For full instructions, visit the IEEE ISSE website: http://2017.ieeeisse.org/

### Program for 2017 IEEE International Systems Engineering Symposium (ISSE)

Time Festsaal A Festsaal A&B Festsaal B Festsaal C Palais Sachsen Coburg IV & V Parkring Restaurant Reception Steg Elsewhere

#### Wednesday, October 11

07:00-08:15               Registration
08:15-10:00     Practical insights into web-based, collaborative engineering of complex hardware systems
10:00-17:15
10:00-10:15
10:15-12:00 A Tutorial on Uncertainty-wise Testing of Cyber-Physical Systems   Complex Systems Architecting with Object-Process Methodology (ISO-19450): A Model-Based Operational-Functional-Structural Approach
13:00-13:15   Opening Remarks
13:15-15:00   Keynote Speaker: Dr. Hans-Henrich Altfeld
15:00-15:30               Coffee Break
15:30-17:30 1C1: Systems applications   1C2: Model Based Systems Engineering I
17:30-18:30             Welcome Reception

#### Thursday, October 12

07:00-08:00               Registration
08:00-09:30 2A1: Special Session: Sensor Reliability and Sensing System Design for Safety I   2A2: Systems Design and Management 2A3: Modeling and Simulation II
09:30-17:30
09:30-10:00
10:00-12:00 2B1: Systems Knowledge Development   2B2: Model Based Systems Engineering II 2B3: Modeling and Simulation III
12:00-13:00           Lunch
13:00-15:00 2C1: Engineering Systems of Systems   2C2: Model Based Systems Engineering III 2C3: System Architecture and Architectural Frameworks I
15:00-15:30
15:30-17:30 2D1: Systems Thinking   2D2: Frameworks and Methods in Systems Engineering 2D3: Special Session: Sensor Reliability and Sensing System Design for Safety II

#### Friday, October 13

07:00-08:00               Registration
08:00-09:30 3A1: Systems Verification and Validation I   3A2: Systems Technology Transfer   3A3: System Architecture and Architectural Frameworks II
09:30-11:30
09:30-10:00
10:00-11:30 3B1: Systems Verification and Validation II   3B2: Systems Reliability   3B3: Sensors and Systems
11:30-11:31                 Symposium Ends

Room: Steg

### Wednesday, October 11 8:15 - 10:00

#### Practical insights into web-based, collaborative engineering of complex hardware systems

Room: Festsaal B

This paper presents a web-based data storage and collaboration software which aims to transform the way collaborative engineering of complex hardware, such as satellites, power plants, or autonomous vehicles, is done. In addition to using insights from Model Based Systems Engineering practices, the software takes advantage of modern web technologies and platforms to enable efficient and streamlined team work throughout the project life cycle to reduce costs and development time. In the software, engineers create a logical model of the product they are developing. All technical properties are stored in one consistent database with formulas connecting these properties. Connected data is what sets the proposed tool apart from current document based solutions, as it ensures rapid visualization of parameter dependencies and clear views on how design changes affect the whole system. The proposed workshop will cover the motivation of developing a web-based collaboration tool for engineers, along with a general discussion among participants on the most meaningful features of such a tool. Thereafter, the proposed solution and developed collaboration tool will be presented. Lastly, participants will engage in an interactive modelling session to gain practical knowledge about the web-based interface. The participants are expected to gain new insights into how modern web technologies can be used to streamline the engineering processes of complex hardware systems. The workshop is proposed to consist of a hands-on, interactive session of 2 hours, where the participants share knowledge and experience about their current workflows and gain knowledge about new, efficient collaboration tools.

Room: Steg

### Wednesday, October 11 10:15 - 12:00

#### A Tutorial on Uncertainty-wise Testing of Cyber-Physical Systems

Room: Festsaal A

The importance of handling uncertainty in Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) is increasingly being recognized by both academia and industry. To this end, as part of a European Horizon2020 project (www.u-test.eu), we have developed a modeling methodology called UncerTum to support creating test ready models of CPSs with explicit consideration of uncertainty. The UncerTum methodology is built on the Unified Modeling Language (UML) by defining dedicated profiles including the UML Uncertainty Profile (UUP), in addition to integrating existing UML profiles such as Modeling and Analysis of Real-time Embedded Systems (MARTE). This tutorial will give a lecture on how our modeling solution implemented in IBM Rational Software Architect can be used to create test ready models of a CPS under test with UncerTum. In addition, we will also describe how our test case generation support (UncerTest) can be used to generate executable test cases from the created test ready models and use them to test a CPS under uncertainty.

#### Complex Systems Architecting with Object-Process Methodology (ISO-19450): A Model-Based Operational-Functional-Structural Approach

Room: Festsaal B

Specifying a complex system's architecture - combination of structure and behavior that enables the functionality of the system in its operational context - is a critical task in the preliminary stages of complex systems development. The architecture is specified through gradual transition from the problem domain and operational stakeholder requirements capturing to the conceptual solution design, functional requirements elaborating, technology selection, asset utilization, and allocation of functionality to form. The way the architecture is specified will have an immense impact on the deployment, performance, robustness, and endurance of the system. Badly-planned, outdated, or form-based architectures could result in failure to provide value to the customers, stakeholders, or beneficiaries. Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) provides a framework for effective and consistent system engineering and architecting. MBSE relies on modeling languages, such as Object-Process Methodology (OPM). The major advantage of MBSE using a formal language such as OPM, is the integrated view of the system, allowing for structured and informed management, reasoning, decision-making, and identification of risks and opportunities. OPM is a holistic MBSE paradigm and language for complex systems and processes, standardized as ISO 19450. OPM covers the structural, procedural, and functional aspects of the system in a unified manner, using only one diagram kind - the Object-Process Diagram (OPD). In this tutorial, participants will learn: 1) the basics of MBSE and OPM, and 2) the principles of a framework for utilizing OPM for complex system architecting, while accounting for the operational, functional, and structural aspects of the system. These will be demonstrated on a real-life case of complex systems architecture in the domain of public safety. The tutorial will be delivered like an industrial architecture workshop. Participants will take significant part in constructing the architecture model with the speaker, and will be able to install the OPM modeling software on their mobile computers in order to practice and experiment hands-on with this approach.

### Wednesday, October 11 13:00 - 13:15

#### Opening Remarks

Room: Festsaal A&B

### Wednesday, October 11 13:15 - 15:00

#### Keynote Speaker: Dr. Hans-Henrich Altfeld

Room: Festsaal A&B

The ITER Project represents an international project comprising the construction, operation, scientific exploitation as well as deactivation and decommissioning of a facility that aims to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy for peaceful purposes. More specifically, one of the main objectives of the ITER Project is to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power for periods of 300 to 500 seconds.

The ITER Machine is based on the ‘tokamak' concept of plasma magnetic confinement, in which the fusion fuel is contained in a doughnut-shaped vessel. The fuel - a mixture of Deuterium and Tritium, two isotopes of Hydrogen - is heated to temperatures in excess of 100 million degrees Celsius, forming a hot plasma. The plasma is kept away from the vessel walls by strong magnetic fields produced by superconducting coils surrounding the vessel and an electrical current driven in the plasma. As a first in the history of fusion research, the ITER Machine will be able to produce a burning Deuterium-Tritium (DT) plasma in which the majority of the heating needed to sustain the fusion reaction is produced by fusion-generated alpha-particles. The production and control of a self-heated plasma has been the goal of fusion research for more than 50 years. Therefore, the ITER Machine will allow full exploration of the science relevant to fusion power, as well as testing key technologies for future power plants.

With this, the ITER Machine will also be the world's first nuclear fusion machine at reactor scale. To this end, the ITER Machine will be designed, constructed and operated with a high level of safety and quality as an essential requirement. The safety approach will be driven, to the maximum extent achievable, by the deployment of the favorable safety characteristics, which are inherent to fusion processes.

The complexity of the machine itself is made even more complex by the funding arrangements of the ITER Agreement, under which components are being supplied by 7 ITER Members around the world (China, EU, India, Japan, Russian Federation, South Korea, US), placing extraordinary emphasis on the management of interfaces and application of effective Project Management and Systems Engineering principles.

The keynote speech will describe the principles of fusion power generation and how Systems Engineering is applied to the ITER Project to ensure that the ITER Machine will generate the desired fusion power.

### Wednesday, October 11 15:30 - 17:30

#### 1C1: Systems applications

Room: Festsaal A
Chair: Nitin Naik (Aston University, United Kingdom (Great Britain))
15:30 A Lithium-Ion Battery Demonstrator for HEV Applications Featuring a Smart System at Cell Level
Fida Saidani (Advantest Europe GmbH, Germany); Franz X. Hutter, Wilhelm Selinger and Zili Yu (Institut für Mikroelektronik Stuttgart (IMS CHIPS), Germany); Joachim Burghartz (Institut für Mikroelektronik Stuttgart, Germany)

Since their introduction in 1991, Lithium-ion Batteries' share of the market has been increasing steadily. In 2013, five billion LiB cells were sold worldwide. Different applications in modern technologies have energy-costly features such as color displays, high processing capabilities and many communication channels. Their high energy density, their compactness and light weight as well as their long-time stability make LiB the currently preferred choice for mobile and automotive applications. This paper presents a demonstrator of a Lithium-ion battery for automotive applications consisting of sensors, local memory elements, a digital signal processing unit and a communication interface, all integrated into a lithium-ion cell case. We demonstrate the mechanical and electrical feasibility of addressing and real-time monitoring of single Lithium-ion battery cells using a wireless communication system. The battery voltage is measured with an accuracy of 1 mV with a maximum offset of 100 mV. The temperature measurement accuracy is 1 K.

15:50 Comparison of AH and MFM for Work Domain Analysis in Light of Interface Design
Mengya Cai (Shanghai University of Engineering Science & Tongji University Shanghai Institute of Design and Innovation, China); Yingzi Lin (Northeastern University, USA); Zhu Gao (Shanghai University of Engineering Science & Tongji University Shanghai Institute of Design and Innovation, China); Chenwang Yuan (University of Saskatchewan, Canada); Wenjun Zhang (University of Saskachewan, Canada)

In designing a human-computer interface (interface for short) for a complex work domain, the first question to be answered is what information should be presented on an interface media. The simplest answer is: it depends on tasks to be performed by the human operator. In the past two decades, two methodologies have been developed with a purpose to answer this question, namely Abstraction Hierarchy (AH) and Multi-Level Flow Modeling (MFM). In this paper we compare AH and MFM for the purpose of understanding whether they have provided a satisfactory answer. The result of the comparison concludes: (1) the two are complementary in terms of their functions, and (2) neither of them has provided a satisfactory answer to the foregoing question, and together they have not provided a satisfactory answer either. Subsequently, this paper outlines the criteria for a more satisfactory answer but the methodology to satisfy these criteria is considered as a future work.

16:10 Choice of Effective Messaging Protocols for IoT Systems: MQTT, CoAP, AMQP and HTTP
Nitin Naik (Aston University, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

The standard and real-time communication technology is an unalloyed inevitability for the development of Internet of Things (IoT) applications. However, the selection of a standard and real-time communication protocol is a challenging and daunting task for any organisation because it depends on the nature of the IoT system and its messaging requirements. Copious messaging protocols have been developed and employed by various organisations based on their requirements in the last two decades. Though, none of them is able to support all types of messaging requirements of all types of IoT systems. Messaging protocol is an ongoing dilemma for the IoT industry; consequently, it is important to understand the pros and cons of the widely accepted and emerging messaging protocols for IoT systems to determine their best-fit scenarios. Therefore, this paper presents an evaluation of the four popular messaging protocols MQTT, CoAP, AMQP and HTTP for IoT systems. Firstly, it presents the broad comparison among these messaging protocols to introduce their characteristics comparatively. Afterwards, it performs a further in-depth and relative analysis based on some interrelated criteria to gain insight into their strengths and limitations. Thus, based on this detailed evaluation, the user can decide their appropriate usage in various IoT systems according to their requirements and suitability.

16:30 A Skeleton-Free Kinect System for Body Mass Index Assessment using Deep Neural Networks
Darius Nahavandi and Ahmed Abobakr (Deakin University, Australia); Hussein Haggag (Deakin University - Australia, Australia); Mohammed Hossny (Institute for Intelligent Systems Research and Innovation (IISRI), Australia); Saeid Nahavandi (Deakin University, Australia); Despina Filippidis (Defence Science and Technology Group, Australia)

In this paper we present a skeleton-free Kinect system to estimate body mass index (BMI) of human bodies. Unlike other systems in the literature, the proposed system does not require a scale to measure the weight. The weight of observed subjects are estimated using body surface area (BSA) regression. The proposed system employs the state-of-the-art deep residual network to extract meaningful features and estimate the BMI scores with a 95% accuracy.

16:50 A Novel Flight Simulator Capable of Unbounded Rotation
Rishad Irani, Nathan Schut, M. John Hayes and Robert Langlois (Carleton University, Canada)

The Carleton University Simulator Project (CUSP) is developing a novel flight simulator that decouples typical translational motions from unlimited rotations about any axis. The new CUSP simulator, Atlas, consists of a sphere, housing the cockpit, and it is mounted on a motion platform. Atlas is not bound by the typical limitations in roll, pitch, and yaw of traditional flight simulators. This paper presents some of the systems involved with the novel flight simulator and the enrichment that undergraduates experience by developing the inter-relationships and communication paths between the multiple systems and elements.

#### 1C2: Model Based Systems Engineering I

Room: Festsaal B
Chair: Mara Nikolaidou (Harokopio University of Athens, Greece)
15:30 The Usage of a system engineering approach for integrating machining constraints in the upstream design stage
Mohamed Borchani (Supmeca Paris, France); Moncef Hammadi (ISAE-SUPMECA & Quartz Laboratory EA7393, France); Noureddine Ben Yahia (Ensit, Tunisia); Jean-Yves Choley (SUPMECA & Laboratoire Quartz, France)

— In the early design stage, designers with narrow knowledge of machining would produce a rough part design with arbitrary geometry. This leads to iterative loops between designers and manufacturing engineers when evaluating the manufacturability of a part belonging to a complex system. To overcome this issue, the introduction of set based concurrent engineering approach, built on SysML diagrams with machining constraints in the upstream design stage is induced. This approach will decrease the loops between engineers, and lessen the lead time. This paper presents an advanced approach based on SysML diagrams. First, it will highlight the characteristics of each machining feature of an automotive part belonging to the air conditioning system (dimensions, geometrical constraints and surface roughness), then it will point out other constraints related to production system such as cutting and machine tools constraints. Later, machining operations corresponding to each feature must be classified at a certain order according to precedence relationship or anteriorities based on technical or economical restraints. At this phase, a machining expert must intervene to settle the order of execution which belongs to individual operation. This will bring out many sequencing solutions. Lastly each of the previous solutions must be bonded to its specific lead time and production cost. A case study concerning an electronic throttle body will be posed to illustrate various stages of this concurrent engineering approach.

15:50 Guided Systems Engineering by Profiled Ontologies
Tobias Hoppe (FZI Research Center for Information Technology, Germany); Harald Eisenmann (Airbus DS GmbH, Germany); Alexander Viehl (FZI Research Center for Information Technology, Germany); Oliver Bringmann (FZI, Germany)

Engineering phase specific tailored views on data are required to prevent over-engineering and to discover missing elements. This paper presents an approach to enhance a semantic Conceptual Data Model (CDM) to define the specific behavior of engineering phases. Therefore, a CDM gets enhanced by an ontology profile to specify required and non-admissible features for each engineering phase. This is exploited to enhance existing transformations from Web Ontology Language (OWL) to Eclipse Modeling Language (EMF) to generate phase specific decorators representing the corresponding views on data items. The approach also supports engineering phase specific handling of constraints and rules that further augment the guidance of engineers through the system development process by applying knowledge management functions such as reasoning. As a result, the presented approach reveals a notably higher data quality and offers more analysis potential by enabling phase-specific definitions of views on data and specification of semantic checks on CDM level. Several use cases from aerospace engineering have been analyzed and the improvements in areas such as inconsistency detection, knowledge derivation, and guided system modeling are highlighted in this paper.

16:10 Integration of domain-specific simulation models into descriptive system models by using SysML
Michael Friedl (Institute of Machine Design and Hydraulic Drives, Johannes Kepler University, Austria); Andreas Kellner (Institute of Mechatronic Design and Production, Johannes Kepler University); Lukas Weingartner (Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria)

Several observations at industry examples have shown that there is a need to close an existing gap between system architect´s model and domain experts´ models. Therefore, a minimalistic approach is presented, which allows integrating executable domain models into a system model using a state of the art MBSE authoring tool. Such MBSE approaches and tools offer possibilities to model requirements and interdependencies with respect to the system´s structure, functions and behaviors. Domain architects use simulation models to study the system behavior and to verify specific system requirements. System architects can re-use such simulation models to keep track of the system validity in case of design changes.

16:30 Development of a sentry smart bearing as a node for connectivity and monitoring of steelmaking system
Eugenio Brusa (Politecnico di Torino, Italy)

The Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is herein applied to design a physical node for an interconnected system, based upon data exchange. As a test case the concept of smart bearing equipped with sensors to be used to monitor a cold rolling mill is preliminarily developed. The paper focuses on the two activities of inner and outer monitoring currently proposed as a target for the bearing service. Outer monitoring is aimed at detecting any abnormal operation of the cluster mill, while the inner one identifies any symptom of damage within the bearing components. The effectiveness of the MBSE approach is even investigated, whilst the system is decomposed and analyzed. Layout, connectivity and autonomous power generation are assumed as a reference to assess a preliminary design synthesis, by resorting to some available technologies, and to check the suitability of the smart bearing for the proposed application. Limitations and benefits of the MBSE approach within this context are even discussed.

16:50 Model-Based Systems Engineering to Design Collaborative Robotics Applications
Carlos Hernández (Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands); Jose Fernandez (Madrid Technical University & Industrial Engineering School, Spain)

Novel robot technologies are becoming available to automate more complex tasks, more flexibly, and collaborating with humans. Methods and tools are needed for the automation and robotics industry to develop and integrate this new breed of robotic systems. In this paper, the ISE\&PPOOA methodology for Model-Based Systems Engineering is applied for the development of robotic systems. The methodology is described through its application to reengineer a state-of-the-art collaborative robot application. The challenges that robotic systems present to model-based systems engineering are discussed, together with the benefits of MBSE methodologies.

Room: Reception

Room: Steg

### Thursday, October 12 8:00 - 9:30

#### 2A1: Special Session: Sensor Reliability and Sensing System Design for Safety I

Room: Festsaal A
Chairs: Ada Fort (University of Siena, Italy), Marco Mugnaini (University of Siena, Italy), Valerio Vignoli (University of Siena, Italy)
8:00 Reliability Importance assessment using Cost-based Credible Improvement Potential
Marcantonio Catelani, Lorenzo Ciani and Matteo Venzi (University of Florence, Italy)

In many manufacturing application the system reliability performance is a key issue in order to obtain the best performance of the equipment. The paper focuses on the reliability enhancement of complex systems containing redundant architecture using the Reliability Importance (RI) methods in order to evaluate the weight of each element on the whole system reliability. The first part of the paper is focused on traditional RI index, such as the Improvement Potential (IP) and the Credible Improvement Potential (CIP). Subsequently a new approach based on a cost-effectiveness analysis (CBCIP) has been introduced and tested on a generic complex system for Oil&Gas application.

8:20 Development of a Non-Invasive Thermometric System For Fluids In Pipes
Tommaso Addabbo (University of Siena, Italy); Chiara Cinelli (GE Oil and Gas, Italy); Ada Fort (University of Siena, Italy); Filippo Gerbi (GE Oil and Gas, Italy); Riccardo Moretti and Marco Mugnaini (University of Siena, Italy); Marco Tani (University of siena, Italy); Valerio Vignoli (University of Siena, Italy)

In this paper a non-invasive thermometric system for the measurement of the temperature of fluids in pipes based on the dual heat flux method is presented. The proposed solution is a possible alternative to the employment of thermowells in industrial applications. The sensing system, which is based on RTD sensors, has been designed to reach a measurement accuracy lower than 1°C, to obtain performances comparable to the thermowell ones. To reach such an accuracy a dedicated front-end electronics has been developed. A prototype was realized and characterized.

8:40 A See-Saw Commander/Follower Architecture for Optimal Control, Safety, and Extensibility in a Medical System
Scott Hareland and Matthew Kramer (Medtronic, USA); Sabeeh Siddiqui (Medtronic, Canada); Fabrice Navers and Barb Kastanek (Medtronic, USA)

A new medical system platform utilizing a see-saw commander/follower architecture will be presented. This architecture provides for a high level of therapy control and safety via an optimal supervisory (commander) exchange mechanism (the see-saw) at various operational phases. During the performance of various functions, one system element obtains supervisory control and acts as the commander while other modules continue to perform their essential functions and follow the lead of the commander. During non-safety critical phases, command may be driven primarily by the user interface module which can facilitate the display of configuration and setup information or provide for the management of case and system files. When medical therapies are required, command shifts to a dedicated safety and therapy control module which then provides overall supervisory control with appropriate focus on the safe and effective delivery of therapies. During this time, the user interface module acts primarily as a driver of therapy information and documents the therapy progress and system performance. Non-essential functions, e.g. configuration or external communication, are locked out during these phases and are only permitted once therapy is ended and supervisory control is handed back to the user interface module. This exchange and determination of command control will be illustrated. The modular design architecture of this medical system maintains legacy compatibility with various accessories and external systems while providing a pathway for extending capabilities as therapy improvements and clinical practice change over time. As capital medical equipment is expected to provide a long service-life, the ability to provide meaningful updates over time as well as manage the obsolescence of components and materials are key design considerations that are satisfied by the architecture. The interface structure and functional allocation to various modules will be illustrated showing how upgrades can be integrated in order to minimize hardware changes to deployed systems.

The final paper and presentation will cover various aspects of the see-saw commander/follower architecture in our system, including the allocation and exchange of supervisory oversight during the different operational phases, and the ability to update functionality as needed throughout the system's service life. 1. System description a. Medical need and therapies b. Use cases c. Use environment 2. Architectural Overview a. Functional view b. Physical view c. Operational view 3. Role of each sub-system during the operational phases a. Configuration and setup b. Catheter introduction and positioning c. Therapy Delivery d. Patient and system monitoring e. Maintenance and service f. Case management 4. Upgradability 5. Extensibility for a. Expanded therapies b. New therapies c. New clinical practice needs

#### 2A2: Systems Design and Management

Room: Festsaal B
Chairs: Lajos Jeno Fülöp (ELI-HU NonProfit Ltd., Hungary), Maurizio Vanti (University of Genoa, Italy)
8:00 An Efficient Coverage Algorithm for Use in Macrocell-Small Cell Systems
Yao-Liang Chung (National Taiwan Ocean University, Taiwan)

The deployment of small cell base stations within the coverage area of a macrocell base station serves as an important means of increasing energy efficiency. Furthermore, such a deployment also constitutes a key technology for future communication network markets. There is a shortage of research, however, on how to efficiently solve the problem of coverage holes (that is, specific locations or areas in which a user is not able to get an adequate signal from the wireless network) when such a network architecture is used. In this study, we propose an efficient coverage algorithm for use in such macrocell-small cell network systems. The proposed algorithm is able to provide users with comprehensive wireless signal coverage in various scenarios, while also avoiding unnecessary power consumption. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can provide much better overall system performance than conventional ones.

8:20 Technical KPIs for Microgrids
Paolo Pinceti and Maurizio Vanti (University of Genoa, Italy); Marco Giannettoni (Renergetica srl, Italy)

The design of electrical systems with renewable and conventional in-house generation involves economic, environmental and technical aspects. Often these instances are conflicting: conventional sources have lower Capex and good controllability, while renewable sources have lower Opex and are environmentally friendly but often present erratic behaviors. For these reasons, the best design solution is typically a variable mix of conventional and renewable sources. Today no standardized tool or procedure is available for evaluating and quantifying the technical aspects that drive the design of a Microgrid. Economical aspects are a consequence of the selected set-up, and may lead to an iterative design. This paper defines a set of technical Key Performance Indexes (KPI) that gives a quantitative evaluation of the technical performances of a Microgrid for the comparison of different design solutions. The proposed KPIs consider the system stability, the power quality, the saved fossil fuel, and the maintenance demand for conventional machines, and they can be used for an economic analysis of different technical solutions and sizing.

8:40 Improvement of Airworthiness Certification Audits of Software-Centric Avionics Systems using a Cross-Discipline Application Lifecycle Management (ALM) System Methodology
Keith Roseberry and Tracy Scott-Parry (UTC Aerospace Systems, USA)

The use of an Application Lifecycle Management (ALM) system to promote cross-discipline data capture, tracking and traceability has shown to provide a dramatic improvement during airworthiness audits of software-centric avionics systems by reducing both the time to locate relevant information and rework associated with errors in captured data and their traceability. When configured correctly, an ALM system enables the capture of all data associated with the development of a software-centric avionics system from customer specifications through system-level requirements and design data to the lowest level of data including software source code and system and software test results. The comprehensive nature of the data capture and the integrated traceability facilitates quick and efficient retrieval of pertinent data when performing airworthiness audits and is significantly superior to more manual methods and methods that rely upon disparate tools and data sources. This paper will describe a data model that allows for the capture and tracing of cross-discipline data in an ALM system and will present data to exhibit improvements over the use of legacy systems and methods. Analysis at UTC Aerospace Systems has shown that a significant reduction in preparation and audit time, which includes activities such as creating a document and records catalog, completing a pre-audit review and summarizing traceability architectures before an audit; and locating documents and records, assessing traceability across disciplines, itemizing open problem reports and determining the current status of development and verification activities during an audit. A summary of these improvements is shown in the table below.

Table 1: Time Savings in Man Hours Associated with Development and Verification Audits for a Sampling of Avionics Systems Projects (All Audits Per Project)

Activity Preparation Time Old Preparation Time New Time Saved Create Document Catalog 168 36 132 Complete Pre-Audit Review 316 48 268 Summarize Traceability Architecture 92 14 78 Locate Documents and Records 66 10 56 Assess Cross-Discipline Traceability 122 32 90 Itemize Open Problem Reports 26 4 22 Determine Current Status 40 8 32 830 152 678

Organization of the data in the ALM system is a critical factor in achieving reduced search times and preventing rework associated with traceability and lost or missing records. The following data model diagram is established to allow for simpler organization of the life cycle data to support product development and verification, which is used by all disciplines including Systems Engineering, Software Engineering, Systems Test Engineering, Software Test Engineering, and associated disciplines including Configuration Management, Project Management and Quality Assurance.

(diagram omitted for abstract)

9:00 Face Detection and Posture Recognition in a Real Time Tracking System
Hung-Yuan Chung, Chun-Cheng Hou and Shou-Jyun Liang (National Central University, Taiwan)

The main purposes of this paper are to achieve human face detection and head posture recognition, as well as to track a dynamic image in real time via camera. First, skin-color region is detected. After morphological operations, unnecessary noise is removed, and the method of seed region growing is used to mark pixel blocks. Then the skin-color region is determined whether or not each block is a human face. If it is not human face, it is discarded. Otherwise, wavelet transform is used to decompose the face image. A low-frequency sub-band face image is captured by wavelet transform, and two-dimensional principle component analysis (2DPCA) is used to recognize head posture. Face color histograms are used to build face models, and faces are traced by the self-organizing hierarchical particle swarm optimizer with time-varying acceleration coefficients (HPSO-TVAC) algorithm. In order to solve the face masking problem, adaptive seeking windows are applied. When a human face is not detected, a large seeking window will be used, which will zoom in or out depending on the best global fitness.

#### 2A3: Modeling and Simulation II

Room: Festsaal C
Chair: Eugenio Brusa (Politecnico di Torino, Italy)
8:00 Dependability Assessment of a Deicing System through the RAMSAS method
Andrea Tundis (Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany); Davide Ferretto (Politecnico di Torino, Italy); Alfredo Garro (University of Calabria, Italy); Eugenio Brusa (Politecnico di Torino, Italy); Max Mühlhäuser (TU-Darmstadt, Germany)

The dependability analysis is an important aspect to be considered in a wide range of systems. Such aspect becomes even more complicated and difficult to assess when it has to deal with cyber-physical systems (CPSs). CPSs are an emergent class of systems where integrated physical- and cyber parts interact strongly for proving a desired service or functionality. In this context, the dependability analysis of an actual Deicing System (DS), a state-of-the-art CPS that aims at preventing or decreasing the creation of ice on safety critical components of an aircraft, is experimented by exploiting the RAMSAS method. RAMSAS, is a novel model-based method which supports the dependability analysis of systems. It is able to support the evaluation of dysfunctional aspects of systems by benefitting of available modeling practices combined with simulation techniques. Specifically, this paper aims at virtually assessing the design process of the Deicing System by flexibly evaluating its performances, in terms dependability indices, through the exploitation of RAMSAS. Furthermore, it supports the engineers to compare different design choices as well as to guide them for selecting and integrating properly its components before its actual realization.

8:20 Modeling of the human eye as a tool to determine the degree of involvement of keratoconus using the image processing

The vision is considered the most important sense in humans, the visual field may be affected by various diseases or conditions that can even be congenital, resulting in a high percentage of people with visual problems, low vision to blindness. In the majority of cases can be corrected with conventional methods, however, if a suitable control could be prevented and up to early detection of various problems affecting visual acuity and visual field. Between visual problems that are presented, we have the corneal ectasia, commonly called keratoconus, whose early detection is not easy to determine, especially in the early stages of development, For this reason, in the present work the simulation and modeling of the human eye in order to determine the degree of involvement of keratoconus, as a tool for early diagnosis Presumptive diagnosis tool for the specialist, in such a way that they can take the necessary actions to control this disease. The information of images of the human eye, are used for the analysis in the various stages of keratoconus, through digital processing developed in free software

8:40 Model checking the properties of ISO/IEEE 11073-20601:2016 standard-based communication protocol for personal health device
Andrei Vasilateanu (Politehnica University of Bucharest, Romania); Nicolae Goga (University of Groningen, The Netherlands); Daidi Zhong (Chongqing University, China); Xiaolian Duan (Chongqing Academy of Science & Technology, China)

Engineering of medical informatics systems is a complex work because it is at the intersection of several critical domains, among which medicine, computer science, electrical engineering to mention just a few. One critical aspect of such systems is the interoperability of the different components. One key solution for the interoperability is the creation of good standards that will assure the interchange of data between products of several vendors and domains - medical devices, medical information systems, medical data, etc. In this paper a formal analysis of the ISO/IEEE 11073 -20601: 2016 Draft Standard for Health informatics - Personal health device communication - Application profile - Optimized exchange protocol is described. This family of standards specifies the communication between devices that can be agents (weighing scales, spirometers) which measure health related data and managers (laptop, smartphone etc.) that collect the information and can display or forward it. First the protocol was modeled in Promela and then the model was checked manually and also using the Spin tool that performed an automated check. The results revealed issues which can cause deadlocks. However, these issues appeared in exceptional workflows, the normal flow being designed well. This highlights the methodology of developing such protocols: concentration on normal, intended behaviors without dealing with exceptional behaviors. Using formal models can reveal problems with exceptional behaviors. The results and proposed solutions were reported to the IEEE 1073 working group and will be integrated in the standard.

9:00 Anti-windup Compensator for Improved Tracking Performance of Differential Drive Mobile Robot
Nur Syazreen Ahmad and Sing Yew Chan (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia); Widad Ismail (Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia)

Differential drive mobile robot (DDR) is one type of wheeled mobile robots with a specific wheel configuration where two fixed wheels are controlled by the motors and a castor wheel is added to mechanically support its movements. For tracking purposes, the controller and the motors play a very important role to ensure it does not deviate far from targeted locations or path. As most motors exhibit nonlinear behavior, modeling them is not straightforward. The performance of the DDR is also affected by the physical limitations of the motors. In this work, the motors are modeled as a multivariable Hammerstein structure with noninvertible static nonlinearities in series with a linear time invariant system. This work also focuses on both dynamic and kinematic models of the DDR where a proportional-integral (PI) controller is designed to achieve the desired specifications in the linear region. In order to account for the nonlinear effects from the motors which are mainly influenced by their bounded velocity capability, a static anti-windup compensator (AWC) is implemented which is activated when the controller output exceeds the bound. Via this strategy, a significant improvement on the tracking performance of the DDR can be observed via simulations especially when the desired path involves curvatures.

Room: Steg

### Thursday, October 12 10:00 - 12:00

#### 2B1: Systems Knowledge Development

Room: Festsaal A
Chair: Paolo Carbone (University of Perugia, Italy)
10:00 Designing of an e-Learning system using adaptivity and gamification
Elena Madalina Jianu (University Politehnica Bucuresti, Romania); Andrei Vasilateanu (Politehnica University of Bucharest, Romania)

This paper proposes the design of an adaptive e-learning system with gamification elements. The solution aims to help a user to acquire knowledge at his own pace, in a captivating environment and as efficient as possible. We propose a course model based on knowledge items. Questions test the understanding of the knowledge items in the course. The questions' difficulty is personalized on the progress of each learner. A prototype was tested by a set of students and the results point to positive conclusions.

10:20 An Interactive System for Exhibitions in a Science and Technology Center
Alessio De Angelis, Paolo Carbone, Marco Dionigi, Emilio Di Giacomo, Aurelio Stoppini and Fabio Radicioni (University of Perugia, Italy); Enrico Tombesi (Perugia Officina Scienza Tecnologia (POST) Science and Technology Center, Italy)

This extended abstract presents the development of a system for realizing interactive exhibitions in the context of a science and technology museum. The core functionality of the system is provided by a positioning subsystem comprised of a fixed infrastructure of transmitters and a sensor worn by a user. The operating principle of the positioning system is based on inductive coupling of resonators. Information about the position of the user is transferred to an information system for processing and displaying. Possible use cases include interactive games, information retrieval interfaces and educational scenarios. This extended abstract focuses on the technological aspect of the indoor positioning functionality of the system. In the final paper, its application to an example of an interactive exhibition will also be presented

10:40 A Kinect-Based Workplace Postural Analysis System using Deep Residual Networks
Ahmed Abobakr, Darius Nahavandi and Julie Iskander (Deakin University, Australia); Mohammed Hossny (Institute for Intelligent Systems Research and Innovation (IISRI), Australia); Saeid Nahavandi (Deakin University, Australia); Marty Smets (Ford Motor Company, Australia)

Human behavior understanding is a well-known area of interest for computer vision researchers. This discipline aims at evaluating several aspects of interactions among humans and system components to ensure long term human well-being. The robust human posture analysis is a crucial step towards achieving this target. In this paper, the deep representation learning paradigm is used to analyze the articulated human posture and assess the risk of having musculoskeletal discomfort. Particularly, we train a deep residual convolutional neural network model to predict body joint angles from a single depth image. While it is hard to optimize deeper neural networks, deep residual convolutional networks have demonstrated impressive convergence speed and generalization capabilities in addressing different vision tasks such as object recognition, localization and detection. The presented method also relies on the utilization of the state-of-the-art data generation pipeline to generate large, realistic, and highly varied synthetic set of training images. An inverse kinematics stage has been used to generate robust joint angles for training. Experimental results demonstrate the generalization performance and the real time successful application of the proposed method.

#### 2B2: Model Based Systems Engineering II

Room: Festsaal B
Chairs: Jose Fernandez (Madrid Technical University & Industrial Engineering School, Spain), Francesco Timpone (University of Naples Federico II, Italy)
10:00 Model-Based Requirements Engineering: Architecting for System Requirements with Stakeholders in Mind
Yaniv Mordecai (Massachusetts Institute of Technology & Motorola Solutions, USA); Dov Dori (Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Israel & Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)

Specifying system requirements (SysReqs) is a critical activity in complex systems development. The SysReqs and emerging architecture are constructed through gradual and iterative, gradual transition from the problem domain and operational stakeholder requirements to the conceptual solution domain. They later constitute the basis for functional requirements elaborating, concept formation, technology selection, function-to-form allocation, and asset utilization. Only rarely can stakeholder requirements (SHRs) readily translate to SysReqs. Systems engineers must therefore elicit, analyze, and evolve the SysReqs, as these will radically affect the system's performance, robustness, endurance, and appeal. Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) provides a framework for effective and consistent systems engineering and architecting. MBSE relies on modeling languages, such as Object-Process Methodology (OPM). OPM is a holistic MBSE paradigm and language for complex systems and processes, standardized as ISO 19450, which relies on the principle of minimal universal ontology. In this paper, we propose a model-based requirement engineering (MBRE) approach to facilitate the transition from SHRs to SysReqs, and from SysReqs to system architecture specification. We demonstrate the applicability of this framework in architecting a robotic baggage loading system for a leading international airport.

10:20 Real-Time Estimation of the Vehicle Sideslip Angle through Regression based on Principal Component Analysis and Neural Networks
Massimiliano De Martino, Flavio Farroni, Nicola Pasquino, Aleksandr Sakhnevych and Francesco Timpone (University of Naples Federico II, Italy)

Accurate estimation of the vehicle sideslip angle is fundamental in vehicle dynamics control and stability. In this paper some methods for vehicle sideslip estimation, based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Neural Networks (NN), are presented comparing the procedure responses with full-scale vehicle acquired test data. The estimation algorithms use drivers steering angle, lateral and longitudinal accelerations, wheel velocities and yaw rate measured from sensors integrated in a test vehicle, and are validated by comparison with the measurements of the sideslip angle provided by an optical Correvit sensor suitably mounted on board, serving as the reference system in terms of accuracy of slip-free measurement of longitudinal and transverse vehicle dynamics. The procedure results, based on both the original (RAW) and the reduced (PCA) data sets, are compared to the acquired sideslip angle, using the estimated channel as an input for the TRICK tool to evaluate the accuracy of the results and the potential of the estimation process in terms of tire interaction curves.

10:40 MBSE approach to support and formalize Mission Alternatives generation and selection processes for hypersonic and suborbital transportation systems
Roberta Fusaro, Davide Ferretto and Nicole Viola (Politecnico di Torino, Italy)

This paper deals with the application of a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) approach to support and formalize mission alternatives generation and selection processes aimed at developing operative hypersonic and suborbital transportation systems. Due to the high-level of complexity of these ultimate aerospace initiatives, a MBSE approach demonstrates to be very effective to allow reduction of risk of inconsistencies, of unappropriated or incompatible design choices, reducing the overall time and effort spent in design and development phases. After a brief introductory section aimed at providing some details about these kind of vehicles, both in terms of enabling technologies and missions, a step-by-step innovative methodology based on a MBSE approach to carry out mission analysis is proposed. All along the methodology description, the application to a specific reference case study of a suborbital single-stage vehicle aimed at performing commercial parabolic flight services is proposed. Eventually, the selected mission baseline is detailed and the major benefits and further application of this innovative integrated methodology are reported and discussed.

11:00 Techno-economic Analysis of SysML Models
Mara Nikolaidou and Christos Michalakelis (Harokopio University of Athens, Greece)

SysML is a prominent standard serving model-based system design for systems-of-systems (SoS). It facilitates the description of complex system design, as a hierarchy of interacting system components, while at the same time enables the independent description of each component behaviour. However, in order for the system designer to decide whether a SoS architecture is efficient, non-functional properties, such as performance or cost, should also be taken into consideration. There are numerous efforts integrating performance properties into SysML models and their verification using stochastic or analytical methods. In this paper, we focus on the financial assessment of SysML models, estimating economic attributes of SoS architectures, such as Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) and Return of Investment (ROI). Integrating different viewpoints into SysML SoS models, focusing besides structure and behaviour, also performance and economic attributes, enables the system designer to explore alternative solutions for system design, having in mind a wider perspective of the system under investigation. To this end, a profile extending SysML to serve techno-economic analysis of systems is introduced. As an example, the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) for cloud infrastructures, modelled as SoS is explored. TCO properties are incorporated into existing SysML cloud models, enabling the designer to compute TCO for the whole system or parts of it.

11:20 First-class Risk Management from Second-Use Data Sources
Carmen E Castaño Reyes and Raphael Kiesel (Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT, Germany); Robert Schmitt (Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering WZL, Germany)

In modern manufacturing, large data sets from different sources are permanently generated along the production chain. This data are supposed to be used to optimize products and production chains. However, in most cases, process participants only focus on acquiring data and leave it then to decision makers for interpretation. While there is nothing wrong with that on principle, comparable results might be achieved in a more efficient and productive manner by preprocessing already collected data and analyzing the outcome of legacy decisions. This requires connecting information from different sources within the product life cycle (horizontally: product stages, vertically: stakeholder - decision maker - implementer) and enriching models in an iterative way (comp. software engineering, consumer marketing). The goal of this paper is to describe how to use existing data in the industry in order to reduce the translation of "idle" information into failures in decision making. Often, critical characteristics have been discovered already, in a legacy product, a former product version or an abandoned project, and recognizing them in new product structures can be facilitated with IT-based quality management. In addition, the paper shows how intelligent selection and recombination of second-use data sources can help to detect and treat risks proactively, before adverse effects occur. Examples from our current research in risk identification for MedTech and during injection molding processes shall illustrate the fields of opportunities.

#### 2B3: Modeling and Simulation III

Room: Festsaal C
Chair: Thomas Dietrich (Technische Universität Ilmenau, Germany)
10:00 A Framework for Simulation-based Optimization Demonstrated on Reconfigurable Robot Workcells
Linus Atorf and Christoph Schorn (RWTH Aachen University, Germany); Christian Schlette (University of Southern Denmark, Denmark); Jürgen Roßmann (RWTH Aachen University, Germany)

Today's trends towards automation and robotics, fueled by the emerging Industry 4.0 paradigm shift, open up many new kinds of control and optimization problems. At the same time, advances in 3D simulation technology lead to ever-improving simulation models and algorithms in various domains, such as multi-body dynamics, kinematics, or sensor simulation. This development can be harnessed for Simulation-based Optimization (SBO), where optimization results can be directly transferred from simulation models to the real world. In this paper, we introduce a formalism and modular framework for model configuration and SBO. We demonstrate the capabilities of our framework by optimizing the sensor layout within a reconfigurable robot workcell from the H2020 project ReconCell, allowing engineers to experiment with different optimizers and parameters. Evaluation of the results proves the usefulness of our approach and shows that the framework can be applied to a wide range of optimization problems without constraining the choice of simulation environment.

10:20 Topological Modeling of a Wind Turbine
Nourhene Abdeljabbar kharrat (Supmeca & National Engineering School of Sfax, France); Régis Plateaux (Laboratoire QUARTZ & Supmeca, France); Mariam Miladi Chabaane (National Engineering School, Tunisia); Jean-Yves Choley (SUPMECA & Laboratoire Quartz, France); Chafik Karra (National Engineering School of Sfax, Tunisia); Mohamed Haddar (University of Sfax, Tunisia)

Undeniably, the focus of several works revolved around finding a process of unification to follow along the modeling of mechatronic systems. This paper is a part of a general research designed to apply topology for the modeling of complex mechatronic systems. Notably, a topological approach to model a wind turbine is adopted in this study. The wind turbine model under study is modeled using a topological approach based on the concepts of topological collections and transformations in order to dissociate the topological structure from its behavior. In this paper the MGS (Modeling of General Systems) language is employed. In fact, MGS allows the implementation as well as the linking of topological graph and its local behavior laws. The topological collections are adopted to specify the interconnection laws of the model of the wind turbine and the transformations are employed to specify the local behavior laws of its components. In order to validate this specific application of the topological approach to a complex mechatronic model, results of simulation are presented and compared with those obtained from the application of MODELICA language using Dymola solver. Since satisfactory results are gathered, this topological modeling is used as a unifying model for the wind turbine..

10:40 A Discrete Event Simulation and Evaluation Framework for Multi UAV System Maintenance Processes
Thomas Dietrich (Technische Universität Ilmenau, Germany); Silvia Krug (Mid Sweden University, Sweden); Armin Zimmermann (Ilmenau University of Technology & Systems and Software Engineering, Germany)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are used in all kinds of applications. The utilization of multiple UAVs acting in a cooperative manner within the same operation field is especially interesting. However, many deployment scenarios pose the challenge of continuous applications. UAVs are equipped with a limited battery which enables short term applications. Replacement and recharging maintenance processes are needed to achieve uninterrupted mission execution. This paper presents a novel simulation framework for mobile robotic systems with the focus on energy maintenance and node replacement strategies.

11:00 Apportionment and Analysis of Satellite Pointing Performance
Marco Hering, Eline Conijn, Michael Baro, Alexander Kuisl and Brian Heider (OHB System AG, Germany)

OHB System AG is one of the three leading space companies in Europe and is specialized on the integration of high-tech systems in order to create innovative spacecraft for various applications like, earth observation, navigation or reconnaissance. Particularly in case of optical payloads customer requirements are demanding and the associated systems engineering process is highly complex due to the strong interrelations between the various sub-systems and its multi-disciplinary nature. Requirements on pointing performance of a satellite may serve here as a very illustrative example. Pointing performance refers to the difference between the targeted line-of-sight and the actual viewing direction of the telescope or to knowledge of the actual viewing direction. Contributions to the pointing (knowledge) error can be manifold. Even at highest precision of the attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) of the satellite, there will remain a residual deviation from the commanded orientation of the satellite leading to a pointing error. Moreover, for complex scanning patterns a dedicated mechanism is needed in order to redirect the optical path to the desired position which will also have limitations in terms of accuracy. The optical path within the payload is subject to elastic deformations which are, for example, driven by thermal gradients that tend to vary particularly in case the sides of the satellite that are facing the sun and deep space, respectively, are alternating at longer time scales, like in geo-stationary orbit. In order to compensate some of the aforementioned deficiencies, images acquired with the satellite can be referenced to geo-located landmarks. Such an algorithmic approach improves the knowledge on the actual line-of-sight and can be used as a feedback to the control loop of the satellite's positioning system or the scan mechanism. The associated systems engineering process has to be based on an in-depth understanding of feasibility and limitations of this multitude of technical disciplines ranging from control theory to image processing algorithms. In an early design phase this will facilitate the allocation of associated budgets to the various sub-systems in a top-down approach and to implement a dedicated margin philosophy. For the maintenance of the overall pointing budgets during later phases the bottom-up assessment can either be based on the individual responses from sub-systems or on a more comprehensive end-to-end analysis of the system of systems. Whereas the former is appealing due to its effectiveness, the latter is considered to be more accurate since it includes also interrelations that are not or only insufficiently represented by the individual assessments. The proposed paper for IEEE's ISSE 2017 will discuss the associated methodologies of the underlying systems engineering process as well as the tools that are used for the bottom-up analysis. Particular emphasis will be on the replication of the interrelations between the thermal and structural properties, and the optical design of the instrument. The respective tool chain that is available within OHB incorporates the multi-disciplinary analysis as it interfaces directly with the finite element and raytracing models.

11:20 Architecture-based design for multi-body simulation of complex systems
Elias Allegaert (Siemens PLM Software, Belgium); Gianfranco La Rocca (Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands); Yves Lemmens (Siemens PLM Software, Belgium)

Current practices of architecture-based design is used for the automatic synthesis of multi-physics simulation models. In this way, different architecture options and simulation model variations can be rapidly investigated early in the development process. Multi-body simulations are also frequently used in the conceptual design of systems, however a suitable methodology to use them in a dynamic system architecture is lacking.

This research demonstrates that an architecture-based design approach can be used for the automatic synthesis of multi-body simulation models and a methodology is proposed to efficiently model and synthesize them. The methodology was used for the conceptual design of an aircraft trailing-edge high-lift system. It was found that a trade-off needs to be made between the time that is saved by the automatic synthesis of simulation models and the time it takes to create the architectures and compatible subsystem models.

### Thursday, October 12 12:00 - 13:00

#### Lunch

Room: Parkring Restaurant

### Thursday, October 12 13:00 - 15:00

#### 2C1: Engineering Systems of Systems

Room: Festsaal A
Chair: Nathan Schut (Carleton University, Canada)
13:00 Understanding Evolution in Systems of Systems
Mohamed Hichem Fendali (University of Annaba, Algeria); Djamel Meslati (University of Annaba); Isabelle Borne (University of South Brittany)

Based on a literature analysis, this paper examines the nature of evolution in Systems of Systems (SoS) by attempting to answer why, where and how change occurs in this new kind of complex systems as well as what unprecedented underlying challenges makes it difficult to manage. This paper gives special focus on how state-of-the-art research efforts are attempting to solve those challenges and ultimately aims to provide research directions towards making evolution in systems of systems a disciplined activity.

13:20 Potential Factors Influencing Systems Engineering and Integration: a Model and its Application to the ELI-ALPS' Research Technology Systems
Lajos Jeno Fülöp, Imre Kiss, Tamara Kecskés, Árpád Mohácsi, Lajos Schrettner, Ferenc Horváth, Gergő Mészáros, Tamás Gaizer and Jacobo Montano (ELI-HU NonProfit Ltd., Hungary)

ELI (Extreme Light Infrastructure) is the first civilian large-scale high-power laser research facility to be realized with trans-European cooperation and the worldwide scientific community. The main objective of the ELI Attosecond Light Pulse Source (ELI-ALPS) pillar is the establishment of a unique attosecond facility that provides ultrashort light pulses between THz and X-ray frequency range with high repetition rates. The simultaneous development and implementation of the building infrastructure together with several interconnected light sources has a great need for broad systems engineering and integration activities. Potential factors influencing these systems engineering and integration activities have been collected and modelled. This based on a literature survey as well as in-house experiences. The model is applied to the system engineering and integration of ELI-ALPS' research technology.

13:40 General tolerance for mechatronic system
Hana Siala (Université Paris Saclay & Université de Sfax, France); Faïda Mhenni (ISAE-Supméca & Laboratoire Quartz, France); Jean-Yves Choley (SUPMECA & Laboratoire Quartz, France); Maher Barkallah, Jamel Louati and Mohamed Haddar (ENIS, Tunisia)

A mechatronic system results in the integration of several components from different domains. The behavior of such a system depends on the values of its parameters and variables. Be it small or large, a variation in these values can significantly affect the overall functioning of the system. To attain an expected product quality, the deviations between actual and target values of parameters are needed to be in specified tolerances. These tolerances contain geometric and non-geometric parameters, which are integrated to form the mechatronic system. Furthermore, the variation margin of variables should be computed to evaluate system performance. In this paper, we propose a new methodology based on the variational approach to quantify tolerances of the mechatronic systems, which some parameters present an uncertainty. The proposed methodology is illustrated with the DC motor. The results show that the developed method is practical and affords a new way for mechatronic tolerancing.

14:00 Engineering framework for the future - Cynefin for Engineers
Jan Vollmar and Michael Gepp (Siemens AG, Germany); Herbert Palm (University of Applied Sciences Munich, Germany); Ambra Calà (Otto-von-Guericke Universität, Magdeburg & Siemens AG, Germany)

Companies of the engineer-to-order (ETO) business face various trends such as digitalization and globalization. These trends will radically impact our ways of engineering. The Engineering framework translates Dave Snowden's Cynefin framework to the engineering world. Cynefin for Engineers allows structuring future ways of engineering and guiding ETO companies along their transformation of engineering processes. First, this paper carves out four basic categories of engineering in the ETO business - 'Easy Engineering', 'Perfect Engineering', 'Pioneer Engineering' and 'Crisis Engineering'- and describes their distinctive characteristics and implications for engineering companies. Second, this paper elaborates engineering scenarios that show how the described trends will change the way of working in respective engineering categories. It further outlines how the trends will change relative importance of the engineering categories within the ETO business. Finally, the contribution discusses what challenges engineering companies need to tackle on their way to the future of engineering.

#### 2C2: Model Based Systems Engineering III

Room: Festsaal B
Chairs: Jose Fernandez (Madrid Technical University & Industrial Engineering School, Spain), Daniel Schuetz (GEFASOFT GmbH, Germany)
13:00 Evaluation of Migration Scenarios towards Cyber-Physical Production Systems using SysML
Ambra Calà (Otto-von-Guericke Universität, Magdeburg & Siemens AG, Germany); Arndt Lüder (Otto-von-Guericke Universität Magdeburg, Germany); Jan Vollmar and Matthias Foehr (Siemens AG, Germany)

Over the last decades several technologies have been developed towards the distributed automation architecture for Smart Factories, however, these technologies have not been yet implemented in industry. Manufacturers are quite conservative in adopting new technologies because the vast majority of existing infrastructures already have constraints in place related to their investment capabilities and to the integration of new technologies with their legacy systems and processes. To overcome this conservatism migration strategies and decision-making approaches are required to support industry in adopting the next generation of smart production systems step by step, taking into account not only the technical aspects, but also integrating organizational and economical issues. One essential part of these approaches is the comparative evaluation of migration options. Based on model-based systems engineering (MBSE), this paper proposes an approach that supports the evaluation of possible migration scenarios towards cyber-physical production systems (CPPS) by using the System Modeling Language (SysML).

13:20 Automatic Generation of Shop Floor Gateway Configurations from Systems Modeling Language
Daniel Schuetz (GEFASOFT GmbH, Germany); Thomas Aicher and Birgit Vogel-Heuser (Technische Universität München, Germany)

In the development of production systems, the engineering of Manufacturing Execution Systems poses a complex and time-consuming task. One of the specific tasks, which contribute to this fact, are the efforts necessary for the configuration of the shop floor gateway of an MES. In the past few years, a great number of promising approaches for the model-based systems engineering of production systems including MES have been proposed. This paper describes industrial research activities, which practically investigate the opportunities of using common MBSE approaches and applying necessary extensions for an automatic generation of shop floor MES gateway configurations. As a basis, systems engineering models for production systems, i.e., an extension to Systems Modeling Language, and standard model transformation mechanisms, i.e., MOF-Model-to-Text Transformation Language, are used. After an introduction to the investigated approach, this paper presents and demonstrates a possible tool chain, which is based on existing implementations of established standards, using a lab-scale application example.

13:40 Plant Modeling Based on SysML Domain Specific Language
Taekyong Lee, Jae-Min Cha, Joon-Young Kim, Junguk Shin, Jinil Kim and Choongsub Yeom (Institute for Advanced Engineering(IAE), Korea (South))

Successful implementation of Model-based Systems Engineering(MBSE) obviously needs a model supporting efficient communication among engineers of various domains. The system modeling language standard, SysML is designed to create MBSE supporting models. However, SysML itself is not practical enough to be used for real-world engineering projects. As SysML is designed for generic systems and requires specialized knowledge, a model written in SysML has a limited capability to support communication between a systems engineer and a sub-system engineer. Our research's main goal is to develop a SysML based plant model integrating most outputs from plant design phases. As mentioned, a standard SysML based plant model is not specific enough to be understood by plant engineers. To make the SysML model more practical, a customized SysML for the plant engineering domain is required. Unfortunately, current researches on SysML Domain Specific Language(DSL) for the plant engineering industry are still on the early stage. So, as a pilot, we have developed our own SysML-based Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) creation environment and P&ID itself for a specific plant system, via widely known SysML modeling tool called MagicDraw. P&ID is one of the most important output during the plant design phase, which contains all information for the plant construction phase. So a SysML based P&ID has a great potential to bridge gaps between plant engineers.

#### 2C3: System Architecture and Architectural Frameworks I

Room: Festsaal C
Chair: Bill Chown (INCOSE & Mentor Graphics, USA)
13:00 Architectural Design of Complex Systems using Set-Based Concurrent Engineering
Randa Ammar (SUPMECA, France); Moncef Hammadi (ISAE-SUPMECA & Quartz Laboratory EA7393, France); Maher Barkallah (ENIS, Tunisia); Jean-Yves Choley (SUPMECA & Laboratoire Quartz, France); Jamel Louati (ENIS, Tunisia)

Nowadays, the global competition between companies which is characterized by high innovation speed, shortened product life cycle as well as increasing customer expectations for the performance, the quality and the price of the product. Furthermore, currently most of the modern technical products are more and more complex. Then system engineering is positioned today to be the perfect approach that allows engineers to design complex systems in an integrated way. In the system engineering process, architectural design consists in synthesizing solutions of the system that satisfies the requirements. However, system architectures need methods to generate relevant architectures and integrate discipline requirements. In this paper, we propose a new approach that we DMIV as Development, Mapping, Integration and Verification, by using the Set-Based Engineering concept. After detailing the approach, we show, on an example, how we narrow the design space by integration of solutions and increasing requirement details.

13:20 Customer-Oriented Architecture Refinement in Multi-Criteria Synthesis of Large-Scale System Architectures
Christopher Hambley and Andrew Mills (University of Sheffield & Rolls-Royce plc, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Visakan Kadirkamanathan (University of Sheffield, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Tony Dodd (The University of Sheffield, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); William Bradley and Robin Shirtcliffe (Rolls-Royce plc, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

Designing complex system architectures involves analysing tradeoffs between multiple conflicting decision criteria to find a solution which best matches the preferences of the customer. This is usually done in the engineering characteristic (decision criteria) space, but the customer is generally more interested in higher-level characteristics. For example, the engineering characteristic "modularity" is not of direct interest to a customer, but it is related to their concern "through-life costs", since modular systems can be upgraded more easily. The relationships between customer and engineering concerns are many-to-many making it difficult to relate the two sets of priorities. This paper proposes an integrated system architecture synthesis framework, which aims to maximise customer satisfaction by using their preferences directly to refine a set of candidate architectures. The novelty of the research relates to the translation from customer preferences to decision criteria limits on a parallel coordinates plot. This automated flow facilitates rapid re-synthesis of "best" architectures following a change in customer preferences. The approach is presented on a case study of a control system for a pressurized water reactor.

13:40 CB-MLC2A—A Command and Control Architecture for Unmanned Combat SoS
Hua He, Zhifei Li, Weiping Wang, Yifan Zhu and Xiaobo Li (National University of Defense Technology, China)

The control of unmanned combat system of systems (SoS) needs fusion centralized control, cluster distribution control and platform autonomous control，because of its distributed, networked and unmanned characteristics. Based on the hierarchical idea and the OODA control loop, this paper proposes a cognitive based multi-level command and control (C2) architecture about unmanned combat SoS (CB-MLC2A), which divides the unmanned combat SoS into four levels control structure. Different levels to achieved independent collaborative control of unattended combat SoS, and designed the interaction relationship between the various levels to satisfaction the control flexibility. Finally, the method of C2 architecture optimization and modeling and analysis of C2 process is discussed.

14:00 A Novel Methodology for Retrofitting CNC Machines Based on the Context of Industry 4.0
Romulo Lins (Federal University of ABC, Brazil); Bruno Guerreiro (Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology, Germany); Robert Schmitt (Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering WZL, Germany); Marcio Corazzim (Faculdade SENAI Mariano Ferraz, Brazil); Francis Silva (Thyssenkrupp, Brazil); Jianing Jianing Sun (Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology, Germany)

The new concept of manufacturing, called as Industry 4.0, must transform the paradigm of the industries much faster than any other technological revolution known at the moment. This new paradigm must require the intensive use of different machines,mechatronic systems and electronic devices that will be integrated through protocols which must allow a wide sharing of data among the devices that compose the manufacturing system. Although this new paradigm has been changing the design of new machines, the current systems are not prepared to be integrated by these new concepts.Therefore,a new demand for retrofitting of these current systems is emerging nowadays in order to update them for the context of Industry 4.0. Hence, this paper proposes and studies a methodology based on the concepts of design and systems engineering for retrofitting existing Computer Numeric Control (CNC) machines. As result, the proposed methodology must depict in details the functional requirements (FRs), the design parameters (DPs), data model and the system architecture for updating CNC machines in use, enabling the engineers to create personalized projects for real industries.

14:20 Docker Container-Based Big Data Processing System in Multiple Clouds for Everyone
Nitin Naik (Aston University, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

Big data processing is progressively becoming essential for everyone to extract the meaningful information from their large volume of data irrespective of types of users and their application areas. Big data processing is a broad term and includes several operations such as the storage, cleaning, organization, modelling, analysis and presentation of data at a scale and efficiency. For ordinary users, the significant challenges are the requirement and configuration of the powerful data processing platform, installation of complex big data analytics and difficulty in their usage. Docker is a container-based virtualization technology and it has recently introduced Docker Swarm for the development of various types of multi-clouds systems, which can be helpful in solving all above problems for ordinary users. However, Docker is predominantly used in the software development industry, and less focus is given to the data processing aspect of this container-based technology. Therefore, this paper proposes the Docker container-based big data processing platform in multiple clouds for everyone, which explores another potential dimension of Docker. This Docker container-based platform is an inexpensive and user-friendly framework for everyone who has the knowledge of basic IT skills. Additionally, it can be easily developed on a single machine, multiple machines or multiple clouds. This paper demonstrates the architectural design and simulated development of the proposed Docker container-based big data processing platform in multiple clouds. Subsequently, it illustrates the automated provisioning of big data clusters using two popular big data analytics, Hadoop and Pachyderm (without Hadoop) including the Web-based GUI interface Hue for easy data processing in Hadoop.

Room: Steg

### Thursday, October 12 15:30 - 17:30

#### 2D1: Systems Thinking

Room: Festsaal A
Chair: Nathan Hutchins (University of Tulsa, USA)
15:30 Data-Driven Development, A Complementing Approach for Automotive Systems Engineering
Johannes Bach (Porsche AG, Germany); Jacob Langner and Stefan Otten (FZI Research Center for Information Technology, Germany); Marc Holzäpfel (Porsche AG, Germany); Eric Sax (FZI Research Center for Information Technology)

Established methods and processes in the field of Automotive Systems Engineering (ASE) are challenged by the rising complexity of current features. Expanding system boundaries, tighter interconnections of functional elements, increasingly complex algorithms and an ever growing operational domain generate a multitude of different scenarios that require consideration during specification, design, implementation and testing. This paper reflects the current practice on the example of the Automotive SPICE process reference for system and software development in the automotive domain. It then contemplates on opportunities of consistent usage of recorded vehicle data throughout all phases of automotive development. Our concept of data-driven development is not intended to replace the current practice but to complement it. A summary of our previous work demonstrates the practicability of the concept on the basis of the development of a Predictive Cruise Control (PCC) feature. The contribution concludes with a scalable concept for the large scale application of data-driven development in ASE.

15:50 The Design Team as a "System of Systems"
Bill Chown (INCOSE & Mentor Graphics, USA)

Systems of Systems (SoS) are defined - amongst other distinguishing features - as a collection of component systems that produce results not achievable by the individual systems alone. But SoS is more than just a higher level focus on factors that are primarily concerned with the mechanics of data handling. SoS deals with the process of work-in-progress and how the design drives the implementation. It seems reasonable to couch the teams involved in developing those system of systems products as fitting the definitions equally well. This paper will build on earlier work that looked at the process, design and implementation issues that distinguish Systems of Systems, but take up themes from ensuing discussion and explore the team and people aspects of the System of Systems design process..

16:10 A Multi-Dimensional Business Strategy Model for Effective Decision Making: A Holonic Representation of Enterprises
Tarun Malviya (Tata Consultancy Services, Australia)

In today's fast changing socio economic environment, companies have to rapidly adapt to changing conditions and adopt newer technologies and ways of working. Use of Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) is well recognized and effectively applied in different product based industries e.g., Aviation, Retail, Oil and Gas etc. However, services industries such as Banking, Finance and Insurance are still trying to tap the potential of these technologies in many different ways. One such way is to use AR and VR in executive level business decision making process to gain operational efficiencies and lower services costs. Enterprise Architecture can play a key role in developing methods and ways in which these technologies can be applied. This is because typically Enterprise Architecture owns, develops and maintains different business and IT designs, models and strategic roadmaps. However, real challenge comes in while conceptualizing and developing different strategic models in a multi-dimensional environment. This is primarily because such conceptualization and model design requires representing abstract concepts of business capabilities, goals, mission, vision, strategic initiatives etc. in a physical real world model that depicts the interrelationships between such abstract concepts in simple and elegant ways. To address such issues, the philosophy of Holons and Informons can be applied to develop a real world model that depicts such abstract concepts. This paper tries to evaluate applicability of Holons and Informons for such a real world business scenario and presents a model that can be harnessed to effectively apply AR and VR to facilitate strategic business decision making.

16:30 Social Impacts of Ethical Artificial Intelligence and Autonomous System Design
Nathan Hutchins, Zack Kirkendoll and Loyd Hook IV (University of Tulsa, USA)

With the introduction of autonomous systems becoming more and more prevalent in modern society a major focus of research on Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Autonomous Systems (AS) ethics is becoming important. There are many questions in the public about how these AI/AS programs will make ethical decisions as well as what ethical issues will be dealt with at a developmental level. Darning AI/AS development, these choices are mainly developed by personal choice of the developers which is an objective view of any issue on how to handle difficult situations. In most conversation about AI/AS control, people have an issue with how ethical decisions are made or which decision is made prompting them to want human intervention during these situations. The IEEE Standards Association (SA) has been developing a set of basic guidelines to help alleviate some of the ambiguity of these sensitive issues. This paper is a literature review and case study of how the new IEEE Standards Association Guidelines for Ethically Aligned AI/AS Design start addressing many of the social and ethical quandaries brought on by AI/AS system development. Using several research papers and news articles about these issues, this paper investigates how the new IEEE SA rules fits into the current AI/AS criticisms.

#### 2D2: Frameworks and Methods in Systems Engineering

Room: Festsaal B
Chair: Mara Nikolaidou (Harokopio University of Athens, Greece)
15:30 Towards a Methodology for Systems Engineering Ontology Development - An Ontology for System Life Cycle Processes
Lan Yang and Kathryn Cormican (National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland); Ming Yu (Tsinghua University, China)

Knowledge about system life cycle processes constitutes one of the most valuable assets for systems engineering practitioners. While effective management of processes is imperative, it is an onerous task as knowledge is tacit and implicit. Although best practice to ensure the quality of such processes has been documented in the International Standard ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288, it is limited to human-readable descriptions and not a computer interpretable knowledge representation. This leads to a problem with interoperability as process descriptions are interpreted in different ways. Consequently, we must define these processes in an explicit, unambiguous way. The goal of our research is to improve the current situation by advancing the semantic formalism of the standard from natural language description to computer readable knowledge presentation - an ontology. This paper proposes a methodology to realize this approach. The methodology ensures the concepts in the system life cycle processes are defined in an unambiguous, systematic and structured way. Through this methodology, an ontology of these concepts is generated, which provides a classification that enriches the perspectives by using different groupings for different viewpoints and purposes. The study contributes to the creation of a semantic network for systems life cycle processes to allow a more systematic and comprehensive understanding of the relations hidden in the processes. It also supports tailoring the system life cycle processes to different systems engineering projects to ensure the best practice.

15:50 New real-time methods for operator situational awareness retrieval and higher process safety in the control room
Nikodem Rybak (The University of Queensland, Australia); Kourosh Parsa (University Of Queensland/ Australia, Australia); Maureen Hassall and Daniel Angus (The University of Queensland, Australia)

Background When operators are overwhelmed by anger or stress, their perceptions and judgments are impaired, leading to misinterpretation of events and errors. Therefore, it has been a vision to create an intelligent control room. A system functioning in the background of complex processes that not only collects data but also, by real time data analysis, automatically assesses the operator's Situation Awareness changes through detection of emotional reaction. The research is inspired by the recent success of novel Deep Learning methods. Methods Measurements for this study are provided through emotion recognition via facial expressions and speech signal analysis. This captures important human behavioural factors relevant to the controlling of abnormal situations. Presented solution addresses the issue of the low accuracy of automatic emotion recognition from voice signals, as well as introduces a method for 2D recognition of facial features in the context of Human Machine Interaction and Situation Awareness evaluation. Conclusions Highly efficient retrieval of information on the operator's state in the control room is technically feasible by continuous visual and acoustic data acquisition and real time Deep Learning based analysis. Data analysis of our novel approach tested on revised Tennessee Eastman simulations also proved to be a promising technology for automatic and intelligent workflow predictions.

16:10 Approach for Model-Based Change Impact Analysis in Factory Systems
Harald Bauer, Alexander Schönmann and Gunther Reinhart (Technical University of Munich, Germany)

Due to product innovation cycles, high variant products, demand fluctuation, equipment life cycles, and technology life cycles, regular changes in manufacturing systems are necessary. As elements of a factory are connected via a complex network of relations and flows, single changes can have an impact on the entire manufacturing system. In order to enable a successful change management, companies need to understand and consider all possible change impacts. For this purpose, this paper presents a method for change impact analysis in factory systems. By combination of manufacturing system modeling and a network of manufacturing metrics, change impacts on arbitrary metrics can be estimated. The definition of constraints between factory element properties improves the certainty of the analysis' results. Consecutive required changes are applied directly to the model and are equally considered in the change impact analysis. In an exemplary scenario, the applicability in principle of the approach is demonstrated, but also, current limitations and further research activities are identified.

16:30 Engineering Systems by combining BPMN and HLA-based distributed simulation
Alberto Falcone and Alfredo Garro (University of Calabria, Italy); Andrea D'Ambrogio (University of Rome TorVergata, Italy); Andrea Giglio (Guglielmo Marconi University, Italy)

The increasing complexity of modern Large-Scale systems and System-of-Systems (SoSs) makes their design and development extremely challenging. To face this difficulty new Modeling and Simulation techniques, methods, and tools are emerging and some of them take advantage of distributed simulation environments. In this context, the IEEE 1516-2010 - High Level Architecture (HLA) is a well-known and accepted standard. However, the HLA standard does not provide any graphical representation for specifying how a simulation component (called federate) acts and interacts in a distributed simulation (called federation). To fill this lack, the Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) standard could represent a viable solution, since it offers a standardized graphical notation based on a flowcharting technique that allows developers to easily specify the behavioral view of such a system in terms of business processes. The paper presents an integration between the BPMN and HLA standards aimed at defining and managing a system through HLA in a graphical way. This study analyzes the theoretical issues behind their integration and explores two aspects on how to describe both a federate and a federation through BPMN concepts.

#### 2D3: Special Session: Sensor Reliability and Sensing System Design for Safety II

Room: Festsaal C
Chairs: Ada Fort (University of Siena, Italy), Marco Mugnaini (University of Siena, Italy), Valerio Vignoli (University of Siena, Italy)
15:30 Large Plants Failures Modeling Under Variable Commissioning Scheduling
Tommaso Addabbo, Ada Fort and Rossella Marino (University of Siena, Italy); Carlo Michelassi (General Electric Oil and Gas, Italy); Marco Mugnaini (University of Siena, Italy); Gilda Pedoto (General Electric Oil and Gas, Italy); Valerio Vignoli (University of Siena, Italy)

Most of the models proposed in the literature try to model failure rate functions and failure intensities by means of a single model with a reduced number of parameters. If this approach can be effective for controlled situations or simple models it may happen that new models should be introduced in order to describe more accurately the behavior of the cases where non-monotonic failure rate or intensity functions can be experienced. Examples of non-monotonic failure intensity functions are observed in the early life of industrial plants. Reasons for a non-monotonic failure intensity can be various and different in nature, for instance the learning curve of peculiar technical aspects, up to possible managerial decisions on the organization of resources during the commissioning and early production phases. A statistical model of a non-monotonic failure intensity for a complex repairable system can be of some guidance to take informed decisions on the time and resources dedicated to the commissioning and operational phases. Under these conditions new models should be introduced in order to describe more accurately the behavior of the plant where non-monotonic failure rate or intensity functions can be experienced. In this paper the authors compare two Non Homogenous Poisson Process (NHPP) based on piecewise functions with a newly proposed one relying on a modified Weibull probability density function which can be analytically solved.

15:50 Easy Implementation of Sensing Systems for Smart Living
Paolo Bellagente, Claudio Crema, Alessandro Depari, Alessandra Flammini, Giovanni Lenzi, Stefano Rinaldi and Angelo Vezzoli (University of Brescia, Italy)

Nowadays system architectures based on Internet of Things (IoT) are becoming a pervasive topic in several applications. Smartphones integrate a growing number of high quality sensors and often they are used as gateways for external sensors, wearable sensors or sensors for ambient assisted living. Several recent projects about smart cities and smart living are experiencing sensory data management by means of smartphones, resulting in large data flow and battery power concerns. In these architectures, using sensors embedded within the smartphone is trivial, and several reliable Applications (APPs) are available; on the contrary, APPs managing external sensors have high Source Line Of Code (SLOC), especially if sensors of different vendors are considered and if the APPs need a high level of personalization. In this work, a solution to easily develop Android APPs handling remote sensors, even of different type and manufacturers, is employed in the context of a smart living application. The proposed approach is based on a framework that allows achieving an easy development system architecture, exploiting the Bluetooth 4.0-4.1 technologies. First implementations focused on safety in a Smart City projects are discussed.

16:10 Optimizing DTC in Case-Based Development with Parametric Modeling Tools
Haifeng Zhu (Smart Machinery Lab, USA)

In Internet of Things (IoT) world, there can be many sensors deployed in a system, thus their costs must be considered during the system design and material selections, in order to support massive production and deployment. Design-To-Cost (DTC) is an effective technique for this situation. In Model-Based Design (MBD), DTC cost estimates are preferred to be generated from models as one of the parameters to optimize the design. However, most cost modeling methods focus in estimation on costs associated with new product development, and much fewer discuss the estimate of the switching costs for new products that are designed leveraging previous products. In this paper, we explore certain available tools for DTC for such purposes and discuss their advantages/disadvantages. We performed an experimental study on a building PHM (Prognostic and Health Monitoring) sensing system design example, and demonstrated an approach to achieve switching cost estimation using parametric modeling by treating part of the new product as another prior product. Finally, a multi-objective optimization is used for design selection, to achieve the best trade-off between cost and performance.

Room: Steg

### Friday, October 13 8:00 - 9:30

#### 3A1: Systems Verification and Validation I

Room: Festsaal A
Chair: Lajos Jeno Fülöp (ELI-HU NonProfit Ltd., Hungary)
8:00 Automatic Generation of Simulation Workflows for System Verification using XDSM Representation
Moncef Hammadi (ISAE-SUPMECA & Quartz Laboratory EA7393, France); Stanislao Patalano (University of Naples Federico II, Italy)

In this paper we present an approach for the automatic generation of simulation workflow diagrams used for system verifications. By using this approach, the system engineer can specify the verification components at the system development phases. The workflow description is generated with an algorithm that converts the system level specifications to XDSM diagrams. These diagrams help in the communication and collaboration between system engineers and other discipline engineers. They also help in implementing the verification process in dedicated MDO/MSDO software frameworks. An example of a speed reducer system is considered to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed approach.

8:20 Validating Electric Vehicle to Grid Communication Systems based on Model Checking assisted Test Case Generation
Sven Gröning, Christopher Rosas and Christian Wietfeld (TU Dortmund University, Germany)

In last decades software development processes changed in order to address increasing complexity within decreasing implementation time. Hence, new practices like Kanban, Extreme Programming or Agile Software Development emerged. Model-based development is one potential option, which is more and more used to cope these new demands. However, adapting testing processes to the needs is still an open topic.

This paper describes how model checking assisted test case generation can be used to integrate testing in new software development processes. Focusing on a protocol implementation for electric vehicle charging communication as a case study, the paper describes certain extensions made in the COMmunication Protocol vaLidation Toolchain COMPLeTe in order to enable test case generation in TTCN-3 core language using counterexamples of SPIN model checker.

8:40 Window Shape Effect in a Single Bowden Power Window System
Ferdinando Vitolo, Stanislao Patalano, Antonio Lanzotti, Francesco Timpone and Massimiliano De Martino (University of Naples Federico II, Italy)

Simulation results are not representative of a real system behaviour up to its model validation. Validation activity needs a model characterisation to match real system and model parameters. This activity impacts more on mechatronics systems which are affected by both physical and control characterisations. This work deals with single bowden power window systems; it improves the model, previously developed, by deepening window aspects and force system. Force types and modules have been obtained by several experimental tests in different operating conditions. Experimental automated tests have been carried out by means a new virtual instrument developed in LabVIEW® environment. Comparison of test results highlight three main components related to: sliding friction, window friction and gravity. These components are affected by window shape which induces module variations. We named these variations "window shape effect

9:00 Communicating Embedded Systems Modeling and Validation
Saoussen Mili (EISTI, France); Nga Thi Viet Nguyen (Léonard de Vinci Pôle Universitaire, Research Center, France & ETIS Laboratory, France); Rachid Chelouah (EISTI, France)

In this paper, we propose a modeling and validation method for the communicating embedded systems. The approach consists of three steps. The first one introduces a SysML semi-formal representation of connected systems by extending the UML meta-model with a connectivity profile. The second step performs an automatic transformation from the semi-formal modeling represented in SysML, towards a formal representation expressed in the NuSMV language. The last step carries out the verification and validation of embedded systems against the propagation of errors through connected components, by using the NuSMV model checker. In order to consolidate our work, a case study on the vehicle Jeep Cherokee was chosen for its vulnerabilities against cyber-attacks. Our process will be applied to formally prove a design fault.

#### 3A2: Systems Technology Transfer

Room: Festsaal B
Chairs: Fabio Rodrigues (Polytechnical School of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil), Michael Scholz (Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems, Germany)
8:00 Modeling as the Basis for Innovation Cycle Management of PSS: Making Use of Interdisciplinary Models
Julia Reif (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München & Chair of Economic and Organisational Psychology, Germany); Gennadiy Koltun (Technical University of Munich & Chair of Automation and Information Systems, Germany); Tobias Drewlani (Technical University of Munich & Munich Center for Technology in Society, Germany); Michael A. Zaggl (Technische Universität München, Germany); Niklas Kattner (Technical University of Munich, Germany); Mohammad Basirati (Technische Universität München, Germany); Harald Bauer (Technical University of Munich, Germany)

Common modeling in interdisciplinary contexts, such as innovation management, is a challenge, given that different disciplines often do not fully understand each other's models and paradigms. Building on the work of an interdisciplinary research collaboration, we explore, in which way interdisciplinary modeling can enrich innovation management. We show that models can be described on a general level by delineating what a model generally is in these disciplines, what types of models exist, the object which is modeled by the model and how the model can be tested. We present a use case to demonstrate how different models can be applied. Finally, we derive four fields of application, which are especially fruitful for and can benefit from interdisciplinary modeling: change management, knowledge management, inconsistency management, and user integration. Our next step will be the development of a "designing platform", which will provide scientific results and practical tools regarding interdisciplinary cooperation in the context of innovation cycle management of product-service-systems (PSS).

8:20 Engineering Immersive Edutainment Systems Qualitative Evaluation of Technology Transfer Projects
Fabio Rodrigues and Roseli Lopes (Polytechnical School of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil)

Edutainment systems' Development is well documented in research papers, and its application has satisfying results in several knowledge areas. However, methods for multidisciplinary team management in edutainment systems engineering were not found in the survey made. Project management and system engineering practices can aid technologic transfer between academia and industry. A qualitative evaluation of immersive edutainment systems' engineering was conducted aiming to achieve grounded theory that summarizes key topics that have impact on the engineering of such systems. Qualitative research methods were used in data acquisition and analysis. Two edutainment projects developed by a system-engineering lab in collaboration with a science museum were studied. In-depth interviews were conducted with project's participants to gather qualitative data. Projects' documents were also examined. Resulting raw data was codified, categorized and selected to achieve grounded theory. The ground theory shows that sense of belonging, scope vision and team synergy among teams of diverse knowledge areas and different organizations have impact in engineering immersive edutainment systems, aiding to surpass inherit difficulties such as uncertainty and team conflicts. Participants' motivation and the projects' final educational goal also correlate with the theory obtained. Technology transfer projects of edutainment immersive systems can benefit from the grounded theory achieved, selecting methods and practices that emphasize key topics exposed by this evaluation.

8:40 Shifting from Data Handling to Knowledge Engineering in Aerospace Industry
Tobias Hoppe (FZI Research Center for Information Technology, Germany); Harald Eisenmann (Airbus DS GmbH, Germany); Alexander Viehl (FZI Research Center for Information Technology, Germany); Oliver Bringmann (FZI, Germany)

The development of increasingly complex systems with improved quality levels becomes more and more challenging. Engineering data frameworks with integrated system models have been developed to manage such systems. This paper presents the experiences that have been made in digital systems engineering in the aerospace domain and focuses on the roadmap that has been taken to establish a knowledge engineering framework. While working with first versions of these tools, it became obvious that an engineering framework reflecting all aspects of an engineering data object was required. In addition, data analytics and technologies used to check data consistency became increasingly relevant. As a consequence, semantically rich data models expressed by ontologies come into focus of forming the engineering framework baseline in conjunction with related technologies such as reasoning, error avoidance based on data analytics, and knowledge-driven engineering environments.

#### 3A3: System Architecture and Architectural Frameworks II

Room: Palais Sachsen Coburg IV & V
Chair: Marco Mugnaini (University of Siena, Italy)
8:00 Beyond the Crawley's FCF, a new paradigm for architecture elaboration and conceptualization
Jean-Luc Wippler (Luca Ingénierie, France); Dominique Luzeaux (Ministry of Defense, and Ecole Polytechnique, France)

Prof. Edward Crawley has stated what is an architecture through the so-called FCF paradigm: "Architecture [..] consists of: Function, related by Concept, to Form". This definition has the merit to be simple, operative and applicable to all kind of engineered systems. However, by reviewing it thoroughly, we should expose some limitation, especially when trying to set-up a framework for architecture conceptualization, elaboration or evolution. Thus this paper will propose an enhanced paradigm of the Crawley's FCF, by bissociating it with the Gero's FBS. It will be illustrated by some possible usage of such a new paradigm.

8:20 Towards a 3D conceptual architecture framework, based on multi-physical constraints
Mouna Kharrat (Laboratoire Quartz, SUPMECA); Olivia Penas (ISAE-Supméca & Laboratoire Quartz EA 7393, France); Régis Plateaux (Laboratoire QUARTZ & Supmeca, France); Hassen Trabelsi (National School of Engineers of Sfax (ENIS), Tunisia); Jean-Yves Choley (Laboratoire Quartz, SUPMECA); Jamel Louati (ENIS, Tunisia); Mohamed Haddar (University of Sfax, Tunisia)

System engineering is an approach that allows to manage complex multi-physical constraints occurring in mechatronic systems. During the conceptual design phase, the choice of a concept is critical, as it has to ensure that a corresponding 3D physical architecture fulfilling thermal, EMC (Electromagnetic compatibility) and dynamic requirements, exists. This paper first focuses on the state-of-the-art about concept architecture assessment existing methods and tools in a multidisciplinary context. The current disciplinary expert processes and corresponding expectations are presented, based on industrial surveys. Then the specifications of the SAMOS (Spatial Architecture based on Multi-physics and Organization of Systems) MBSE approach extension to evaluate a 3D concept architecture under multi-physical constraints is detailed. Finally, the corresponding multi-physical 3D sketcher framework development roadmap is described.

8:40 Smart Chemical Plant Architecture Development Based on a Systems Engineering
Joon-Young Kim (Institute for Advanced Engineering(IAE), Korea (South))

Chemical plant is a factory producing chemical goods through a continuous chemical reactions flow process in a set of equipments and apparatus. In this factory, chemical equipment is the most crucial components in the whole lifecycle of the plant encompassing planning, design, engineering, construction, commissioning, operation/maintenance (OM) and disposal. According to an industrial statistics, cost of equipment takes over 52% of the total construction cost, and direct cost due to equipment failure during operation is reported over $10M, and average daily loss of$150K in some plants. The main reason for this is due to lack of data and information flow during the planning and operation stage. In other words, transparent and live information for the whole stakeholders of the chemical plant is utmost important for the chemical plant industry.

In this thesis, a way of achieving such a purpose is investigated based on the technology called IoT (Internet of Things) and Smart Factory. Specifically, architecture of smart factory for chemical plant was developed based on the Systems Engineering (SE), a powerful methodology for successfully developing the complex system, involving multi-disciplinary domain and a variety of stakeholders. The developed architecture was illustrated and verified by developing a prototype for a Natural Gas based Hydrogen Generation Plant. Through the prototype, the impact of the cost saving as well as information infrastructure of the developed architecture is significant. Even so, it should be verified through more industrial cases; i.e., tailoring process in the future. Considering that there is almost no work in the open literature dealing with the smart factory for continuous process plant, such as the chemical plant dealt with in the thesis, the research results will contribute in this area.

9:00 Using Information Activity and Capability Effect to Bridge Gaps between OV, CV and SV/SvcV
Jiang Cao (China Institute of Electronic System Engineering Company, China); Zhiqiang Fan (North China Institute of Computing Technology, China); Lanlan Gao (China Institute of Electronic System Engineering Company, China); Ning Li, Xiaokai Xia and Luo Xu (North China Institute of Computing Technology, China)

To facilitate system architecture development using DoDAF, we propose an architecture development methodology based on DoDAF 2.0 in this paper. First, based on experiences in practice, gaps between Operational Viewpoint (OV), Capability Viewpoint (CV) and System/Service Viewpoint (SV/SvcV) are analyzed. Second, to bridge the gaps, two architecture viewpoints, i.e. Information activity Viewpoint (IaV) and Capability effect Viewpoint (CeV) proposed in our previous work, are introduced. In addition, a meta-model is provided to define key architecture elements and their relationships in these six viewpoints (i.e. OV, CV, IaV, CeV, SV and SvcV). Third, via analysis of element associations in different viewpoints and models, we give a suggested process of developing system architecture using the six viewpoints and their models, including model development steps, inputs and outputs of each step. Finally, a case study is conducted by applying our methodology to describe architecture of a defense system. Results show that our methodology can effectively facilitate system architecture development and help architects (especially for information system architects) to develop architecture from OV, CV to SV and SvcV.

Room: Steg

### Friday, October 13 10:00 - 11:30

#### 3B1: Systems Verification and Validation II

Room: Festsaal A
Chair: Lajos Jeno Fülöp (ELI-HU NonProfit Ltd., Hungary)
10:00 Requirement paramerisation of flap actuation system
Danielle Taylor and Isabella Panella (UTC Aerospace Systems, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

Flap actuation systems (FAS) have numerous operational states, modes and environmental constraints, which translate to thousands of requirements associated with them. FAS must be analyzed and tested to determine compliance with requirements in any operating conditions. In this paper, examples of parametrized requirements for centrally driven FAS are presented and the advantages brought by a requirement parametrization process in the systems engineering life-cycle discussed, from requirements elicitation to requirements validation and verification. The challenges of robust re-use and customization of components within legacy systems to drive cost reduction is significant as often legacy products were not developed within a model base framework. The requirements prioritization process provides a low cost, high impact example of alternative to ensure integrity and full traceability of requirements without the need to implement complex simulation platforms.

10:20 Model based verification of Aircraft High Lift Systems
Umer Farooq (UTC Aerospace Systems, United Kingdom (Great Britain))

Aircraft flight control systems are complex systems to verify, especially considering the amount of software and hardware involved. One such flight control system is the High Lift System which provides the fundamental aircraft function of increasing wing lift. UTC Aerospace Systems provides complete "stick to surface" High Lift Actuation Systems for large commercial aircraft as well as smaller business jets. A High Lift Actuation System comprises of various software, electrical hardware and mechanical components that are integrated with an aircraft. Verification of High Lift actuation Systems is therefore a complex task, as each component has different performance, functionality and environmental requirements that need to be verified at an early stage in the lifecycle. This paper provides an overview of the method used to verify the interfaces and behaviour of a High Lift System Electronic Control Unit (ECU) with the greater system and aircraft through the use of models. The paper describes an approach to assess the functional behaviour of a system through simulation of failure conditions in a model and assessing the system response. In addition, the paper describes an approach undertaken to get visibility of the level of margin present in the Safety Monitors in the High Lift System ECU. Safety Monitors are fast acting monitors which are present to detect failures in the High Lift System that can cause a catastrophic event at an aircraft level. The paper provides an overview of how real test data is run back through High Lift System model and analysed to understand the level of margins in these monitors during normal system operation. The approach aims to minimise nuisance monitor trips and aids the customer in having a flawless flight test campaign.

10:40 The Construction of Effectiveness Evaluation Model based on System Architecture
Xiaokai Xia and Kai Qu (North China Institute of Computing Technology, China); Jing Shi (HUAXIA JINGWEI Information Center, China); Zhiqiang Fan and Luo Xu (North China Institute of Computing Technology, China)

This paper proposes an approach to construct effectiveness evaluation model semi-automatically based on system architecture such as Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF). The effectiveness evaluation index system is firstly generated based on architecture models including Capability Dependencies (CV-4), Capability to Operational Activities Mapping (CV-6), Operational Activity to Systems Traceability Matrix (SV-5b) and System Measures Matrix (SV-7) in the DoDAF, using the transformation technology QVT. Then the effectiveness calculation model, which is based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP), is semi-automatically generated based on the evaluation tool developed by the authors' team. Based on the effectiveness evaluation index system and the calculation model, the effectiveness of the system described in the architecture can be evaluated in the supporting of the corresponding data, which can be from simulation results or experts. Because the effectiveness evaluation model is constructed based on the system architecture, The proposed approach can ensure that the constructed effectiveness evaluation model including the index system and the calculation model has its source and is objective, distinguishing from experience or emotion. Besides, the proposed approach can improve the efficiency and decrease the mistakes during the process of constructing effectiveness model.

11:00 Software-in-the-Loop Testbed for Multi-Agent-Systems in a Discrete Event Simulation
Michael Scholz (Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems, Germany); Toni Donhauser, Stefan Oberschachtsiek and Jörg Franke (FAU Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany)

Today's research projects propose a modular manufacturing environment for production sites, which adapt itself autonomously and makes manufacturing decisions without the need of human interaction. Therefore, it is necessary that the next generations of production lines, especially the intralogistics transportation systems, have to be designed more adaptable and flexible. The object in this paper is a cyber-physical material flow system with flexible, autonomous and collaborative vehicles combined with centralized sensor to digitize the workspace. For this purpose an interface was developed which allows a discrete event simulation tool to communicate with a Multi-Agent-System. Thereby, the decision-making of the agents can be integrated directly into the simulation process of the discrete event simulation software. The concept of this interface is presented as well as a test of its functionality. The concept is realized with the Java Agent Development Framework and Plant Simulation as the discrete event simulation tool. The result is an interface, which allows to transfer the data from the simulation, in case of an event, to the agent platform. The Multi-Agent-System solves the event specific problem due to its ontology and response it to the simulation. Therefore, it is possible to integrate the ontology implemented at the physical system as a software-in-the-loop in the simulation environment. Furthermore, the possibility is given to improve the ontology iteratively based on historical production data. Different strategies of agents can combined and improved with real production data on the task specific hardware which leads into a continuous improvement process.

#### 3B2: Systems Reliability

Room: Festsaal B
Chairs: Ping Jiang (National University of Defense Technology, China), Huixing Meng (Tsinghua University, China)
10:00 Estimation and Optimization of Storage Availability For Products With Multiple Storage States
Yong Yang, Zhijun Cheng and Xiwen Wu (National University of Defense Technology, China)

According to the characters of long-term repairable storage systems, a method for estimation and optimization of storage availability is presented. Such system experiences two storage periods, cold storage period and hot storage period. According to the different inspection methods of the two periods, we establish the storage models based on periodic inspection and continuous inspection respectively, including instantaneous availability model and limiting average availability model. By analyzing the relation between the two periods, the average storage availability of whole storage period is derived. Using it as the optimization objective, the best FFI (Failure Finding Interval) and the maximum average storage availability has been calculated. Finally, a numerical study is illustrated to verify the validity of the model.

10:20 A Pattern-based Methodology for Reliability Assessment of Safety Instrumented Systems
Huixing Meng (Tsinghua University, China); Leila Kloul (UVSQ, France); Antoine Rauzy (NTNU, Norway)

The safety instrumented systems (SISs) act as the important safety barriers in the industrial systems for preventing hazardous accidents. It is therefore significant to study the reliability issues of SISs, which have been investigated extensively. As a matter of fact, the SISs have common behaviors such as the periodic test policies to discover the dangerous undetected failures. Modeling patterns capitalize the experience from modeling the SISs. By reusing the modeling patterns, the modeling missions can be simplified when assessing the reliability and availability of the systems. Few studies related to the SISs have been conducted on the patterns for reliability assessment. This paper proposes a pattern-based methodology for reliability assessment of SISs. To demonstrate the applicability, the proposed methodology is applied on an emergency depressurization system provided in an ISO technical report (ISO/TR 12489). The comparison is performed between the results obtained using the given modeling patterns and the ones from ISO/TR 12489. It is shown that the pattern-based methodology can serve as an effective tool for modeling the SISs in a modular way.

10:40 Integrated Multivariate Degradation Prediction by RVM
Ping Jiang, Yunyan Xing, Bo Guo and Shiqi Liu (National University of Defense Technology, China)

A product in field use or in storage will experience performance degradation, which eventually leads to a weakness that may cause failure. Degradation prediction is thus important for safety related products to avoid failures. In many cases, a product is monitored by multiple sensors, and hence multivariate performance parameters are recorded. When the degradations of multivariate parameters are taken into account, traditional reliability methods based on univariate parameter degradation are not capable of predicting the degradation precisely, especially when the parameters are correlated. There are two kinds of approaches to deal with multivariate degradation prediction: one is using analytical tools such as Copula function to obtain explicit expression of the joint distribution function of the multivariate parameters, and the other is by dimension reduction, namely, combining multivariate parameters into one index or filtering multivariate parameters into fewer ones, which would transform the high dimensional multivariate assessment into lower dimensional assessment to make it easier to be solved. For Copula function, the problem yet to be addressed is that it has the computation difficulties in high dimensional cases. This paper tries to solve the multivariate degradation prediction by dimension reduction. Mahalanobis distance is proposed to be used in this paper, to combine multivariate parameters into one unified index. Then healthy baselines of the product are determined based on the unified index. Finally, the method of Relevance Vector Machines is applied to predict the change trend of the unified index and find the failure moment. A case study is presented to prove the validity of our proposed method.

11:00 Management of Age Differentiated Perishable Inventory
Doraid Dalalah (IMSE dept. - Kuwait University)

This paper tackles the problem of periodic review of perishable inventory of extremely short shelf life characterized by age differentiation. The daily demand of items is highly stochastic which is differentiated by age, that is, the demand on young items is not the same as the demand on older items. This demand pattern can be found in applications such as oncology, transplantation and traumatology where the demand for blood is age differentiated.

Items that are not consumed within the limited shelf life will be spoiled. In every period, the demand may exceed the available inventory, where shortage is recorded in this case. However, expedite service can be considered to satisfy the shortage as no backorders are allowed. Items that are not consumed get older day to day until they reach their maximum shelf life and eventually spoiled. To replenish the inventory, an optimal order up to level quantity will be found such that short and spoiled items are minimized. The motivation of such problem is its stochastic demand and age differentiated inventory system that makes the optimization of the model a challenging task.

An optimization algorithm is presented to minimize the objective function; the model is tested for a shelf life of 2, 3, 4 and 5 days. The model output shows significantly promising results that outperform the ones found in some literature studies for this highly nonlinear and stochastic optimization problem.

#### 3B3: Sensors and Systems

Room: Palais Sachsen Coburg IV & V
Chair: Chinthaka Premachandra (Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan)
10:00 Design an Ultrasonic Imaging System for Characterization of Two-Phase Flow in Metal Pipe
Javad Abbaszadeh (Urmia Branch, Islamic Azad University, Urmia, Iran); Sahar Sarafi (Carinthia University of Applied Sciences, Austria)

Ultrasonic Imaging System is a significant system to produce the cross-sectional images from pipe to characterize the flow. In this study, a novel ultrasonic imaging system with a metal pipe conveyor is proposed. In presented system, non-invasive sensing technique is utilized for identifying two-phase flows through cross-sectional images of the metal pipe. 16 ultrasonic transceivers with 40 kHz resonance frequency based on the thickness of the metal pipe (4 mm) is selected and mounted on periphery of the metal pipe, experimentally. The details of designed circuitry of the system which is consisted of various parts such as signal generator, the signal conditioning and the signal acquisition strategy are also presented. Additionally, two different types of image reconstruction algorithms: Linear Back propagation (LBP) and Filter Back Propagation (FBP) are applied to reconstruct the cross-sectional images from the metal pipe. Finally, the experimental results of each algorithm are compared and the optimum algorithm is determined.

10:20 Communication Architecture for Multiple Distributed Large Volume Metrology Systems
Benjamin Montavon, Martin Peterek and Robert Schmitt (Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering WZL, Germany)

The latest approaches for flexible assembly and process-integrated quality control of large components require global metrological reference systems for various tasks, e.g. navigation of mobile transport units, control of cooperating robots or touch probing with handheld devices. While cooperative and competitive approaches for the data fusion of multi-sensor metrological systems already exist, the authors' work focusses on the question how a communication architecture can be designed to implement multi-sensor metrology as a resource in a production environment. Therefore the authors propose a three-layer system. The first layer consists of an interface to the sensor system and uses OPC UA, the middle layer manages the allocation and transition between the individual devices and the top layer provides a mobile-friendly user interface. A first prototype using Python and HTML5/Javascript of such a three-layer system is presented.

10:40 Sensor Drift Detection in SNG Plant using Auto-Associative Kernel Regression
Jae-Min Cha, Taekyong Lee, Joon-Young Kim, Junguk Shin, Jinil Kim and Choongsub Yeom (Institute for Advanced Engineering(IAE), Korea (South))

With the rapid development of ICTs, condition monitoring has been used as a key technology in the plant industries. For reliable condition monitoring, sensors should output same values under same conditions regardless of time, but the sensitivity of sensors is gradually changed due to several factors such as temperature, humidity, contamination, aging, and etc. This type of situation is called as sensor drift problem. To solve this, several methods including autoassociative kernel regression, autoassociative neural network, autoassociative support vector regression, and etc. have been developed to detect sensor drifts earlier by estimating new input based on historical data; also have successfully been applied to nuclear power plants. Although the effectiveness of these methods for the sensor drift problem, these methods have not been applied to gasification plants. For this, this study applied the autoassociative kernel regression model into a SNG plant which produces synthetic natural gas from coal to detect sensor drifts during operation phase. To validate the autoassociative kernel regression model in the SNG plant, a real dataset collected from an experimental operation is used. Based on experimental results, the autoassociative kernel regression model can rapidly detect the sensor drift in the SNG plant.

11:00 Development of Hybrid Aerial/terrestrial Robot System and Its Automation
Chinthaka Premachandra (Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan); Masahiro Otsuka (Tokyo University of Science, Japan)

Studies related to robots have been performed around the world within last few decades. Many of these studies have assumed operation at locations such as disaster sites, where entry is difficult, and have focused on various terrestrial robots, such as snake-like, humanoid, spider-type, and wheeled units. They have been applied to achieve different task as well. Another area of active research in recent years has been aerial robots with small helicopters and drones for operation indoors and outdoors. In the future, their applications can be expected in transportation and so on. However, less research has been performed on robots that operate both on the ground and in the air. Accordingly, in this paper, we propose a hybrid aerial/terrestrial robot system. The proposed robot was developed by equipping a quadcopter with a mechanism for ground movement. It does not use power dedicated to ground movement, and instead uses the flight mechanism of the quadcopter to achieve ground movement as well. Furthermore, we addressed the issue of obstacle avoidance as part of studies on autonomous control. Thus, we found that autonomous control of ground movement and flight was possible for the hybrid aerial/terrestrial robot system, as was autonomous obstacle avoidance by flight when an obstacle appeared during ground movement.

### Friday, October 13 11:30 - 11:31

#### Symposium Ends

Program last updated on no date/time given