricardo Arias has a PhD in Engineering, MSc. Degree in Project Engineering, and he is an Electrical Engineer, Computer Science Engineer and Project Engineer. He is working as full professor at "Engineering and Technology University - UTEC" with affiliations to MIT, and associated professor for "Universidad Peruana Las Americas", he teaches advanced design in power system, engineering failure analysis, adaptation and learning in Robots; Principles of Smart Grids. Furthermore, he is researcher for "Universidad Nacional de San Agustín de Arequipa" with more than 10 research papers on 2019. Besides, Professor Arias is a doctoral researcher certificated in Perú by CONCYTEC, he has more than 29 research in SCOPUS, h index 11, 307 citations and 10,304 views (according Mendeley), with an extensive participation in international congress: IEEE Andescon, IEEE Intercon, Shircon, ISA technical papers, CIGRE and CIER.
Thursday, October 1 14:00 - 14:10 (America/Montevideo)
- VP16 b.1 Influence of HVDC Systems Operation on the Out of Step Protection of Synchronous Generators
- This paper investigates the problem of the insensitivity of synchronous generators out of step protection when they are operating close to a High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission system. Commercial out of step protection devices are based on the measure of the impedance seen at the terminals of the generators and on the fact that this will be reversed when a loss of stability occurs. However, when these generators operate near an HVDC system, the out of step protection is desensitized, because the HVDC controls are able to maintain constant power when a loss of synchronism condition starts. As a consequence, the generators are exposed to serious damage. Our investigations also showed that the academy's recent proposals to detect the out of step conditions were ineffective to solve the problem. Therefore, investigating the causes of this phenomenon and under what conditions it occurs is fundamental to develop efficient methods to solve it.
- VP16 b.2 Potential Benefits of Implementing Ambient Adjusted Rating in the Argentinean Transmission System
- It is a common practice in electric transmission companies to implement static ratings or seasonal ratings for their transmission lines, for use in operations, planning and market models. Those ratings are calculated assuming worst temperature, wind and solar radiation conditions the line is expected to operate. Consideration of such conservative assumption usually lead to less efficient use of existing assets. The use of ambient-adjusted ratings (AARs) implemented by some entities, which adjust rating frequently based on local ambient air temperatures, has proven to be cost-effective solution to increase the capacity of transmission lines, which in turn brings multiple benefits to the system. This paper discusses the potential use and benefits of implementing AAR in the Argentinean transmission network. A case study is presented to illustrate the concept. The study shows how AAR can be used to increase the transmission capability of thermal limited transmission path that constrains the output of a wind plant. With the increased transmission capacity wind energy curtailed can be significantly reduced. The paper discusses other potential benefits of the technology and implementation considerations.
- VP16 b.3 Optimal Allocation of PMU and PDC in Electrical Power Systems
- The Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) is a device that allows the synchronized measurement of the voltage and current of electrical systems in microseconds. The PMU are installed in substations of the energy system and their measurements are sent and processed by the Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC). In recent years, different methods for finding the optimal allocation of PMU have been addressed in the literature. The contribution of this research is, through an Adaptive Genetic Algorithm, to find the optimal simultaneous allocation of the PMU and PDCs, considering the number of channels of the PMUs, the distance between the PMUs and the PDCs and to consider the observability situation for n-1 contingency. The proposed methodology allowed to find the allocation of PMUs and PDCs for IEEE 14 and 30 bus systems.Presenter bio: Lucas Lunarti received the Bachelor's degree and Master's degree in Electric Engineering from the Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 2018 and 2020, respectively. His current research interests include high-precision measurements including voltage and current sensors, phasor measurement unit (PMU) and optimization methods applied in power systems.
- VP16 b.4 Hardware in the Loop Design and Testing of a PMU-Based Special Protection Scheme: Case Study of Colombia-Ecuador Interconnection
- The use of established technologies such as synchrophasor measurement and the use of emerging technologies such as Real-Time Digital Simulators -RTDS- are gaining relevance in the design and testing of applications associated with the protection of power networks from a systemic point of view. This paper introduces the reasons that led to the decision to renew the Special Protection Scheme -SPS- in charge of separating the Colombian and Ecuadorian power networks in the presence of conditions that threaten the stability of either system. A brief history of the use of synchrophasor measurement in Colombia and several success cases in the implementation of PMU-based SPS worldwide are also given. The proposed protection functions implemented in the new SPS and a novel platform for testing SPS based on the use of Real-Time Digital Systems -RTDS- in a Hardware in the Loop scheme -HIL- are described. Finally, lessons learned and conclusions are given.
- VP16 b.5 Computing Transient Voltages on Grounding Grids Buried in Homogeneous and Stratified Soils
- Grounding grids (GGs) are essential to guarantee protection to personnel and equipment in the electrical substation. In this context, GGs provide low impedance path to high currents during faults or lightning strikes to minimize the step and touch voltages. Several models to compute the impedance of the GG are presented in the literature combining distributed and lumped approach. In this paper, a lumped approach is developed to represent a GG composed by vertical (VEs) and horizontal electrodes (HEs) are modelled individually by lumped models and implemented at the ATP-EMTP software. The grounding impedances of the VEs buried in a stratified soil are calculated by the quadripole approach and an electric circuit is obtained by the Vector Fitting technique. The HE are modelled by lumped circuit approach, based on the electromagnetic radiation theory, where each segment of the conductor can be seen as a current-carrying conductor. Simulation results compared with the traditional models in the literature indicate a good performance of the lumped representation of the HV and VE for a frequency range that varies from 100 Hz up 10 MHz. Additionally, results have shown that when VES are inserted in GGs and another layer of soil is considered, the GPR and node voltages are significantly reduced.Presenter bio: He received the B. Sc., M. Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from the São Paulo State University (UNESP), Campus of Ilha Solteira, Brazil, in 2012, 2014 and 2018 respectively. He was awarded since 2009, scientific initiation, master and doctorate fellowships by São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP). He completed in 2014, during his master, and in 2016, during his doctorate, research internships under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Behzad Kordi at the University of Manitoba in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering with fellowships granted by FAPESP. Currently, he is a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Campinas (Unicamp) at the High Voltage Laboratory. His interests are in: transmission tower modeling, overhead transmission line modeling, and grounding system modeling to compute electromagnetic transients in electric power systems.
- VP16 b.6 Faster-than-Real-Time Simulation of a Large Brazilian AC/DC Grid to Analyze Electromagnetic & Electromechanical Transients as Well as Commutation Failures
- Power system studies consist mainly of power flow, short circuit, electromechanical transient (stability EMS) and electromagnetic transient (EMT) studies. EMS simulations are usually performed at the planning stage and by system operators using phasor methods to accelerate the analysis of very large systems under several fault contingencies. EMT analysis is performed with very detailed models and small integration steps to simulate fast transients and control dynamics. Determining the risk of multiple HVDC commutation failures and the resulting power transfer capability of large multi-infeed HVDC inverter systems would normally require performing EMT simulation using detailed HVDC controller models. However, using traditional single-processor EMT software is normally not practical to analyze the EMS of large systems with several HVDCs due to the long calculation times. This paper analyzes the performance of parallel EMT software to analyze the transient stability of practical and large AC/DC systems using standard multi-core computers. It will be demonstrated that a simulation speed of two times real-time speed can be achieve with a reasonable number of processors, even for a system as large as the Brazilian grid.
- VP16 b.7 Simulation Tutorial in ATPdraw Software -IEEE 4 Nodes Test Feeder - Part 1
- The use of free software as a simulation tool in engineering is constantly growing. In this context, the Alternative Transients Program Draw (ATPDraw) is a software that highlights itself, which has within its main uses studies of electromagnetic transients and modeling of transmission and distribution electrical power systems. The search for simplified tutorials on the use of this program increases every year and it is in this perspective that this work engages. Through a tutorial of assembly and simulation of a 4 nodes test feeder, will be detailed, as well as the procedures necessary for accessing the components, assembly, filling in their parameters and resources for viewing and interpreting results. This is a contribution from the Power Energy Society (PES) chapter of the IEEE Student Branch at the Federal University of Tocantins, Brazil.Presenter bio: She is currently a graduate student in electrical engineering at the Federal University of Tocantins - UFT. His main areas of research focus on the themes: Planning of Electrical Systems and Artificial Intelligence applied to Electrical Engineering.
Thursday, October 1 14:10 - 14:20 (America/Montevideo)
- VP17 a.1 Generation of Wind Energy with Kites: a Review of the Airborne Wind Energy Technology
- Use of clean and sustainable energy has gained distinction in the scientific community, given that the debate on sustainable development has been an agenda of utmost importance in a global level. Aiming to expand the existing technologies, the Airborne Wind Energy (AWE) system, which is based on capturing winds in altitudes and changing them into electric energy, was created. A review of the state of the art was made in this paper, including concepts and functioning methods, followed by two case studies of systems in operation, finishing with a proposal for the development plan of a didactic prototype based on the studies herein presented.
- VP17 a.2 Simplified Analytic Procedure to Calculate the Electric Variables at Steady State of Type-III and Type-IV Wind Generators
- This paper presents a set of analytic expressions to obtain the electric variables in the steady state operational point of type-III and type-IV wind generators, based on the simplification of their time domain models. This approach is an attractive alternative over traditional electromagnetic transients (EMT) simulation and numerical iterative methods as it requires no computational resources and little modeling detail. This work was motivated from the necessity of such operational point to calculate detailed impedance vs. frequency profiles of the generators for wind park resonance assessment, when including the effects of their phase-locked loops, DC bus couplings, and outer control loops for power and voltage regulation. From this work, it was possible to derive didactic circuit equivalents of the wind generators which can be used to: observe the behavior of inner variables of the generator such as magnetic fluxes and currents for several setpoints and wind conditions; study the power losses of the generators; calculate the capacity of power electronics converters of type-III generators; and even set protections and saturation limits of generator controllers. Detailed EMT simulations were used to validate the expressions.Presenter bio: Andrés Argüello (S'13) received the B.Sc., Lic. degrees (2014, 2016) in Electrical Engineering from the University of Costa Rica and the M.Sc. degree (2019) from the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Campinas, Brazil, where he pursues a Ph.D. degree. His research interests include power quality, distribution systems, distributed generation, energy storage, GIS, and optimization methods.
- VP17 a.3 A Review of Limitations of Wind Synthetic Inertia Methods
- The rise of wind power penetration ijn power system has led to a deterioration of frequency response and a reduction of inertia levels. The proposals of methodologies for wind turbines to alleviate the effect of wind integration by providing frequency response are numerous, but most of these proposals consider simplifying assumptions that prevent their efficient or optimal performance. In this work, various synthetic inertia techniques are reviewed, establishing their limitations in terms of modeling to achieve optimality and representativeness of the model.The analysis establishes that the treatment of non-linearities and the lack of an objective function are the main limitations.Presenter bio: Received the Licenciado, Ingeniero Civil en Electricidad, and Magister degrees in Electrical Engineering from the University of Santiago, Santiago, Chile in (2015), (2018), and (2018) respectively. He is currently an Instructor and PhD student in the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Santiago, Santiago, Chile.
- VP17 a.4 Analysis of the Technical and Operational Availability of a Wind Farm in Uruguay
- The massive use of energy from wind is a reality, each year there is a high growth in installed power and the number of wind farms worldwide. However, the investments to be made still remain high and in most countries the performance of the plant is directly related to the financial benefits. Therefore, evaluating the performance of each wind turbine as well as the wind farm is of paramount importance. Based on these factors, this article presents a study of the technical and operational availability of a wind farm located in Uruguay.
Thursday, October 1 14:20 - 14:30 (America/Montevideo)
- VP17 b.1 Assessement of LVRT Requirements and Dynamic Behavior of a Mixed PMSG/DFIG Wind Power Plant
- This work assesses the low voltage ride-through requirements and the dynamic behavior of a mixed PMSG/ DFIG wind power plant. Previous works in the literature applied voltage dips seen at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) of the wind power plant (WPP) directly, which means that the propagation from the transmission grid to the low-voltage level was not considered. This work aims to show the expected operation of a wind power plant when submitted to voltage dips caused by faults at the transmission level, i.e considering the propagation. Equivalent models of a transmission system and a wind power plant were used to generate five types of dips and to access the behavior of the WPP during these events. The results show the expected ranges during the voltage dips for the active power of the generators as well as for overvoltages and overcurrents of the converters.
- VP17 b.2 Propagation of Supraharmonics Generated by PMSG Wind Power Plants into Transmission Systems
- This paper is focused on the propagation of supraharmonics into power transmission grids introduced by wind power plants (WPP) based on permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbines. The methodology is based in steady state and time domain simulations performed by MATLAB Simulink®. As results steady state power flow and time domain voltages and currents are obtained and supraharmonic indicators are proposed for analysis. In order to simulate the electrical power system, transmission lines are modelled by Pi equivalent circuit based on distributed parameters and linear models of transformers are considered. Furthermore, wind power plants are modelled as aggregations of several wind turbines. A study case based on the west side of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul is proposed to validate the modelling and simulation methodology. Results show that the level of supraharmonics emission from WPP is straightly related to the PWM modulation of power inverters. Furthermore, the propagation of supraharmonics into transmission grids follows a linear tendency of decreasing according to the distance in transmission lines to the point of common coupling (PCC) of the wind power plants. Anyway, intrinsic characteristics at each point of the grid such as load profile, generation and presence of capacitor banks also influence the behavior of supraharmonic propagation.
- VP17 b.3 Short Review of the Evaluation Impacts of the Implementation of Wind Power Plants in the Interconnected Electric Systems
- This work presents an evaluation about the implantation of wind powers in the electrical system and mainly in Brazil as well as the identification of some of its impacts to the grid and to the planning of the system. These reflections are related to the system's ability to supply this energy (problems with transmission grids, sub transmission and equipment with surpassed capacities) and the stability of these plants in situations of lack and adverse conditions as well as the need for control of voltage and reactive power. Several existing studies with problems and conclusions are evaluated due to the insertion in the complex system with high capacity of wind power generation and, therefore, the need for a special attention the change of the inertia of the SIN for an operation with safe conditions of the electric system.Presenter bio: Electrical engineer. Specialization in renewable sources and energy transmission.
- VP17 b.4 Power Reserve Dispatch to Mitigate Variability of Generation Output Due to Wind Ramps
- Flexibility in power systems with high penetration of wind power is the most important factor required for maintaining generation capacity and load balance. Generating reserves play a key role in this new scenario. These must be available not only in terms of quantity, but particularly in their ability to provide a suitable response rate compatible with variations in wind generation, as well as with the phenomenon of wind ramps. The generating units responsible for the AGC may not be able to compensate this variation in generating power. Taking into account, reserves must be redispatched to keep the power balance. However, since reserves have different costs and response ramps, our problem is to find out which reserves have to be redispatched at minimum cost. This paper addresses the question of the optimal dispatch of reserves against wind power ramp events by taking account of operational constraints including interruptible load contracts.
Thursday, October 1 14:30 - 15:10 (America/Montevideo)
- VP18.1 Accuracy Analysis of Pvsyst Software for Estimating the Generation of a Photovoltaic System at the Polo De Inovação Campos Dos Goytacazes
- The use of photovoltaic solar energy has been widespread in recent decades, mainly because it is considered a pollutant-free technology. Due to the increased demand for this type of energy source, several software products have appeared on the market promising reliable estimates of electricity generation. Therefore, this article proposes to make a comparison between the generation obtained at the Instituto Federal Fluminense Campus Polo de Inovação Campos dos Goytacazes - Brazil and the simulations presented by the PVsyst software (test version), using four different meteorological databases. The results reveal that the software provides coherent generation estimates, with percentage differences of less than 5% when compared to the real system. In addition, it was concluded that when using the Atlas database, the annual estimates were the closest to reality and the monthly analysis showed that the INMET database has the lowest mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and standard deviation (SD).
- VP18.2 Correlation Between Insulation Resistance and Dissolved Gas Analysis Tests in Power Transformers
- DGA tests and Megger tests are essential to diagnose the insulation status in a power transformer. Its main difference is that DGA analysis can be performed with the transformer energized while Megger tests require the transformer to be removed from operation. Using the statistical theory of the correlation of variables it is possible to find a relationship between both tests, and therefore estimate the insulation status of a transformer for any of the tests.
- VP18.3 Hourly Model of a Combined Cycle Power Plant for SimSEE
- Uruguay's electricity system has incorporated significant volumes of wind and solar energy that make the installed capacity of these resources exceed 70% of the days of the year, the peak of demand. This implies that the operation of the system must be very agile and special attention must be paid to the flexibility of the different resources for monitoring variability. This work shows the detailed model of a combined cycle plant in order to correctly represent the dispatch restrictions of the same. In particular, the purge time of the boilers, the time taken to load the steam turbine and the operating and the restrictions imposed by the greenhouse gas emission constraints are modeled. The work shows simulation results of the weekly dispatch of the Uruguayan system in different conditions with respect to the forecasts of hydraulic and wind generation.
- VP18.4 Introduction of Ensemble Based Forecasts to the Electricity Dispatch Simulator SimSEE
- In the context of the Uruguayan electricity market the Administration of the Electricity Market manages the economic electricity dispatch using the software SimSEE for optimization and simulation of the optimal operation. The Uruguayan electricity mix includes a majoritarian portion of time variable renewable sources, namely hydropower, wind and solar. Inside SimSEE, stochastic synthetic realizations of diverse variables such as wind velocity, solar irradiance, electricity demand and water inflows to hydropower centrals, are generated and integrated to the simulation by means of CEGH models. A CEGH model is built of two components. One is a non-linear mapping that link the space of the represented set of signals to a corresponding Gaussian Space. An the other, a linear system that represent the correlation between signals in the present an with theirs pasts. The assimilation of forecast information is naturally done handling the inputs of the linear system in the Gaussian Space by settings biases and noise amplitude tuners per signal channel at each time step. This works show a new methodology to optimally compute the biases and noise amplitude tuners, using maximum likelihood optimization, for assimilation of the information of sets of ensembles of forecasts. An example of the developed method, applied to the assimilation of the forecast ensemble of water inflows to the hydroelectric dams of the Uruguayan system, already in use at ADME, is shown.
Thursday, October 1 15:10 - 15:50 (America/Montevideo)
SHORT-BIO: Lisien Leon is BSc in electrical engineering by "National University of Engineering - Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería" from Perú. She is working in Business Development area to introduce green mobility and others solutions made to measure that include smart, energy-efficient equipment, powered using carbon-free energy. She is an active IEEE volunteer since 2016 and has been leadership positions such as Chair WiE & Secretary PES from her university, then she became a professional she was Chair Membership Development and currently Secretary PES from IEEE Peru Section. During this time, she mainly has organized educational activities according to spread WiP objectives and to promote gender equality. Also, she was a speaker from different kind of events such as "Reunión Nacional de Ramas Estudiantiles - National Meeting of Student Branches Perú" and participate in webinars and meetings to explain mission and vision WIE for new students and encourage them to open a WIE in their respective universities. She is also interested in energy solutions friendly to environment for consumers and to work in 7th Sustainable Development Goal - Affordable and Clean Energy with IEEE SIGHT.
Thursday, October 1 15:50 - 16:20 (America/Montevideo)
IP6: Next Perú IEEE PES ISGT 2021 Latin America Virtual Conference - 15 to 17 September 2021 - www.isgt2021.org
SHORT-BIO: RAFAEL FLORES Rafael education, includes CEDEP - Executive Development - FontainebleauCEDEP - ManagementGeneral Management Program 2010 - 2011, Georgia Institute of Technology Modern Energy Management System SpecialistIngeniería eléctrica, electrónica y de comunicaciones 2007 - 2007, Chalmers tekniska högskola Licentiate degree and PhDElectricity 2001 - 2004, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro Master's degreeElectrical engineering 1997 - 1999, Universidad Nacional San Antonio Abad del Cusco Electrical EngineerElectricity 1987 - 1994.
Rafael work experience as Head Solutions to Mining Latam and Asset Based Customer Solution Coordinator in ENGIE Perú. Mr. Flores has local and international experience in the electricity and energy industries, in development of projects and management of operating companies. He has worked in several generation companies and consulting firms during 18 years, he spent his last 10 years in a transnational company. Today Rafael is the General Chair of next IEEE ISGT-LA 2021 Conference.
ABSTRACT: Next Conference of the serial T&D-LA and ISGT-LA will be in Perú; IEEE PES ISGT 2021 Latin America will be a virtual event, from 15 to 17 September 2021. WEB PAGE: https://www.isgt2021.org/
IMPORTANT DATES: Full Paper Submission 30 January, 2021 Notification of Acceptance 30 April, 2021 Camera-ready manuscript submission 30 May, 2021 Panel proposals 1 April, 2021 Registration open 1 April, 2021 Early bird deadline 1 August, 2021 Main Conference 15-17 September, 2021