More information on conference visit http://www.fke.utm.my/ICEECC2016/
Program for 2016 International Conference on Electrical, Electronic, Communication and Control Engineering
Sunday, December 18
Sunday, December 18 8:00 - 9:00
Sunday, December 18 9:00 - 9:30
Sunday, December 18 9:30 - 10:15
Keynote 1: Technologies Dedicated to Soft Visual Impact Antennas
The development of wireless communications and the increase of radio applications, such as UMTS, Bluetooth, GPS, WLAN, etc., in dense urban areas are an environmental challenge requiring innovative technological solutions. To restrict the visual impact of the associated antenna networks and to improve their location in the city, an attractive possibility is to develop optically transparent antennas. In this field area of interests, thin film materials deposited on see-through substrates provide innovative solutions. Such transparent antennas are usually fabricated from transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films, such as indium tin oxide (ITO), fluorine tin oxide (FTO), or multilayers such as TCO/metal/TCO deposited on glass substrates. However, these solutions imply a limitation in sheet resistance Rs and/or optical transparency, T values. To circumvent these restrictions, we have developed an original approach: the fabrication of mesh metal films which exhibit very low sheet resistance value: Rs=0.05 ohm/sq (to restrict the ohmic loss) combined with high thickness: 6 µm (to limit the skin depth effect) and high transparency: T=80% in the visible light spectrum. This novel solution provides the best radiating efficiency at microwave frequency. In this communication, we report on ITO films, ITO/metal/ITO multilayers, and silver/titanium films deposited on Corning glass substrates by r.f. sputtering and the fabrication of the mesh metal structures. We investigate the microwave performance of various transparent antennas made from such materials with different levels of transparency and sheet resistance values. Each transparent antenna performance is compared with that of a reference counterpart made from a continuous (opaque) metal film.
Sunday, December 18 10:15 - 10:45
Sunday, December 18 10:45 - 11:30
Keynote 2: Research Trend on Unmanned Aerial Systems
n this talk, we aim to review and highlight the current status and trend on the research of unmanned aerial systems. It is also to report some advanced unmanned aerial systems developed at National University of Singapore, which are capable of autonomously navigating in cluttered indoor and outdoor GPS-denied environments, such as hostile buildings, sewer tunnels, radiation contaminated areas and inside forests. Topics under studied include multi-sensory data fusion, 3D real-time simultaneous localization and mapping, and dynamic 3D Path planning in unknown environments.
Sunday, December 18 11:30 - 12:15
Keynote 3: Integration of Dsitributed Energy Resources in Power Systems
Micro grid is considered as a countermeasure to serious energy challenges today, such as to maintain security, safety and reliability and to improve efficiency and cleanness of energy generation and consumption. Although, micro grid applications are limited to electrical energy systems in many cases, philosophies of micro grid should be expanded to other energy fields. In Japan, in order to integrate more renewable energy sources to the existing electrical power systems, many activities are demonstrated. And also, in some remote islands in Japan, experiment results are gathered with a viewpoint of a small model representing the whole county energy system. To consider what the future energy system should be, it might be important to have a viewpoint of local social needs, local culture and wisdom learned from past history of human kinds in that area.
Sunday, December 18 12:15 - 13:00
Keynote 4: System-on-Chip (SOC) enabling Internet-of-Things (IoT): Evolution of Invisible Technology
People are most effective and authentic when they are fully engaged in the world, mind, body and soul. Technologies should enhance this ability to engage, to "flow" with life and work. The most powerful technologies are "invisible"; they get out of the way to let human be effective. We are transitioning into an era where computers become truly intertwined with our daily lives; they become transparent (invisible) to humans. Our embedded dream of the "invisible" future can be realized by making computing be (a) available everywhere - ubiquitous, pervasive, (b) such that we are unaware of its existence - by making it tiny, wearable, embedded, attachable, (c) available anytime - wireless, dynamically configurable, remote access - via mobile processing electronics and Internet-of-Things (IoT), and (d) ambient intelligent - adapting, sensitive and responsive - via deep machine learning. The key enabler of this "invisible technology (IT)" is the electronics of system-of-chip, or SoC for short. Briefly, an SoC is a complex embedded computing system that is specialized for certain applications in a particular technical environment. The applications range from industrial IoT (aerospace, automotive, robotic systems, process control, control of environmental systems and manufacturing), to consumer and home IoT, (games, smart houses), security IoT (data security, biometrics), and healthcare IoT (biomedical wearables, pacemakers, ultrasound diagnostics, and cardiographic devices). In this presentation we discuss why we need SoC, what is the SoC insides, and how SoC enables "invisible technology". Challenges and some success stories of SoC prototyping in UTM are also presented. Embedded in our genetic code, our dream of the "invisible" future is driving us on to the next stage of evolution (or is it devolution?)
Sunday, December 18 13:00 - 14:00
Sunday, December 18 14:00 - 15:40
CE 1: Communication Engineering 1
- 14:00 Human Presence Recognition in a Closed Space by Using Cost-Effective CO2 Sensor and the Information Gain Processing Method
- The recent rapid progress in ICT technologies such as smart/intelligent sensor devices, broadband / ubiquitous networks, and Internet of everything (IoT) has advanced the penetration of sensor networks and their applications. The requirements of human daily life, security, energy efficiency, safety, comfort, and ecological, can be achieved with the help of these networks and applications. Traditionally, if we want some information on, for example, environment status, a lot of dedicated sensors are needed. This will increase the number of sensors and thus system cost, sensor data traffic loads, and installation difficulty. Therefore, we need to find redundancies in the captured information or interpret the semantics captured by non-dedicated sensors to reduce sensor network overheads. This paper clarifies the feasibility of recognizing human presence in a space by processing information captured by other than dedicated sensors. It proposes a method and implements it as a cost-effective prototype sensor network for a university library. This method processes CO2 concentration, originally designed to check environment status. In the experiment, training data is captured with none, one, or two subjects. The information gain (IG) method is applied to the resulting data, to set thresholds and thus judge the number of people. Human presence (none, one or two people) is accurately recognized from the CO2 concentration data. The experiments clarify that a CO2 sensor in set in a small room to check environment status can recognize the number of humans in the room with more than 70 % accuracy. This eliminates the need for an extra sensor, which reduces sensor network cost.
- 14:20 Mutual Coupling Reduction in Antenna Array Using Metamaterial Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) on Double Substrate Layers
- In this paper, a mutual coupling studies is conducted between two element array antenna on dual substrate layer. A single patch antenna is first designed on dual substrate layer to testify appropriate operating and pattern at 2.45 GHz. Subsequently, two array of two element patch on dual substrate are constructed with one of them is incorporated with three EBG unit cell on the bottom substrate. The radiating patch is on the top substrate, while the EBG unit cells is on the bottom substrate. All grounds are located at the back side of the bottom substrare. With EBGs in separate layers from the antenna array, the antenna elements can be closely separated by a distance of 22 mm with a significant reduced mutual coupling of -26.61 dB as compared to -18.29 dB in the case without EBG. This correspond to distance reduction of 34.68%. The proposed structure only implement three EBG unit cells. Apart from that, the study of overlapped case of EBG with the antenna is presented.
- 14:40 Compact Digital Television (DTV) Antenna for Indoor Usage
- A compact indoor digital antenna for digital terrestrial television is proposed. The design of the antenna begins with the material selection to construct the antenna by using CST software with a standard monopole antenna design. The antenna is then simulated and optimized. A bandwidth of 290 MHz (46.14%) between 500 MHz and 790 MHz is achieved with the antenna gain more than 3 dBi. Simulated results is used to demonstrate the performance of the antenna. The simulated return losses, together with the radiation patterns and gain are presented and discussed.
- 15:00 Recent Trend in Electromagnetic Radiation and Compliance Assessments for 5G Communication Systems
- The deployment of the 5G networks would feature high proliferation of radio base station (RBS) in order to meet the increasing demand for bandwidth and provide wider coverage that will support more mobile users and the internet of things (IoT). The radio frequency (RF) waves from the large-scale deployment of the RBS and mobile devices will raise concerns on the level of electromagnetic (EM) radiation exposure to the public. Hence, in this paper, we provide an overview of the exposure limits, some of the effects of the EM emission, reduction techniques and compliance assessment for the 5G communication systems. We discuss the open issues and give future directions.
- 15:20 5G Fixed Beam Switching on Microstrip Patch Antenna
- 5G technology is using millimeter-wave band to improve the wireless communication system. However, narrow transmitter and receiver beams have caused the beam coverage area to be limited. Due to propagation limitations of mm wave band, beam forming technology with multi-beam based communication system, has been focused to overcome the problem. In this letter, a fixed beam switching method is introduced. By changing the switches, four different configurations of patch array antennas are designed to investigate their performances in terms of radiation patterns, beam forming angle, gain, half-power bandwidth and impedance bandwidth at 28 GHz operating frequency for 5G application. Mircostrip antenna is preferred due to its low profile, easy in feeding and array configurations. Three different beam directions had been formed at -15°, 0°, and 15° with half-power bandwidth of range 45˚ to 50˚.
CE 2: Communication Engineering 2
- 14:00 Wideband Branch Line Coupler with Open Circuit Coupled Lines
- This paper focuses on the design of a Wideband Branch Line Coupler (BLC) by using open circuits coupled lines technique. The design is implemented by adding four open circuits coupled lines to the structure of the conventional Branch Line Coupler. The proposed design is simulated using CST microwave tool. The simulation results show that the coupler is operated at 3.8 GHz with coupling factor of -3dB and 90̊ phase difference between the two output ports. The prototype is fabricated and measured to verify the simulated result. A similar wide bandwidth is observed on simulation and measurement. The structure achieved a fractional bandwidth of 42.63% and return loss of 21 dB compared to the conventional BLC
- 14:20 Wideband Multi-Port Reflectometer as an Alternative in Reflection Coefficient Measurement: Its Characterization and Operation
- This paper presents the characterization and operation of an alternative device to measure reflection coefficient any device under test (DUT), which is multi-port reflectometer. Its configuration is formed by two power dividers (D) and four couplers (Q). The characterization is evaluated through the centres of power circles that also known as q-points. Its operation in the reflection coefficient measurement is tested by using three DUTs. The reflectometer's good performance and wideband operation are proven between the frequency band of 1 and 6 GHz via the practical hardware measurement in the laboratory.
- 14:40 Development of Compact P-Band Vector Reflectometer
- A compact and low cost portable vector reflectometer is designed for a reliable measurement of reflection coefficient, S11. This reflectometer focuses on return loss measurement of frequency ranges from 450 MHz to 550 MHz. The detection of magnitude and phase is based on the utilization of surface mount Analog Devices AD8302 gain/phase detector. The data acquisition is controlled by using Arduino-Nano 3.0 microcontroller, with the use of two analog to digital converter (ADC) and a digital to analog converter (DAC). Open, short and matched load calibration technique is used to eliminate systematic errors prior to data acquisition. The evaluation of the reflectometer is done by comparing the result of the measurement to that of vector network analyzer.
- 15:00 Flexible Dual Band Dipole Antenna with Electromagnetic Band Gap
- Flexible dual band dipole antenna incorporates with electromagnetic band gap (EBG) to improve the well-known low profile characteristics of dipole antenna. The flexible dual band dipole antenna operates at 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz which is printed on Fast film with 0.13 mm thickness. While the EBG patch is printed on Arlon AD350 with 1.016 mm thickness and is characterized by reflection phase and band gap. The performances of both antenna and EBG also analysed at different incidence angle. Then the antenna is incorporated with EBG on certain gap distance which is maintained by using Rohacell 31HF. EBG act as reasonably good ground plane for the antenna and helps by improving the radiation pattern, apart from enhancing the realized gain. Besides, EBG also act as a filter as the resonant frequency of the antenna is not or far from the band gap. The 2.45 GHz of resonant frequency is eliminated while the performances of antenna at 5.8 GHz is improved. Thus the realized gain is increased up to 6.86dB and the back lobe is clearly reduced. The designs of dipole antenna with EBG application such as Wifi and others on-body communication devices.
- 15:20 Diagnosis of Faulty Sensors in Antenna Array Using Hybrid Differential Evolution Based Compressed Sensing Technique
- In this paper, a differential evolution based compressive sensing technique for detection of faulty sensors in linear arrays has been presented. This technique starts from collecting the measurements of the far field pattern generated by the array under test. The difference between the collected compressive measurements and measured healthy array field pattern is minimized using a hybrid differential evolution (DE). In the proposed method, the slow convergence of DE based compressed sensing technique is accelerated with the help of parallel coordinate decent algorithm (PCD). The combination of DE with PCD makes the minimization faster and precise. Simulation results validate the performance to detect faulty sensors from a small number of measurements.
ECE 1: Electronic and Computer Engineering 1
- 14:00 Desktop Tomography System Using Planar ECT Device
- Miniaturized planar electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) device is fabricated using microfabrication method to accommodate eight planar electrodes to carry out electrical capacitance measurement using tomography technique. Fluids within the detection chamber are detected by the difference of the permittivity parameters. Stagnant and hydrodynamic multiphase samples such as liquid-gas and liquid-liquid are tested. The eight-electrode planar array is fabricated on the copper plated printed circuit board (PCB) and the chamber is fabricated using polymer poly(dimethyl-siloxane) (PDMS). The images of the multiphase sample are reconstructing using Linear Back Projection algorithm (LBP). Computer interface software is developed to display the images of the fluid online. Experimental results show that the reconstructed images closely resemble with the composition of the multiphase sample within the detection chamber.
- 14:20 A Tunable Ferrofluid-Based Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Microchannel Inductor for Ultra High Frequency Applications
- In this work, a tunable ferrofluid-based polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel inductor with high quality factor and high tuning range is proposed. For this project, PDMS is used to create a microchannel with a width and height of 0.53 mm and 0.2 mm. The microchannel is then used to cover the whole design of a solenoid inductor. A solenoid inductor is designed using a bond-wired technique where lines of copper and bond wires are used to form a solenoid winding on top of silicon substrate. A light hydrocarbon based ferrofluid EMG 901 660 mT with a high permeability of 5.4 is used. The ferrofluid-based liquid is injected into the channel to enhance the performance of a quality factor. A 3D full-wave electromagnetic fields tool, ANSYS HFSS is used in this work to simulate the solenoid inductor. The results obtained in this work gives a quality factor of more than 10 at a frequency range of 300 MHz to 3.3 GHz (Ultra High Frequency range). The highest quality factor is 37 which occurs at a frequency of 1.5 GHz, provides a high tuning range of 112%.
- 14:40 Tapered Microchannel for Multi-particles Passive Separation Based on Hydrodynamic Resistance
- Researches on separation of multi-particles utilizing microfluidic have been flourishing in recent years with the aid from advancements in microfabrication design and technology. Generally, separation is beneficial for biomedical application especially involving heterogeneous samples. Due to inherent problems of samples isolation, a simple and efficient separation device is required. Here, we present a passive tapered microchannel for multi-particles separation using hydrodynamic principle. Our emphasis is on the effect of hydrodynamic resistance coupled with tapered microchannel design. In the experiment, successful multi-particles samples separation was observed. The results were further analyzed and were in agreement with the proposed concept. This method opens the route toward robust, low-cost and high-throughput, thus it may holds potential to be integrated as one functional module in Micro Total Analysis System (µTAS).
- 15:00 Identification of Autism Spectrum Disorders Gait Patterns Based on Three-Dimensional Ground Reaction Forces
- Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a permanent neurodevelopmental disorder that can be identified during the first few years of life and is currently associated with the unusual walking pattern. Earlier identification of this pervasive disorder could provide assistance in diagnosis and establish rapid quantitative clinical judgment. This paper presents an automated approach which can be applied to identify ASD gait patterns using three-dimensional (3D) ground reaction force (GRF). The study involved classification of gait patterns of children with ASD and typical healthy children. The GRF data were acquired using a state-of-the-art 3D motion analysis system and two force plates during barefoot self-determined walking. Parameterization techniques were applied to the GRF waveforms to extract possible gait features. Selections of dominant gait features were conducted using statistical between-group tests and stepwise discriminant analysis (SWDA). The selected features were grouped into two groups which served as two input datasets to the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier. This study demonstrates that the 3D GRF gait features selected using SWDA are reliable to be used in the identification of ASD children using KNN classifier with 83.33% performance accuracy.
- 15:20 Gazing Time Analysis for Drowsiness Assessment Using Eye Gaze Tracker in Driving Simulator Environment
- Many car accidents and various investigation show that drivers' drowsiness is one of the main causes of traffic accidents. Many studies have been done to solve this problem. One of them is to capture the driver's face expression and estimate the driver's drowsiness. Besides measuring the driver's physiological condition and use it to predict one's drowsiness is also considered. We proposed a study to investigate the relationship between drowsiness and physiological condition by employing eye gaze signal using eye gaze tracker and Japanese version of Karolinska sleepiness scale (KSS-J) in driving simulator environment. The result showed that gazing time has a significant statistical difference with three drowsiness level (alert (KSS-J 1-5), weak drowsiness (KSS-J 6-7), and strong drowsiness (KSS-J 8-9)) with P < 0.001. Therefore, it is suggested that eye gaze is effective to assess the drowsiness in driving simulator environment.
ECE 2: Electronic and Computer Engineering 2
- 14:00 An Application of OPC Protocol for Real-Time Carbon Monitoring System for Industrial Environment
- Global warming is referred to the rise in average surface temperatures on earth primarily due to the Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions such as Carbon Dioxide (CO2). Monitoring the emissions, either direct or indirect emissions from industrial processes, is important to control or to minimize their impact on the environment. Most existing environment monitoring system is being designed and developed for normal environment monitoring. Hence, the aim of this project is to develop industrial CO2 emission monitoring system which implements industrial Open Platform Communications (OPC) protocol in an embedded microcontroller. The software algorithm based on OPC data format has been designed and programmed into the Arduino microcontroller to interface the sensor data to any existing industrial OPC compliant Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system. The system has been successfully tested in a lab with the suitable environment for real-time CO2 emissions measurement. The real-time measurement data has been shown in an industrial SCADA application which indicates successful implementation of the OPC communications protocol.
- 14:20 The Fusion of HRV and EMG Signals for Automatic Gender Identification During Short-Term Stepping Exercise Using Stepper Machine
- In this paper, a new gender identification framework based on fusion of features extracted from healthy people electromyogram (EMG) and heart rate variability (HRV) during stepping activity using a stepper machine is proposed. An approach is investigated for the fusion of EMG and HRV which is feature fusion. The feature fusion are carried out by concatenating the feature vector extracted from the EMG and HRV signals. A proposed framework consists of a sequence of processing steps which are preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection and lastly the fusion. The results shown that the fusion approach had improved the performance of gender identification compared to solely on EMG or HRV based gender identifier.
- 14:40 Aromatic Herbs Classification by Using Discriminant Analysis Techniques
- An electronic nose has been used to distinguish the herb samples according to their family group species. This paper aims the study to evaluate the potential of electronic nose to characterize three group families of twelve herb species based on discriminant analysis approach. The feature extraction involves the use of signal processing technique that simplifies classification and yield optimal results. The implementation of two types of discriminant technique, principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) have been used to investigate the potential of same family group can be distinguished for classification of herbs species. The results obtained showed that twelve herb species can be classified using MDA method rather than PCA method.
- 15:00 Exploring the Design Space of HEVC Inverse Transforms with Dataflow Programming
- This paper presents the design space exploration of the hardware-based inverse fixed-point integer transform for High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). The designs are specified at high-level using CAL dataflow language and automatically synthesized to HDL for FPGA implementation. Several parallel design alternatives are proposed with trade-off between performance and resource. The HEVC transform consists of several independent components from 4x4 to 32x32 discrete cosine transform and 4x4 discrete sine transform. This work explores the strategies to efficiently compute the transforms by applying data parallelism on the different components. Results show that an intermediate version of parallelism, whereby the 4x4 and 8x8 are merged together, and the 16x16 and 32x32 merged together gives the best trade-off between performance and resource. The results presented in this work also give an insight on how the HEVC transform can be designed efficiently in parallel for hardware implementation.
- 15:20 Fuzzy Recursive Least-Squares Approach in Speech System Identification: A Transformed Domain LPC Model
- In speech system identification, linear predictive coding (LPC) model is often employed due to its simple yet powerful representation of speech production model. However, the accuracy of LPC model often depends on the number and quality of past speech samples that are fed into the model; and it becomes a problem when past speech samples are not widely available or corrupted by noise. In this paper, fuzzy system is integrated into the LPC model using the recursive least-squares approach, where the fuzzy parameters are used to characterize the given speech samples. This transformed domain LPC model is called the FRLS-LPC model, in which its performance depends on the fuzzy rules and membership functions defined by the user. Based on the simulations, the FRLS-LPC model with this special property is shown to outperform the LPC model. Under the condition of limited past speech samples, simulation result shows that the synthetic speech produced by the FRLS-LPC model is better than those produced by the LPC model in terms of prediction error. Furthermore with corrupted past speech samples, the FRLS-LPC model is able to provide better reconstructed speech while the LPC model failed to do so.
CME1: Control and Mechatronic Engineering 1
- 14:00 Characterization of Electromagnetic Valveless Micropump
- This paper presents an electromagnetically-actuated micropump for bidirectional flow microfluidic application. The system comprises two modules; an electromagnetic actuator module and a diffuser module. Fabrication of the diffuser module can be achieved using photolithography process with a master template and a poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pre-polymer as the structural material. The actuator module consists of two power inductors and two NdFeB permanent magnets placed between the diffuser elements. The choice of this actuation principle merits from low operating voltage (1.5 Vdc) and the flow direction can be controlled by changing the orientation of the magnet vibration Maximum volumetric flow rate of the fabricated prototype shows 0.8937 µLs-1 at zero backpressure and 0.4659 µLs-1 at the hydrostatic backpressure of 10 mmH2O at 9 Hz of switching speed.
- 14:20 Comparison of Deposition Methods of ZnO Thin Film on Flexible Substrate
- This paper reports the effect of the different deposition methods towards the ZnO nanostructure crystal quality and film thickness on the polyimide substrate. The ZnO film has been deposited by using the spray pyrolysis technique, sol-gel and RF Sputtering. Different methods give a different nanostructure of the ZnO thin film. Sol gel methods, results of nanoflowers ZnO thin film with the thickness of thin film is 540ηm. It also produces the best of the piezoelectric effect in term of electrical performance, which is 5.0 V and 12 MHz of frequency which is higher than other frequency obtained by spray pyrolysis and RF sputtering.
- 14:40 Thermal Performance Analysis for Optimal Passive Cooling Heat Sink Design
- Recent advances in semiconductor technology shows that the fabrication on electronic appliances have been improved in terms of performances, power density and even size. This great achievement however led to some major problem on thermal performances of the electronic devices. The thermal problem will reduce the efficiency of the electronic devices. In order to reduce this thermal problem, those electronic devices need optimal cooling technique. There are various cooling techniques have been used and pin fin heat sink is the best technique and most popular techniques compared to the others. This paper focus on inline pin fin heat sink with same material, which is copper but different shape of pin fin for 5.5W heat sources. The experiment made using COMSOL Multiphysics software to simulate the pin fin design, study the thermal distribution and performance
- 15:00 Estimation of Turbidity in Water Treatment Plant Using Hammerstein-Wiener and Neural Network Technique
- Turbidity is a measure of water quality. Excessive turbidity poses a threat to health and causes pollution. Most of the available mathematical models of water treatment plants do not capture turbidity. A reliable model is essential for effective removal of turbidity in the water treatment plant. This paper presents a comparison of Hammerstein Wiener and neural network technique for estimating of turbidity in water treatment plant. The models were validated using an experimental data from Tamburawa water treatment plant in Kano, Nigeria. Simulation results demonstrated that the proposed neural network model outperformed the Hammerstein-Wiener model in estimating the turbidity. The model may serve as a valuable tool for predicting the turbidity.
- 15:20 Modeling the Vibrational Dynamics of Piezoelectric Actuator by System Identification Technique
- Actuators based on smart materials such as piezoelectric actuators (PEAs) are widely used in many applications to transform electrical signal to mechanical signal and vice versa. However, the major drawbacks for these smart actuators are hysteresis nonlinear, creep and residual vibration. In this paper, PEAs are used for active vibration application. Therefore, a model of PEA must be established to control the vibration that occurs in the system. The frequencies of 1 Hz, 20 Hz and 50 Hz were tested on the PEAs. The results obtained from the experimental were used to develop transfer function model by employing system identification technique. Meanwhile, the model validation was based on level of models fitness to estimation data, mean squared error (MSE), final prediction error (FPE) and residual analysis perspective (autocorrelation and cross correlation). The experimental result showed that the displacement of the actuator is inversely proportional to the frequency. The following consequences cause the time response criteria at 50 Hz achieved smallest overshoot and fastest response of rise time and settling time.
EPE 1: Electrical Power Engineering 1
- 14:00 Flyback Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Based SHE-PWM Control for STATCOM Applications
- This paper presents the closed loop DC-DC flyback converter with multi-level cascaded H-bridge inverter (MCHI) for transformer-less static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) system. The STATCOM system is proposed to be controlled using decoupled dq vector control incorporating the new reactive current reference algorithm and multi-level selective harmonic elimination pulse width modulation (MSHEPWM) technique. This ensures transient performance enhancement as well as simpler control and modulation technique implementation for dynamic systems. As the proposed MSHEPWM solely depends on adjustable DC-link voltage levels, flyback converter is designed for that purpose to suit wider applications. In current work, a single phase five-levels CHI based STATCOM system incorporated with the aforementioned converters are presented to compensate the reactive power (VAR) at the point of common connection (PCC). The dynamic as well as the transient performances of the developed STATCOM control system and the proposed voltage closed loop control of each converter are investigated to meet different VAR demands at balanced loading conditions. Simulation studies are performed to verify the effectiveness and theoretical analysis of the approaches presented.
- 14:20 Techno-Economic Analysis of Stand-Alone Hybrid Energy System for the Electrification of Iran Drilling Oil Rigs
- This paper explores the potential of use of stand-alone hybrid wind/solar energy system in the electrification of calibrating equipment of drilling oil rig in Iran. To achieve this, different hybrid energy system configurations based on calibration equipment demand are proposed. This study puts emphasis on the energy production and cost of energy from both wind turbine and photovoltaic (PV) in the hybrid system. In addition, to make conditions more realistic, the real meteorological data is used for HOMER software to perform the technical and economic analysis of the hybrid system. Results indicate that the PV array shares more electricity production than the wind turbine generator if both wind turbine and PV array are utilized in the wind/solar hybrid system. Moreover, results show that the operational cost will be reduced by the suggested hybrid system.
- 14:40 Potential of Implementing the Low Concentration Photovoltaic Systems in the United Kingdom
- This paper discusses the prospect of integrating a novel type of low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) design known as the rotationally asymmetrical compound parabolic concentrator (RACPC) in a building in the United Kingdom. This is done by proposing a number of building integration designs to create a zero carbon building. A cost reduction analysis of installing the LCPV systems in the country is also presented. It was found that an RACPC design could reduce the LCPV module's manufacturing cost by 31.75% and the LCPV module's cost per unit power output by 33.87% when compared with the conventional PV module.
- 15:00 Frequency Dependence of Electroluminescence Measurement in LDPE
- A good insulator for high voltage cable has low dielectric loss, reasonable flexibility and thermo-mechanically stable. However, prolonged application of electrical stresses on the cable will degraded the cable; physically and morphologically. Electrical degradation in high voltage cable can be detected using electroluminescence (EL) method. Electroluminescence is a phenomenon that occurs when the atoms of a material are being excited due to the application of and external high electrical stresses. There are several external factors that affect the behaviour of electroluminescence emission such as, applied voltage, applied frequency, ageing of material and types of materials. . In this paper, the EL measurement is employed to determine the effect of applied frequency on virgin LDPE at fixed and varying applied voltage. It can be observed that EL emission increases as applied frequency increases with increasing voltage applied. However, interesting EL behaviour is observed when varying frequency is applied from 10 Hz to 100 Hz.
- 15:20 Seven Levels Symmetric H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter with Less Number of Switching Devices
- This paper proposes a new topology of a cascaded multilevel inverter that utilizes less number of switches than the conventional topology. The proposed topology maintains the performance of conventional 7-levels output multilevel inverter with reduction in power losses, installation area, converter size and development cost. The circuit development consists of six switches and one diode. Therefore with less number of switches in the circuit, there will be a reduction in the gate driver circuits and also in effect fewer switches will be conducting for specific intervals of time. Simulation works have been conducted to validate the proposed MLI topology. It is envisaged that the proposed topology can be applied for the system that require high efficiency and a low electromagnetic interference.
Sunday, December 18 15:40 - 16:00
Sunday, December 18 16:00 - 17:40
CE 3: Communication Engineering 3
- 16:00 A New 5G Coupler Design for Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Application
- Aiming to achieve 3-dB coupling, operating in 5G technologies, this paper introduces a new design of tight coupling coupler that will be operated in 5G technologies. Two stubs and two slots have been implemented into the 3-dB coupler design in order to achieve impedance matching between the ports and to give better coupling performances, respectively. Moreover, a study on the stubs' and slots' effects towards the S31 of the 3-dB coupler has also been presented in this paper. For the substrate, Rogers RO4003C has been chosen to design the proposed coupler. The simulation results and the analysis study on the stubs and slots implementation show both stubs and slots affect the performance of the coupling coefficient. The new designed coupler in this paper is adequate to be used to construct a Butler Matrix for Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) application.
- 16:20 Novel Bendable Artificial Magnetic Conductor for 5G Application
- A design of novel bendable Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC) structures has been presented in this paper in two selected of frequencies at 5G application. These designs started with a square patch shape and continued with the combination of circular and Jerusalem shape which resonate at a frequency of 18 GHz and 28 GHz. Details of the theory and the structures of AMCs are explained. The reflection phase, bandwidth, angular stability and dispersion diagram were studied. The simulated results plotted that the novel AMC has good bandwidth and size is reduced by 53 % and 55 % for both frequencies. Other than that, it is also proved that the novel AMC has a stable reflection phase and no band gap performs at the specific frequency. The good performances of this novel AMC make it useful in order to improve antenna's performance.
- 16:40 Broadband Resonant Elements for 5G Reflectarray Antenna Design
- The performance investigation of two novel resonant elements is presented in this work for 5G reflectarray antenna design. Two dual resonance elements with wide reflection phase range have been developed from a square patch element by a novel corner bending tactic. The reflection loss and reflection phase range performance of the proposed elements have been compared with conventional square patch element at 26 GHz. The results have shown a reflection phase swing of 629° and 632° for Bent Width and Bent Length elements respectively. The broadband features of proposed elements can radically improve the bandwidth performance of a reflectarray antenna.
- 17:00 Compact Wideband Bandpass Filter with Stub Implementing Broadside-Coupled Microstrip-Slot for Communication Application
- This paper proposes a compact size design of wideband bandpass filter (BPF) with low manufacturing cost. The broad-side coupling microstrip-slot technique is used to accomplish a good passband response with very low insertion loss across a wideband frequency range. The BPF that is designed using Rogers RO4003C substrate shows a good performance with the respective maximum reflection coefficient and insertion loss of -10.4 dB and 0.17 dB between 0.8 GHz and 2.2 GHz. This type of BPF filter is useful in any communication applications.
- 17:20 Design of Planar DRA Array At 28 GHz
- This article presents a planar array of rectangular Dielectric Resonator Antenna operating for 28 GHz applications. A new structure of single element DRA is first designed and explained before designing a three by three DRA array. It is designed from a ceramic material with a permittivity of 10. The substrate used is RT/Duroid 5880 with a relative permittivity of 2.2 and a thickness of 0.254 mm. A prospective study using three different configurations of planar array is done in order to obtain the best performance in terms of bandwidth, gain, and cost reduction. Finally, the best configuration is proposed for 5G application.
CE 4: Communication Engineering 4
- 16:00 Optimum Transmitter Receiver Ratio for Maximum Wireless Energy Transfer
- Due to high demand of using cordless mobile device, the interest in wireless energy transfer (WET) has been growth intensively. This paper presented a method to obtained optimum transmitter receiver ratio for maximum performance of WET system using different initial antenna size at various distance. An optimized algorithm has been developed to determine the optimum ratios that yield the highest wireless transfer efficiency (WTE) at near field communication (NFC) frequency, 13.56MHz. 30mm x 30mm single square loop antenna is used as initial size of both transmitter and receiver using FR4 with operating distance = 50mm. Operating distance and initial size of the antenna will be varied and the effect to the WTE will be studied using Matlab, verified using Microsoft Studio CST. At distance = 50mm and initial size of the antenna = 30mm x 30mm, optimum transmitter to receiver ratio equal to 1:3 is obtained. The pattern of optimum transmitter receiver ratio between Matlab and CST has met an agreement. This research limited to integer transmitter receiver ratio used only and no decimal number being involved in magnify the transmitter size.
- 16:20 Evaluation of PCB Shielding Characteristics in Near Field
- Wireless electronic devices nowadays always operate in high frequency while having small and compact form factor which led to electromagnetic interference among traces and components. PCB shielding is the common solution applied in electronic industry to mitigate electromagnetic interference. In this paper, PCB shielding characteristics such as shield's thickness, height, and ground via spacing in PCB boards were evaluated in near field. Test boards with various ground via spacing were fabricated and evaluated by using 3D Electromagnetic scanner. On the other hand, shields with various thickness and height were modeled and evaluated through simulation. Results suggested that shielding effectiveness could be improved by having greater shield's height with smaller ground via spacing in shielding ground tracks. Shielding effectiveness can be improved by 1 dB with every step of 0.5 mm increase in shield's height. Besides that, approximately 0.5 dB improvement in shielding effectiveness with every step of 1 mm decrease in ground via spacing. Furthermore, greater shield's thickness can contribute better shielding effectiveness for operating frequency below 300 MHz.
- 16:40 RF Energy Harvesting Study Using Various Metamaterial Patch Structure
- The E-field absorbance performance of various metamaterial absorber structure is presented. The study started from the simulation of various design patch of metamaterial absorber. The performances are measured from the reflection coefficient, percentage of absorption, value of E-field and the surface current for circle, square and hexagon patch design of metamaterial absorber. From the simulation, it is shown that the circle patch design shows the most reliable design for harvest energy due to its performance and result.
- 17:00 A Study on V-Polarized Microstrip Patch MIMO Antenna
- A study on the V-polarized microstrip patch antenna for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system based on the antenna orientation is performed. First the microstrip patch antenna operating at 2.45 GHz is calculated and simulated. Next, multiple element of antennas for MIMO system is simulated and discussed. V-polarized with 45 degree slanted inward and outward is studied. The antenna properties is analyzed and compact antenna design is determined based on the simulation results. The results shows the gap between antennas can be optimized to 1 mm while maintaining low mutual coupling. The gain of the MIMO antenna is 8.42 dBi. The simulated return losses, together with the radiation patterns, are presented and discussed.
- 17:20 Effect of Interference and Electromagnetic Compatibility in 5G Wireless Network Deployments
- Devices miniaturization and high operating frequency for high throughput demands are among the critical issues with 5G technology along other number of requirements: from high speed broadband connectivity to small data requirements for Internet of Things (IoT) that one compact system will be difficult to put into operation. For that reason, a structured approach becomes necessary to be adopted as in Massive MIMO: even though MIMO is already in use by many applications like broadband, LTE and Wi-Fi, the numbers of antennas are relatively compatible with device sizes. For 5G technology to be able to achieve this, new methods of connectivity will be required as one of the main disadvantage with 4G along with its low coverage, call drops for voice connections and low performance at cell hand-off zones. Electromagnetic coupling of energy: radiation, reflection and Cross-talk is considered to be a functionality problem of (signal integrity) between traces which can be a most important contributor in signal propagation of Electromagnetic interference (EMI), leading to false clock response, to total system failure.
Sunday, December 18 16:00 - 17:20
ECE 3: Electronic and Computer Engineering 3
- 16:00 Correlation of Objective Assessment of Facial Nerve Paralysis with House-Brackmann (HB) Score
- This article illustrated a brief review of some objective methods in assessing facial nerve function for facial nerve paralysis which are correlated with House-Brackmann Grading System (HBGS). A rigorous search of online databases such as Springer, Elsevier, IEEE, ACM digital library, PubMed, and Wiley online library was conducted from October, 2015 to May, 2016 to discover and analyze the previous works in facial nerve assessment methods for facial paralysis. A brief introduction of facial nerve and the paralysis condition is provided. Several domains (facial muscle, type of facial disorder, facial grading system and methods used to evaluate the facial nerve function) were extracted for further analysis. Different keywords were used to acquire the studies based on the desire criteria. A total of 8 articles were identified and were analyzed for inclusion in this search. A brief presentation on each method is provided. In conclusion, this review has presented an initial overview for further improvements in objective facial nerve assessment which has to be correlated with subjective assessment to make it more reliable and useful in clinical practice
- 16:20 FPGA Implementation of Real Time String Colour Detection
- Machine vision for string detection is useful technologies which benefit to the industries such as food production. It reduces the risk that can harmful to our health and it can do work more accurate and efficient. The algorithm used is a colour detection which determine the colour of string and background subtraction for filter process by using the threshold range values. The target of detection focuses on plastic string with two different colours; pink and yellow strings. The threshold values used in hardware detection are ranged from 158 to 175 and 3 to 35 for pink and yellow string colours, respectively. The result shows that an object tied with strings is able to be detected and captured by using this system. Overall, this project is successfully developed and achieved the goal for detecting a string which is implemented on hardware.
- 16:40 Identification of Thalassemia Disorder Using Active Contour
- Thalassemia was known as the red blood cell (RBC) morphology disorder. This disease mostly affects the shape of the red blood cells. Thalassemia becomes the major public health problem when one of the people becomes the carrier of the disease. It can occur within a months after birth or even before birth and results in inappropriate growth and development of babies. Sometimes the affected babies will die shortly after birth. In order to screen thalassemia, there are a few tests need to be done. Firstly by performed Complete Blood Count (CBC) and secondly continued with hemoglobin electrophoresis test. This CBC test will identify the morphology of RBC. Hence, this paper will discuss the methods on identifying the morphology of thalassemia blood cells by using active contour technique. From the result of 16 normal and abnormal blood cell images, the active countour methods able to identifyThalassemia blood cells with accuracy of 90% from the abnormal cell images.
- 17:00 A Hybrid Chebyshev-ICA Image Fusion Method Based on Regional Saliency
- An image fusion method that performs robustly for image sets heavily corrupted by noise is presented in this paper. The approach combines the advantages of two state-of-the-art fusion techniques, namely Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Chebyshev Polynomial Analysis (CPA) fusion. Fusion using ICA performs well in transferring the salient features of the input images into the composite output, but its performance deteriorates severely under mild to moderate noise conditions. CPA fusion is robust under severe noise conditions, but eliminates the high frequency information of the images involved. We propose to use ICA fusion within high activity image areas, identified by edges and strong textured surfaces and CPA fusion in low activity areas identified by uniform background regions and weak texture. A binary image map is used for selecting the appropriate method, which is constructed by a standard edge detector followed by morphological operators. The results of the proposed approach are very encouraging as far as joint fusion and denoising is concerned. The works presented may prove beneficial for future image fusion tasks in real world applications such as surveillance, where noise is heavily present.
Sunday, December 18 16:00 - 17:40
ECE 4: Electronic and Computer Engineering 4
- 16:00 Current Steering Digital Analog Converter with Partial Binary Tree Network (PBTN)
- DACs are essential devices in many digital systems which require high performance data converters. With shrinking of supply voltage, budget constraints of test times, and rising bandwidth requirement causing DAC architectures highly relying on matched components to perform data conversions. However, matched components match are nearly impossible to fabricate; there are always mismatch errors which causes the difference between the designed and actual component value. Dynamic Element Matching (DEM) is one of the techniques that are commonly used to reduce component mismatch error. This technique is a randomization technique to select one of the appropriate codes for each of the digital input value before entering DAC block. Thus, in this research, a new DEM algorithm is proposed on Current-Steering DAC with Partial Binary Tree Network (PBTN) algorithm that utilizes a lower complexity circuit to produce output signals with less glitches. Simulation results for 6-bit 1-MSB PBTN DAC produces 0.3184LSB of DNL, 0.0062LSB of INL, and a power consumption of 14.13 mW, while using only 126 transmission gates.
- 16:20 Topology Design of Extended 8 x 8 Torus and Ring for Low Latency Network-on-Chip Architecture
- In essence, Network-on-Chip (NoC) also known as on chip interconnection network has been proposed as a design solution to System-on-Chip (SoC). The routing algorithm, topology and switching technique are significant because the most influential affect on the overall performance of Network-on-Chip (NoC). Designing of large scale topology alongside support of deadlock free, low latency, high throughput and low power consumption is notably challenging in particular with expanding network size. This paper proposed an 8x8 XX-Torus and 64 nodes XX-Ring topology schemes for Network-on-Chip to minimize the latency by decrease the node diameter from source node to destination node. Correspondingly, we compare in differences on the performance of mesh, full-mesh, torus and ring topologies with XX-Torus and XX-Ring topologies in term of latency. Results show that XX-Ring outperform the conventional topologies in term of latency. XX-Ring decrease the average latency by 106.28%, 14.80%, 6.7 1%, 1.73%, 442.24% over mesh, fully-mesh, torus, XX-torus, and Ring topologies.
- 16:40 Comparative Analysis of Time and Physical Redundancy Techniques for Fault Detection
- The integration level in today's world is continuously increasing in VLSI chips. VLSI circuit verification is a major challenge in these days. Integration capacity of VLSI circuits mimics the testing complexity of circuits. There is a significant chunk of the testing cost with respect to the whole fabrication prices. Hence it is important to cut down the verification cost. Time required during testing is a main factor for the cost of a chip. This time is directly proportional to the number of testing in the circuitry. So the test set should be very small. There is one way to generate a small test set is to compact a large test set parameters. The main drawback of the compaction results on the quality of the original test set. This aspect of compaction has motivated the work present here with some methods of fault detection and avoidance techniques via redundancy logic as Time redundancy and physical redundancy.
- 17:00 A Review on High Frequency and Noise Parameter Performances in Short-channel MOSFETs Due to Layout Dependent Effect
- This paper presents a review on the research carried out over the past ten years on the impact of the layout dependent effects on high frequency and RF noise parameter performances. The study was focused on the doughnut and multi-finger layouts. The doughnut style includes the polygonal and the 4-sided techniques, while multi-finger includes narrow-oxide diffusion (OD) and multi-OD. The review includes the effects of polygonal versus 4-sided doughnut, and narrow-OD with multi-fingers versus multi-OD with multi-fingers. The high frequency parameters of concern in this study are the cut-off frequency (fT) and the maximum frequency (fMAX), while the noise parameters involved are noise resistance (RN) and minimum noise figure (NFmin). MOSFET parameters affected by the layout style and contributing to the changes in these high frequency and noise parameters are also detailed. These include transconductance (Gm); gate resistance (Rg); effective mobility (µeff); and parasitic capacitances (cgg and cgd). The investigation has shown that the polygonal doughnut has a larger total area when compared to the 4-sided doughnut. It is also found that the multi-finger layout style with narrow-OD and high number of fingers has the best performance in fT and fMAX, due to the improvement in Gm, µeff, cgg, cgd and LFN. A multi-OD with a lower number of fingers presents a lower performance in fT due to a lower Gm. In comparison between the doughnut and the multi-finger layout styles, the doughnuts show better performance than a standard multi-finger layout for fT, fMAX, Gm and µeff but are poorer in terms of LFN. It can then be concluded that narrow-OD multi-finger causes the increase of cgg as transistor becomes narrower, while a multi-OD multi-finger have high Rg and leads to the increase of fT and fMAX as the transistor becomes narrower. Other than that, the doughnut layout style has a higher Gm and fT, leading to larger µeff from the elimination of STI stress.
- 17:20 Ab-initio Study of Bulk Single Layer Defected Graphene Towards Graphene Device
- Graphene is a promising new material for the construction of graphene devices because its surface modification can tune the band gap. In this paper, the electronic and transport characteristics of defected graphene device are investigated. Both the electronic and transport characteristics are simulated using density functional theory (DFT). The band structures and transmission spectra are analyzed. The conductance and thermal conductance characteristics for both graphene are compared. From the simulation, it is found that the conductance, thermal conductance and the I-V curves depend on the transmission spectrum of the graphene sheet or graphene device itself. The comparison between the defected graphene itself shows that the single layer with two vacancies shows better performance.
CME 2: Control and Mechatronic Engineering 2
- 16:00 Statistical Technique in Gas Dispersion Modeling
- In this paper, we introduce statistical technique in creating gas dispersion model in an indoor with controlled environment. The temperature, air-wind and humidity are constant throughout the experiment. The collected data are then treated as an image; which the pixel size is similar to the total data available for x and y axis. To predict the neighborhood value, linear interpolation technique is implemented. The result of the experiment is significantly applicable in extending total amount of data if small data is available.
- 16:20 Transitional Particle Swarm Optimization
- A new variation of particle swarm optimization (PSO) termed as transitional PSO (T-PSO) is proposed here. T-PSO attempts to improve PSO via the iteration strategy. Traditionally there are two PSO's iteration strategies, synchronous and asynchronous update. Both with their strength and weakness. The synchronous update has reputation of better exploitation while asynchronous update is stronger in exploration. In T-PSO the particles switch from asynchronous update to synchronous update when no better solution is found for a number of iteration. The results show that T-PSO is ranked better than traditional PSOs. Improving PSO through the iteration strategy has the benefit of no additional complexity is introduced
- 16:40 Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Network for Non-Intrusive Home Appliances Electrical Energy Monitoring System
- This paper discusses "Non-Intrusive Electrical Energy Monitoring (NIEM)" in an effort to minimize electrical energy wastages. To realize the system, an energy meter is used to measure the electrical consumption by electrical appliances. The obtained data were analyzed using a method called Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) technique of Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The event detection was implemented to identify the type of loads and the power consumption of the load which were identified as fan and lamp. The switching ON and OFF output events of the loads were inputted to MLP in order to test the capability of MLP in classifying the type of loads. The data were divided to 70% for training, 15% for testing, and 15% for validation. The output of the MLP is either '1' for fan or '0' for lamp. In conclusion, MLP with five hidden neurons results obtained the lowest average training time with 2.699 seconds, small number of epochs with 62 iterations, min square error of 7.3872×10-5, and the high regression coefficient of 0.99050.
- 17:00 Solving Task Scheduling Problem in Cloud Computing Environment Using Orthogonal Taguchi-Cat Algorithm
- In cloud computing datacenter, task execution delay is no longer accidental, but rather a common phenomenal cause by imbalance mapping of task across virtual machines (VMs). In recent times, a number of artificial intelligence scheduling techniques are proposed and applied to reduce task execution delay. In this study, we proposed an algorithm called Orthogonal Taguchi Based-Cat Swarm Optimization (OTB-CSO) in order to minimize total task execution time. In our proposed algorithm Taguchi Orthogonal approach was incorporated at CSO tracing mode for best task mapping on VMs with minimum execution time. The proposed algorithm was implemented on CloudSim tool and evaluated based on makespan metric. Experimental results showed for 20VMs used, proposed OTB-CSO was able to minimized makespan of total tasks scheduled across VMs with 42.86%, 34.57% and 2.58% improvement over Minimum and Maximum Job First (Min-Max), Particle Swarm Optimization with Linear Descending Inertia Weight (PSO-LDIW) and Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization with Simulated Annealing (HPSO-SA) algorithms. Results obtained showed OTB-CSO is effective to optimize task scheduling and improve overall cloud computing performance with better system utilization.
- 17:20 Estimation of pH and MLSS in Domestic Wastewater Treatment Using Neural Network Technique
- process are the nonlinearities associated with many biological and biochemical processes in the system. Artificial intelligent approaches evolved as better alternative in predicting the system. Typical measured variables for effluent quality of wastewater treatment plant are pH, and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS). This paper presents an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and feed-forward neural network (FFNN) modeling applied to the domestic plant of the Bunus regional sewage treatment plant. ANFIS and feed- forward neural network techniques as nonlinear function approximators have demonstrated the capability of predicting nonlinear behaviour of the system. The data for the period of two years and nine months sampled weekly (140 week samples) were collected and used for this study. Simulation studies showed that the prediction capability of the ANFIS model is somehow better than that of the FFNN model. The ANFIS model may serves as a valuable prediction tool for the plant.
EPE 2: Electrical Power Engineering 2
- 16:00 Lighting Retrofit Scheme Economic Evaluation
- In this paper, two lighting retrofit scheme is simulated to evaluate the amount of saving that the commercial building owner would benefits. Simple payback period and net present value are the method used to qualify the retrofit scheme to be profitable or otherwise. The analysis include the effect of electricity price, energy saving percentage, technology price and efficacy future values towards the economic return. The retrofit scheme presented only covers for the building that already has existing lighting equipment and comply towards the standard set by the international technical society. All variables and assumption are based on latest report by the world governing bodies and regulation.
- 16:20 Active Node Detection in a Reconfigurable Microgrid Using Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithms
- Microgrids are the solution to the growing demand for energy in the recent times. It has the potential to improve local reliability, reduce cost and increase penetration rates for distributed renewable energy generation. Inclusion of Renewable Energy Systems(RES) which have become the topic of discussion in the recent times due to acute energy crisis, causes the power flow in the microgrid to be bi-directional in nature. The presence of the RES in the microgrid system causes the grid to be reconfigurable. This reconfiguration might also occur due to load or utility grid connection and disconnection. Thus conventional protection strategies are not applicable to micro-grids and is hence challenging for engineers to protect the grid in a fault condition. In this paper various Minimum Spanning Tree(MST) algorithms are applied in microgrids to identify the active nodes of the current topology of the network in a heuristic approach and thereby generating a tree from the given network so that minimum number of nodes have to be disconnected from the network during fault clearance. In our comparative study we have chosen the IEEE-39 and IEEE-69 bus networks as our sample test systems.
- 16:40 Dielectric Strength Improvement of Natural Ester Insulation Oil via Mixed Antioxidants: Taguchi Approach
- Recently, natural ester insulation (NEI) oils are found to be the best candidates to replace mineral-based insulation oils for oil-immersed transformer applications. However, NEI oils are prone to oxidation due to their poor oxidative stability which can be improved by adding antioxidants into the oils. Latest studies have also shown that the use of selected antioxidants improves the AC breakdown voltage (BdV) of NEI oils. However, the experiments in previous studies were designed using the conventional one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method, which requires a large number of samples to be tested in order to determine the optimum response. Thus, a Taguchi-based designed experiment is introduced in this study in replacement of the OFAT method. It is found that this method is capable of determining the optimum concentrations of propyl gallate (PG) and citric acid (CA) which will maximize the AC BdV and improve the oxidative stability of the NEI oil. An AC breakdown voltage test is conducted in accordance with the ASTM D1816 standard using Megger OTS60PB portable oil tester, in which the electrode gap distance is kept fixed at 1 mm. The results indicate that the addition of PG and CA antioxidants increases the AC BdV of the rapeseed-based NEI oil. It is found that the optimum concentrations of PG and CA antioxidant is 0.05 and 0.25 wt.%, respectively. Lastly, the model developed in this study is analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Validation test is also conducted on the optimized NEI oil to determine its dielectric strength and oxidative stability.
- 17:00 A New Compensation Control Strategy for Grid-Connected Wind Turbine and Fuel Cell Inverters in a Microgrid
- The use of the a new control method for grid-connected inverters for reducing the output current harmonic distortion in a wide range of grid-connected distributed generation applications, including wind turbine (WT) and fuel cell (FC) inverters is proposed in this paper. The propose control method designed to eliminate main harmonics in microgrid (MG) and between MG and point of common coupling (PCC) and responsible for the correction of the system unbalance. Another advantage of the proposed control method is that it can be easily adopted into the distributed generation (DG) control system without the installation of extra hardware. The proposed control method is comprised of the synchronous reference frame method (SRF). Results from the proposed control method are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed approach.
- 17:20 Short-Term Measurement on Household Electricity Demand During Hot Weather in Kuala Lumpur
- The aim of this research is to conduct a short-term measurement on the electricity demand in the residential building area in Kuala Lumpur during hot weather. The measurement includes total electricity consumption of whole house, electricity consumption of air conditioner and outdoor air temperature which are taken in March, April and May, 2016. Results indicate that the average electric energy consumption of air conditioner contributes to the major portion of total electric energy consumption in ten different dwellings which is ranged from 20% to 57.3% during the measurement period.
Monday, December 19
Monday, December 19 8:00 - 9:00
Monday, December 19 8:40 - 10:40
ECE 6: Electronic and Computer Engineering 6
- 8:40 Elbow Flexion and Extension Rehabilitation Exercise System Using Marker-less Kinect-based Method
- This paper presents the elbow flexion and extension rehabilitation exercise system using marker-less Kinect-based method. The proposed exercise system is developed for the upper limb rehabilitation applications that utilizes a low cost depth sensor. In this study, the Kinect skeleton tracking method is used to detect and track the joints of upper limb and then measure the elbow joint angle. Users perform the exercise in front of the Kinect sensor and computer monitor and they can see the real-time results that displayed on the screen. The elbow joint angle measurement is recorded automatically and has been compared to the normal range of motion (ROM) reference values for the analysis and validation. The results show the average joint angle of flexion achieved by the normal user is 139.1° for the right hand and 139.2° for the left hand. Meanwhile, the average joint angle of the extension is 1.72° for the right hand and 2.0° for the left. These measurements are almost similar to the standard range of motion (ROM) reference values. The skeleton tracking works well and able to follow the movement of the upper arm and forearm in real-time.
- 9:00 Enhancement of Electrochemical Current by Redox Cycling Realized by Chromatography Paper-based Biochemical Sensor
- In this work, we demonstrate that enhancement of electrochemical current due to redox cycling can be accomplished by a paper-based biosensor without any expensive micro-fabrication process. The paper-based sensor has layered structure to generate higher current than a conventional one. We take advantage of the fact that the paper thickness is micrometer-sized (180 micrometer), and it defines the distance between two electrochemical electrodes on both sides of the paper. Experimental results show signatures of the redox cycling, where the electrochemical current from low concentration molecules can be arbitrarily increased by decreasing the distance between electrodes. Such a structure is advantageous for detecting target molecules at very low concentration, proposing a low-cost highly-sensitive biochemical sensor.
- 9:20 Retinal Blood Vessel Segmentation Using Ensemble of Single Oriented Mask Filters
- This paper describes a method on segmentation of blood vessel in retinal images using supervised approach. Blood vessel segmentation in retinal images can be used for analyses in diabetic retinopathy automated screening. It is a very exhausting job and took a very long time to segment retinal blood vessels manually. Moreover these tasks also requires training and skills. The strategy involves the applications of Support Vector Machine to classify each pixel whether belong to a vessel or not. Single mask filters which include intensity of normalized green channel have been generated according to the direction of angles. These single oriented mask filters contain the vectors of the neighbourhood of each pixel. Five images randomly selected from DRIVE database are used to train the classifier. Every single oriented mask filters are ranked according to the average accuracy of training images and their weights are assigned according to this rank. Ensemble approaches that are Addition With Weight and Product With Weight have been used to combine all these single mask filters. In order to test the proposed approach, two standard databases, DRIVE and STARE have been used. The results of the proposed method clearly show improvement compared to other single oriented mask filters.
- 9:40 Comparative Study of Meta-heuristics Optimization Algorithm Using Benchmark Function
- Meta-heuristics optimization is becoming a popular tool for solving numerous problems in real-world application due to the ability to overcome many shortcomings in traditional optimization. Despite of good performance, there is limitation in some algorithm that deteriorates by certain degree of problem type. Therefore it is necessary to compare the performance of these algorithms with certain problem type. This paper compares 7 meta-heuristics optimization with 11 benchmark functions that exhibits certain difficulties and can be assumed as a simulation relevant to the real-world problems. The tested benchmark function has different type of problem sch as modality, separability, discontinuity and surface effects such as steep-drop global optimum, bowl- and plateau-typed function. Some proposed function has the combination of these problems, which might increase the difficulty level of search towards global optimum. The performance comparison includes computation time and convergence of global optimum.
- 10:00 VLSI Design of a Fast Pipelined 8x8 Discrete Cosine Transform
- This paper presents a Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) design and implementation of a fixed-point 8x8 multiplierless Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) using the ISO/IEC 23002- 2 algorithm. The standard DCT algorithm, which is mainly used in image and video compression technology, consists of only adders, subtractors, and shifters, therefore making it efficient for hardware implementation. The VLSI implementation of the algorithm given in this paper further enhances the performance of the transform unit. Furthermore, circuit pipelining has been applied to the base design of the DCT, which significantly improves the performance by reducing the longest path in the non-pipeline design. The DCT has been implemented using semi-custom VLSI design methodology using the TSMC 0.13um process technology. Results show that our DCT designs can run up to around 1.7 Giga pixels/s, which is well above the timing required for real-time ultra-high definition 8K video.
- 10:20 Human Re-identification with Global and Local Siamese Convolution Neural Network
- Human re-identification is an important task in surveillance system to determine whether the same human re-appears in multiple cameras with disjoint views. Mostly, appearance based approaches are used to perform human re-identification task because they are less constrained than biometric based approaches. Most of the research works apply hand-crafted feature extractors and then simple matching methods are used. However, designing a robust and stable feature requires expert knowledge and takes time to tune the features. In this paper, we propose a global and local structure of Siamese Convolution Neural Network which automatically extracts features from input images to perform human re-identification task. Besides, most of the current human re-identification task in single-shot approaches do not consider occlusion issue due to lack of tracking information. Therefore, we apply a decision fusion technique to combine global and local features for occlusion cases in single-shot approaches.
Monday, December 19 9:00 - 10:40
CE 5: Communication Engineering 5
- 9:00 Performance of Non-Uniform Duty-cycled ContikiMAC in Wireless Sensor Networks
- Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a promising technology in Internet of Things (IoTs). WSN can be implemented in many applications. A drawback of WSN is limited energy, where each sensor nodes are powered using batteries. Because of this, duty-cycle mechanism are introduced to ensure the sensor nodes are in the sleep mode almost of the time to reduce power consumption to prolong the network lifetime. One of the de-facto standard of duty-cycle mechanism in WSN is ContikiMAC, which is the default duty-cycle mechanism in Contiki OS. ContikiMAC ensures nodes can participate in network communication yet keep it in sleep mode for roughly 99% of the time. However, it is found that the ContikiMAC does not perform well in dynamic network conditions. In a bursty network, ContikiMAC is found to provide a poor performance, especially in term of packet delivery ratio due to congestion. In this study, we looks into a possibility of enhancing ContikiMAC by making it dynamically changes its duty-cycle rates based on the network conditions. This dynamic duty-cycle rate creates a non-uniform duty-cycle rate among the sensor nodes in the network. This work aims to investigate the effect of non-uniform duty-cycle rates on the performance on ContikiMAC. Cooja simulator is selected as the simulation tool. Three different simulation scenarios are considered depending on the Clear Channel Assessment Rate (CCR) configuration: uniform minimum CCR (min-CCR), uniform maximum CCR (max-CCR) and non-uniform mixed CCR (max-CCR). The simulation results show that the min-CCR provides the lowest performance and max-CCR provides the highest performance. The mix-CCR provides the performance in between of min-CCR and max-CCR.
- 9:20 A Training Monitoring System for Cyclist Based on Wireless Sensor Network
- This paper presents a training monitoring system for cyclist that is based on the technology of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). A stable and reliable wireless cyclist monitoring system is vital to establish a smart and efficient sports management program. A training monitoring system has been developed and tested in a real cyclist training environment in a velodrome. The system is designed is such a way that the packet loss rate is minimum. Using TelG mote as the basis, customized sensor nodes that function as a forwarder node and the relay nodes are developed to form the WSN. This WSN is linked to the cloud network on the Internet. The cloud network is then established and end users application for data accessing is designed. Several experiments have been conducted in a real scenario in a velodrome to measure the reliability of the system architecture. It is shown from the experiments that the proposed system is reliable even when the cyclist is moving at a high speed. The packet loss is less than 2% which does not give a huge impact to the data transmission.
- 9:40 Shalala Machine Cryptography Stack, an Implementation of Vigenere and Stream Cipher Cryptography in Wireless Sensor Network
- Wireless Sensor Networks which is usually consist of embedded system or resource constrain device have been designed for a broad range of domains and one of it, is to be used as physical interface for Internet of Things. This domains heavily realize on the distribution of motes sensor over a hostile area, to collect critical sensor data, which make the motes sensor are prone to attack. Extensive research has been conducted in the field of security but when it comes to wireless sensor networks all conventional security mechanisms fail because conventional mechanisms have not been designed for resource constrained environments. In this paper the design and implementation of a security protocol for wireless sensor networks has been presented that provides high levels of security while consuming very little resources. The new protocol referred to as Shalala Machine has been designed specifically for wireless sensor networks, and it provides confidentiality, authentication and integrity in it stack suite. Shalala Machine has been implemented onto Arduino Uno which are an open source embedded system that were usually used as motes in wireless sensor network.
- 10:00 Smart Home and Ambient Assisted Living Based on the Internet of Things
- This paper presents a Smart Home and Ambient Assisted Living (SHAAL) system that has been developed and tested in a real experimental home environment. SHAAL system is designed on wireless sensor network (WSN) linked to the cloud network on the Internet. The development of SHAAL is divided into two phases: the design of SHAAL network and the development of SHAAL applications. SHAAL network is made up of the home network which is the WSN, and the cloud network. The network is designed using TelG mote that operates under Zigbee technology and includes various sensor modules for SHAAL system. The cloud network consists of the gateway, the server and user devices running on third generation (3G) network. Using priority scheduling algorithm for data transmission, it is shown that the performance delay of this system on the test-bed experiment is 34.2 percent less compared to the theoretical study. The implementation of the experimental testbed has proven that SHAAL has been successfully designed and deployed in the real world.
- 10:20 SAR Levels for Irradiation by a Crumpled 900 MHz Flexible Diamond Dipole
- In this work, the antenna performance and Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) levels in a homogeneous phantom exposed to 900 MHz flexible diamond dipole antenna are investigated under different crumpling deformation conditions. The numerical simulations of the realistic complex two dimensional crumpling is performed by using Finite Integration Technique (FIT) which is applied in Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio. The validation of results with the industry standard DASY4 robot SAR measurement system is made possible with the use of homogenous phantom model. The 1 g, 10 g and point SAR has been enhance by 28.33 %, 36.75 % and 9.55 % respectively due to the antenna crumpling deformation. The short length ripple investigated in this paper shows the highest relative SAR increase.
CE 6: Communication Engineering 6
- 9:00 A Novel Right Handed Circular Polarization (RHCP) Folded Reflectarray Antenna At 60 GHz
- A novel right-handed circular polarization (RHCP) folded reflectarray antenna with optimized parameters is presented at 60GHz. The RHCP folded reflectarray antenna is designed using left handed circularly polarized selective surface (LHCPSS) Pierrot unit cell. Through simulation, it is shown that the antenna operates well at 60GHz. The maximum antenna directivity is 19dB with a reflection coefficient below -15dB. The radiation patterns show good responses with side lobes level below -10dB. Finally, the best axial ratio at 60GHz is achieved as 0.75dB
- 9:20 Higher-order Mode Rectangular Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Enhanced Bandwidth and Gain for 5G Applications
- The excitation of the higher-order mode, TEy1δ3 in a simple rectangular dielectric resonator is designed in the presented paper to enhance the antenna gain. The rectangular dielectric resonator antenna (RDRA) was fed by a 50Ω microstrip line through an aperture cut in the ground plane. Beside avoid from the spurious radiation, this feeding technique gives the flexibility to control the amount of coupling in order to reduce the Q-factor in the higher-order mode RDRA. The design has been created, and then simulated using Ansoft High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) ver 16.0 by using Duroid 5880 dielectric substrate with a thickness, ts of 0.254 mm, a permittivity, εs of 2.2 and a loss tangent, δ of 0.001 at 15 GHz. The higher-order mode, TEy1δ3 RDRA has achieved the gain approximately 10 dBi and the measured impedance bandwidth as much 2.5GHz which is 5% more compared to the fundamental mode, TEy1δ1. The result should be considered suitable for 5G applications.
- 9:40 Parametric Analysis of Wearable Vialess EBG Structures and Its Application for Low Profile Antennas
- Electromagnetic Bandgap (EBG) structures are one class of metamaterial with attractive properties that unavailable in nature and widely used for improving the electromagnetic performance. Its In-phase reflection frequency band is indicated as operation frequency band, whose characteristic is closely related to the parameters of EBG structure, such as patch width (w), gap width (g), substrate height (h) and substrate permittivity (ε). The presence of via within EBG structure is associated with design and fabrication complexities, which led the researchers to study uniplanar EBG. These structures require no via and can easily be fabricated and integrated with RF and microwaves application. Therefore, an investigation study on the effect of the parameters of the vialess EBG surface and some design guidelines have been obtained. An example of an antenna integrated with EBG is also studied. The result indicates that the EBG ground plane significantly improves the work efficiency of the antenna in a particular frequency band.
- 10:00 Frequency Reconfigurable Epsilon Negative Metamaterial Antenna
- This paper proposes metamaterial (MTM) inspired frequency reconfigurable antenna based on the circular electric field coupled (ELC) resonator. It is composed of circular shape ELC resonator with the radius size of 7 mm. By inserting two switches between the gaps at both side of the circular ELC resonator, it is possible to switch ON or OFF the unit cell. The antenna has been simulated using CST Microwave Studio software tool. The simulation result shows that the proposed antenna is capable of reconfiguring between two different frequencies which are 2.18 GHz and 2.64 GHz. The simulated bandwidth at -10 dB is 4.12 % at resonance frequency of 2.18 GHz and 8.7% at 2.64 GHz
- 10:20 A Compact CPW-Fed Curved Meander Line Monopole Antenna (MLMA) for GSM Application
- Monopole antenna is widely used in many communication system especially in broadcasting where omnidirectional pattern allow the 360 degrees coverage. However, at low frequency the conventional design may require miniaturization to fit in versatile spaces. Thus, this paper discusses a low cost, compact CPW-fed curved meander line monopole antenna (MLMA) designed to operate at 0.9 GHz GSM band. The overall dimension is 25mm x 80mm. The antenna is well matched at required GSM band with the bandwidth from 0.88 GHz to 0.93 GHz.. Comparison between the conventional MLMA and curved (MLMA) is made in term of return loss and gain. It was found that the curved MLMA has a better gain compared to the conventional MLMA which is 1.472 dB.
ECE 5: Electronic and Computer Engineering 5
- 9:00 Study on Precursor Molar Concentrations Synthesis TiO2 Nanoparticles and Effects on MEH-PPV: TiO2 Nanocomposite Thin Films for Organic Solar Cells
- In this paper, the optical and electrical properties of thin films based on poly [2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy-p-phenylenevinylen) (MEH-PPV) and anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles as a function of TiO2 molar concentrations were investigated. Synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles at different molar concentrations was performed by sol-gel immerse heated method and been used as a filler in MEH-PPV polymer matrix. The nanocomposited MEH-PPV: TiO2 thin films exhibited increased in light absorption and the conductivity was enhanced up to 6.7987µ S.cm-1 by controlled the size of TiO2 nanoparticle. This condition was achieved by prepared TiO2 nanoparticles with 0.4 molar concentrations. This indicates the nanoparticle size of TiO2 was affected by its molar concentrations thus gives a significant effect towards the properties of MEH-PPV: TiO2 nanocomposite thin films.
- 9:20 The Effect of Hole Transport Material Properties in Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells
- This study is carried out to investigate the properties of copper (I) iodide (CuI) thin films deposited by using spin coating and mist atomization method. The thin films characteristics of surface morphology and electrical properties and its effect to the photovoltaic performance were investigated. The surface morphology examined by FESEM shows smaller CuI crystal size when deposited using spin coating (S1) of ~30nm. The low resistivity of 1.77 x 10-1 Ωcm was obtained for CuI thin films deposited by mist-atomization (M1) method which will greatly affect the device performance. The photovoltaic performance of ss-DSSC at different method CuI deposition shows the highest efficiency of 1.05% for sample (M1) while the ss-DSSC fabricated with S1 sample shows the lowest conversion efficiency of 0.02%. In solid-state dye sensitized soalr cells, smaller particle size of hole conductor is desirable in order to achieve high pore penetration. The appropriate crystals size of CuI, film thickness and the electrical resistivity greatly contributed to the high filling fraction of the porous TiO2 layer and hence the cells performance.
- 9:40 Investigation of FinFET Temperature Sensitivity Based on Channel Semiconductor Type
- This paper represents the temperature effect on FinFET transistor and the possibility of using it as a temperature nanosensor. The MuGFET simulation tool was used to investigate temperature characteristics of the FinFET. Current-voltage characteristics with different values of temperature were simulated. MOS diode connection suggested using FinFET transistor as a temperature nanosensor. The final results shows that the best FinFET used as a nano-sensor is with GaAs because it has the greatest (∆I) referring to ∆I at 25oC, and the best FinFET stable with increasing working temperature is Si-FinFET because it has the lowest (∆I) referring to ∆I at 25oC.
- 10:00 Measuring Defects in Multilayer Graphene with Raman Spectroscopy
- A Raman study of oxygen plasma on multilayer graphene is done with different flow rates. This is to allow a controlled amount of defect fabricated on the graphene. Results from the study shows that the intensity ratio of defect between D peak and G peak are strongly depended on the amount of oxygen flow rate thus affected the 2D band of the spectra. The interdefect distance LD ≥ 15 nm of each sample indicated that low-defect density was fabricated.
- 10:20 Synthesis of GeO2 Microclusters on Silicon Substrate in Non-Aqueous Solution by Electrochemical Deposition
- We report the formation of crystalline germanium dioxide (GeO2) microclusters on n-Si (100) electrodeposited in non-aqueous electrolyte (a mixture of 5 vol.% germanium tetrachloride (GeCl4) and dipropylene glycol (C6H14O3) ) at current density of 20 mA/cm2 for 200 sec. Pt, C and Ge are used as an anode while Si acts as a cathode. Field- emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images show that the deposited GeO2 microclusters are having rounded-mushroom-shaped particles with the smallest size of 660 nm. Energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectra reveal that the particles are only composed of Ge and O elements. Raman spectra confirm the formation of crystalline GeO2 with trigonal bonding structures in all samples. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra show two significant emission peaks in visible range at 2.27 eV and 2.96 eV, which seems to be attributed by GeO2 and Si defects. C6H14O3 seems to contribute to the formation of GeO2 due to its hygroscopic nature. Such microcluster structures shall provide some potential applications for electronic and optical devices on Si platform.
CME 3: Control and Mechatronic Engineering 3
- 9:00 Variational Iteration Method for Solving Riccati Matrix Differential Equations
- Riccati matrix differential equation has long been known to be so difficult to solve analytically and / or numerically. In this connection, most of the recent studies are concerned with the derivation of the necessary conditions that ensure the existence of the solution. Therefore, in this paper, He's Variational iteration method is used to derive the general form of the iterative approximate sequence of solutions and then proved the convergence of the obtained sequence of approximate solutions to the exact solution. This proof is based on using the mathematical induction to derive a general formula for the upper bound proved to be converge to zero under certain conditions.
- 9:20 Review on Control of Psychological Crowd Based on Le Bon's Crowd Psychological Model
- Irrational crowds tend to adapt herd mentality, having group behavior and high suggestion through interaction. It is important to see how an irrational crowd can be controlled to prevent undesirable crowd attitude. This paper reviews existing models and the controllers to provide a comprehensive study for crowd control. It focuses on a comprehensive analysis of the control of psychological crowd, modelled using LeBon's theory; which defines the crowd behavior in terms of crowd attitude or action. The crowd attitude is defined in terms of suggestibility and prestige and the crowd interaction is defined in terms of the interaction of prestige and suggestibility, which is naturally unstable. A controller is required to achieve stability. Since, for controller design the mathematical equation are modified to include model interaction with the objective to force the observers' attitude to zero. In this paper several control approaches are described and the best control approach is highlighted. In the highlighted controller, the control agents influences the whole crowd through interaction. The control signal value is computed for various locations of control agents and their target according to mathematical psychological crowd model as used in recent studies. The results conclude, the best control approach is by using multiple control agents, since the control effort is reduced and the stabilizing time is improved.
- 9:40 Two-Wheeled Wheelchair Stabilization Using Fuzzy Logic Controller Based Particle Swarm Optimization
- Designing a control strategy of two-wheeled wheelchair is a very challenging task due to the unstable and highly nonlinear system. The system is modeled by mimicking a double-link inverted pendulum concept and the mathematical equations is derived using Euler-Lagrange method. Then the state-space representation is applied to the Simulink block diagram in Matlab. The control parameter of the system is compared between trial-and-error method and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. This strategy is to find the optimal value for the system to get better performance. The system will be simulated using Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) and FLC-PSO using Matlab/Simulink environment.
- 10:00 Parameter Optimisation of Aerobic Granular Sludge at High Temperature Using Response Surface Methodology
- This paper proposes an improved optimisation of sequencing batch reactors (SBR) for aerobic granular sludge (AGS) at high temperature-low humidity for domestic wastewater treatment using response surface methodology (RSM). The main advantages of RSM are less number of experiment required and suitable for complex process. The sludge from a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant and three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were fed with synthetic wastewater. The experiment were carried out at different high temperatures (30, 40 and 50°C) and the formation of AGS for simultaneous organics and nutrients removal were examined in 60 days. RSM is used to model and to optimize the biological parameters for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorus removal in SBR system. The simulation results showed that at temperature of 45.33°C give the optimum condition for the total removal of COD and phosphorus, which correspond to performance index R2 of 0.955 and 0.91, respectively.
- 10:20 PID Controller Tuning Using Hybrid Optimization Technique Based on Box's Evolutionary Optimization and Teacher-Learner-Based-Optimization
- In this paper, a hybrid optimization technique based on Box's evolutionary optimization and teacher-learner-based-optimization (BEO-TLBO) is proposed for proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller tuning of level control of three tank system. The integral-square-error (ISE) of unit step response is minimized for obtaining optimal controller parameters. The ISE is designed in terms of alpha and beta parameters. In BEO-TLBO, a global search is first carried out over the entire search space to determine the set of desired controller parameters using teacher-learner-based-optimization (TLBO). The search is then refined in the second stage using Box's evolutionary optimization (BEO). The results obtained using BEO-TLBO are compared with other existing techniques. Computer simulations reveal that the hybrid optimization based approach meets the desired specifications with greater accuracy as compared to the other existing methods.
EPE 3: Electrical Power Engineering 3
- 9:00 Review Analysis of Distributed Generation in Distribution Network with Optimal Placement Models and Impacts
- The rapid increase in the power demand and the capacity shortage of transmission and distribution system drives the integration of Distributed Generation units in Electrical power distribution networks. This integration created a challenge and an opportunity for developing various novel technologies .The aim of the problem is to determine the best location, sizes, type and penetration level of Distribution Generation unit to optimize Electrical distribution network operation considering the various impacts and issues. Several methodologies and technologies have been developed to find the solution for this problem. This paper presents an overview of the methodology developed so far to analyze future research trends in this field.
- 9:20 Harmonic Suppression of Shunt Hybrid Filter Using LQR-PSO Based
- In linear quadratic regulator (LQR), two different weighting matrices play an important role in presenting the performance of this controller. Instead of using classic common approach, which is trial and error method, this study proposes a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to track the best solution of the weighting matrices. The proposed algorithm is tested on shunt hybrid active power filter (APF) to mitigate the harmonic contents in voltage and current signals in a nonlinear load system. The modeling work of this proposed system is simulated using MATLAB/Simulink software. From the simulation, the obtained results proved that using PSO in tuning the LQR controller produce smoother nonlinear voltage and current signals. In fact, the amount of current to be injected into network can be reduced up to 95%. Besides, less time is consumed during searching the optimum weighting matrices using the proposed approach.
- 9:40 Savonius Wind Turbine Performances on Wind Concentrator
- The air streams from the outlet of an air compressor are useful to be benefitted. For instance, if a micro-sized Vertical-Axis Wind-Turbine (VAWT) is installed towards to the airflow, some amount of electricity can be generated and stored in a battery bank. The purpose of this research is to design, fabricate and analyze the performance of Helical Savonius VAWT blade rotors. The proposed Savonius VAWT is tested with and without using a wind concentrator. The Helical Savonius VAWT is tested at 0 cm without the concentrator, whereas the blade rotor is tested at concave-blade positions when using the concentrator. The blade and the wind concentrator designs were based on the dimensions and the constant airflow of the air compressor. Based on findings, this blade produced best performance when tested using wind concentrator at concave-blade position in terms of angular speed (ω), tip speed ratio (TSR) and the generated electrical power (PE). The findings concluded that the existence of wind concentrator increases the airflow to provide better performance on blades.
- 10:00 Distribution Power Loss Minimization via Distributed Generation, Capacitor and Network Reconfiguration
- This paper presents a solution to solve the network reconfiguration, DG coordination (location and size) and capacitor coordination (location and size), simultaneously. The proposed solution will be determined by using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC). Various case studies are presented to see the impact on the test system, in term of power loss reduction and also voltage profiles. The proposed approach is applied to a 33-bus test system and simulate by using MATLAB programming. The simulation results show that combination of DG, capacitor and network reconfiguration gives a positive impact on total power losses minimization as well as voltage profile improvement compared to other case studies.
- 10:20 Conductive and Inductive Coupling Between Faulted Power Lines and Buried Pipeline by Considering the Effect of Soil Structur
- The AC interference of faulted power line to gas pipeline sharing the same right of way, which may pose a threat to operating personnel and equipment, was studied. The main advantages of this work is to determine the effects of different soil structure on the induced voltage at various soil resistivities. Two main approaches were used to compute the induced voltages, namely the method of moment (MOM), which is based on electromagnetic field theory, and circuit based method, which is based on the circuit grounding analysis to compute the conductive interference and the circuit based models to compute the inductive. A 10km length parallel pipeline-transmission line model was developed. The soil resistivity were varied and the induced voltages obtained from both approaches were compared. Soil resistivity and structure are important parameters that affect the level of AC interference. The results show that, the earth potentials and metal GPR are independent. Higher soil resistivity causes the tower ground resistance to increase, thus making the shield wire's attractiveness as a fault current return path to increase, which forces the induced net EMF and the cumulative GPR in the pipeline to reduce.
Monday, December 19 10:40 - 11:00
Monday, December 19 11:00 - 12:40
CE 7: Communication Engineering 7
- 11:00 Grating Lobe and Sidelobe Characteristics of Unequally Microstrip Linear Arrays with Parasitic Element
- For next generation of 5G mobile base station antennas, multibeam, multi-frequency and low sidelobe characteristics are requested. Simplify the feeding network will contribute a low feeder loss and frequency dependent. From the previous research by the author, low sidelobe level is reported by density tapered array configuration from -13 dB to -16 dB and the result is maintained for wideband operation frequency at 28 GHz, 42 GHz, and 56 GHz. However, the grating lobe has occurred due to element spacing larger than a half wavelength for higher frequency. In this paper, the characteristics of a grating lobe in frequency 56 GHz is investigated by parasitic element. The effect of parasitic element to the impedance, gain, and sidelobe level of unequally microstrip linear spaced tapered array is also investigated.
- 11:20 Characterization of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Material for a 3D Printed Microstrip Patch Antenna
- This paper proposes a circular patch antenna fabricated using a 3D printer. The antenna is said to be resonated at frequency of 2.44 GHz. The main reason of using a 3D printer is that it is accurate, easy to fabricate of a complex geometry and the ability to create new antennas that cannot be made using conventional fabrication techniques. As for introduction, the common material that has been used in 3D printer is Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). The characteristics of the ABS material such as dielectric constant and loss tangent have been determined from measurement. Then, those parameters are being used in antenna design. The design includes ABS material as a substrate for patch antenna. Meanwhile, as for the line feed, a coaxial probe feed is implemented where the inner part of the conductor of the coax is connected to the copper patch while the outer conductor is connected to the ground. This ABS material has a tangent loss of 0.0051 and the relative permittivity is determined to be 2.74. The thickness of substrate is 1.25 mm and the return loss from simulation software is in good match with measurement. The software that is used in this research is Computer Simulation Technology (CST).
- 11:40 Wireless Sensor Node with Passive RFID for Indoor Monitoring System
- This paper discusses the development of an indoor monitoring system based on passive radio frequency identification (RFID) system and Raspberry Pi 3. There are two algorithms designed for this project where the first is to link the RFID module to the Raspberry Pi 3, and the other one is to send the data obtained to a database over wireless network via UDOO Quad as a secondary router. The result is then displayed on a localhost generated using XAMPP. The objective of this project is to realize a monitoring system that incorporates different systems such as Raspberry Pi 3, UDOO Quad, and also RFID module by designing algorithms using Python and C programming language. Plus, the performance of the system is also analyzed using different type of antennas such as the Raspberry Pi 3 Antenna, monopole antenna, and a Yagi Uda antenna in terms of power received versus distance in both line of sight position and non-line of sight position. Finally, antenna that produces the best performance for line-of-sight (LOS) propagation is Yagi Uda antenna while monopole antenna is better when it comes to non-line-of-sight (NLOS) propagation.
- 12:00 Video Monitoring Application Using Wireless Sensor Node with External Antenna
- Surveillance and monitoring has become very important for security reasons these days. The use of wireless sensor node (WSN) device offers a variety of platform depends on the attached sensor. When an image sensor is attached, the wireless sensor node is capable of monitoring an area wirelessly. Since wireless environment uses antenna to transmit and receive data, antenna is an important component that affects the video monitoring performance. This paper describes a surveillance system using Raspberry Pi with an external antenna. The Raspberry Pi with Pi Camera module and various types of antennas was used for testing and experimentation in line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) condition. The results revealed that the Yagi Uda antenna gives the best output in terms of its signal strength and average Receive (Rx) rate.
- 12:20 Design and Analysis of Optimum Performance Pacemaker Telemetry Antenna
- The demand for health technology is increasing especially in the telemetry applications. These application generally use implanted antennas to be utilized for data transfer from patients to another reader devices. This procedure can make the health care more efficient since it provides fast diagnosis and treatment to the patient. Therefore, in order to effectively implement an implanted antenna inside the human body, through numerical analysis and simulations are required prior to the fabrication of antenna. In this work, an implanted antenna has been proposed to be designed at 402.5MHz within the biomedical frequency band of 402-405MHz. By introducing a compact loop antenna for telemetry applications in a Pacemaker, a number of advantages can be achieved for health care such as efficient data information and quick diagnosis. Moreover, in this work an investigation of compact loop antenna with casing in Pacemaker has been carried out by placing the antenna inside the phantom of human body model.
CE 8: Communication Engineering 8
- 11:00 Graphene Nanoplatelets (GnP)-PVA Based Passive Saturable Absorber
- We demonstrate a passive Q-switched at 1.5 micron region by integrating a graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) embed in Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA). The GnPs was dispersed with the aid of surfactant and mixed with PVA by solution casting approach and then dried at ambient temperature to develop a GnPs-PVA film. The integration of the passive Q-switcher is by attaching a small portion of the developed GnPs-PVA film at the end of fiber ferrule in the laser cavity with ring configuration to generate pulse laser. The experimental works show that the proposed GnPs-PVA film based passive Q-switcher operates at input pump power ranges from 39 mW to 148 mW with central wavelength of 1530.76 nm. We observe the tunable repetition rate from 33 kHz to 91.5 kHz with the shortest pulse width of 2.42 micro seconds. The laser produce maximum instantaneous output peak power and pulse energy of 1.2 mW and 5.9 nJ, with the recorded signal to noise ratio of 28 dB.
- 11:20 Lyot-based Multi-Wavelength Fiber Laser
- A multi-wavelength fiber laser which is based on a Lyot filter is experimentally demonstrated. A combination of four-wave mixing in a highly nonlinear fiber and Lyot filter mechanism in the laser cavity is able to generate multi-wavelength with relatively high extinction ratio (ER). At the input current of 100mA, six laser lines with ER more than 5 dB are successfully generated. The wavelength spacing for the multi-wavelength is 0.15nm, corresponding to the characteristics of the Lyot filter used.
- 11:40 Harmful Gasses Profiling in Meru Menora Tunnel Using SICK Sensor
- This paper discusses the study on the measured harmful gases due to traffic emission in the Meru Menora Tunnel, a Malaysia highway tunnel. The hazardous gasses data would help in promoting essential ventilation system inside the tunnel for the health and safety of the users. The emission gasses concentration reading is divided into two main components comprise of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), and Carbon Monoxide (CO). Other than that, the visibility also been measured by using SICK sensor. The measurement has been done during normal, festive and school holiday seasons. Festive season shows the highest number of traffic and thus giving the worst air quality. Ventilation fan system can be activated based on the concentration level of gases and visibility in the tunnel
- 12:00 Tapered Fiber Coated with Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Slurry Based Optical Humidity Sensor
- We demonstrate performance comparison of optical humidity sensor for bare and Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) slurry coated tapered optical fiber. The starting material for MWCNTs slurry is MWCNTs- acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) based fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer filament. The ABS was dissolve using acetone to produce MWCNTs-acetone suspension. The MWCNTs-acetone suspension was drop cast on the tapered fiber to produce MWCNTs slurry by evaporation process at room temperature, which resulted the MWCNTs slurry attach to the tapered fiber. The MWCNTs slurry act as cladding for humidity changes measurement. The experimental works shows improvement of sensitivity from 3.811 μW/% of bare tapered fiber to 5.17 μW/% for the coated tapered fiber with MWCNTs slurry, when the humidity varies from 45% to 80%.
- 12:20 Comparison of the Themes of Malaysian Friday Sermons Between the Year 2010 and 2015
- One of the analyses used in the field of corpus linguistics is comparing the word occurrence from different text corpora. This technique can be used to identify how a certain discipline change over time through text analysis. In this study, the changes of the context of Malaysian Friday sermons are investigated. The text corpus was developed by taking the Friday sermons spoken in Kuala Lumpur mosques in the year 2015. A total of 52 sermons were used for the text corpus because there are a total of 52 Friday sermons in a year. The Malay text corpus was constructed by using PHP and MySQL, and only the top words spoken were inserted into the text corpus. This text corpus is then compared with a previously developed text corpus from 2010 Friday sermons. The new text corpus has almost the same amount of words compared with the old text corpus. The new text corpus overlapped with the old text corpus by 82%. Meaning that 82% of the words appear in the old text corpus. This shows that word list obtained from a specific source will most likely contain the same words.
Monday, December 19 11:00 - 13:00
ECE 7: Electronic and Computer Engineering 7
- 11:00 Potentiometric Detection of Glucose in Liquid Sample by Chromatography Paper Fluidic Channel and CMOS LSI Chip
- This paper presents a low cost portable medical device for biochemical sensor using CMOS chip and paper-based fluidic channel. We measure a potential produced by enzyme activity of glucose between the working and reference electrode on CMOS chip. A liquid sample is transported by paper-based fluidic channel which. The paper-based fluidic channel is made of chromatography paper and silicone resin, and consists of the area for filtering a sample (filter layer) and the area for reacting enzyme (enyzme layer). The paper-based fluidic channel is used by combinating CMOS chip, and the solution with glucose is dropped from top of the paper-based fluidic channel. The concentrations of glucose are detected by potentiometry (open circuit potential time). The experimental results show that the glucose concentration is measured by CMOS chip and paper-based fluidic channel.
- 11:20 Mammography Image Segmentation: Chan-Vese Active Contour and Localized Active Contour Approach
- Breast cancer is one of the most common diseases diagnosed among female cancer patients. Early detection of breast cancer is needed to reduce the risk of fatality of this disease as no cure has been found yet for this illness. This research is conducted to improve the Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) Snake Active Contour segmentation technique in mammography segmentation. Segmentation of the mammogram image is done to segment lesions existence using Chan-Vese Active Contour and Localized Active Contour. Besides that, the effectiveness of these both methods are then compared and chosen to be the best method. Digital Database of Screening Mammograms (DDSM) is used for the purpose of screening. First, the images will undergo pre-processing process using Gaussian Low Pass Filter to remove unwanted noise. After that, contrast enhancement will be applied on the images. Segmentation of mammograms is then conducted by using Chan-Vese Active Contour and Localized Active Contour method. The result shows that Chan-Vese technique outperforms Localized Active Contour with 90% accuracy
- 11:40 Simultaneous Electrochemical Current Measurement Using Chromatography Paper Fluidic Channel and CMOS LSI Chip for Biosensor Applications
- This paper describes the new system of biosensing using CMOS chip. The system is expected to be applied in various circumstances because it is suitable for miniaturization compared to the conventional system. The new system uses paper fluidic channel to transport solution to electrodes to conduct electrochemical measurements. The materials of paper fluidic channel are only paper and silicone resin, and these are biocomapatible. In experiment, we carry out simultaneous detection of glucose and ethanol in liquid sample solutions on the 5mm square CMOS chip and paper channel. In addition, this system can detect various target molecules instead of glucose and ethanol, and increase number of simultaneous measurement by adding some more processing to the paper and CMOS chip.
- 12:00 Portable Electrochemical Sensing System Attached to Smartphones and Its Incorporation with Paper-based Electrochemical Glucose Sensor
- This paper describes the development of a small and low cost biosensor consisting of a smartphone-based electrochemical biosensor device and a paper-based biosensor. The device harvests power from the smartphone, and transfers data through audio jack. We design CMOS circuits such as a power supply circuit, a potentiostat, and a ΔΣ modulator .The fabrication of a paper-based biosensor is simple: the three electrodes are directly drawn on chromatography paper by a carbon pencil. The paper-based biosensor is low cost, disposable, portable and friendly to the environment. The sensing system is designed to perform the chronoamperometry measurement, and the glucose concentration in a liquid specimen is detected. Results show that the sensing system is capable of measuring the glucose concentration as precisely as expensive equipments.
- 12:20 Electrochemical Quantitative Analysis of Ethanol Gas Using Paper-Based Electrode with Immobilized Enzymes by Sensing System Attached to a Smartphone
- In this study, a new type of biochemical gas sensor composed of a smartphone, a sensing device and a paper-based electrode is proposed for self-diagnosis. As the sensing device, the CMOS integrated circuit chip with the capability of taking an electrochemical measurement (chronoamperometry) is designed as a small-sized and a portable analytical device. In addition, an enzyme electrode in an electrochemical measurement system is prepared simply from a chromatography paper and a commercial 6B grade carbon pencil, instead of the conventional complex manufacturing process. We evaluate the performance of this sensor by ethanol gaseous analysis in accord with concentrations in exhaled breath. The results in this evaluation suggest that this system has the ability to measure ethanol molecule in gas phase qualitatively ranging in concentrations from 0 to 500ppm (V/V) in view of the concentration dependence and reproducibility.
- 12:40 A New Approach for Solving Inverse Scattering Problems with Overset Grid Generation Method
- This paper presents a new approach of Forward-Backward Time-Stepping (FBTS) utilizing Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method with Overset Grid Generation (OGG) method to solve the inverse scattering problems for electromagnetic (EM) waves. The proposed FDTD method is combined with OGG method to reduce the geometrically complex problem to a simple set of grids. The grids can be modified easily without the need to regenerate the grid system, thus, it provide an efficient approach to integrate with the FBTS technique. Here, the characteristics of the EM waves are analysed. For the research mentioned in this paper, the 'measured' signals are syntactic data generated by FDTD simulations. While the 'simulated' signals are the calculated data. The accuracy of the proposed approach is validated. Good agreements are obtained between simulation data and measured data. The proposed approach has the potential to provide useful quantitative information of the unknown object particularly for shape reconstruction, object detection and others.
ECE 8: Electronic and Computer Engineering 8
- 11:00 Image Reconstruction Based on Combination of Inverse Scattering Technique and Total Variation Regularization Method
- The Forward-Backward Time-Stepping (FBTS) had proven its potential to reconstruct images that provide useful quantitative information about the size, location, shape and the internal composition of the scatters or objects. The Total Variation regularization method was incorporated with the FBTS imaging algorithm to cope with the ill-posedness or ill-conditioned of the inverse problem. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is confirmed by numerical simulations. The numerical method was carried out on a simple object detection through FBTS with and without TV regularization method. The detection and reconstruction of relative permittivity and conductivity of the simple object have shown an improvement as the simple object the TV regularization method applied whereas it smoothed the vibrations of the images and gave a better estimation of the image's boundaries.
- 11:20 Process and Design Optimizations for Low On-state Resistance in High-density Trench Power MOSFET
- The increase demand of having efficient power devices have contributed to the continuous and dynamic developments to both wafer fabrication and device design teams. The process and design parameters of trench power MOSFET with low on-state resistance (RDS(ON)) have been investigated in order to meet such demand. Based on the recent advancement of wafer fabrication facilities, a low 8 mΩ RDS(ON) power MOSFET is produced by having a high-density trench of 650 million cells per square inch. In meeting the dynamic nature of the device developments, a useful and realistic TCAD template is proposed to simulate the variations in critical electrical parameters such as threshold voltage (VGS(Th)), breakdown voltage (BVDSS) and RDS(ON). The significant correlations between gate oxide thickness, trench depth and body implant values to the electrical parameters are further emphasized in this work. This procedure can immensely guide engineers in determining the necessary process and design parameters in fabricating a high-density trench power MOSFET suitable for battery applications.
- 11:40 Security Via Obscurity: Layout Obfuscation of Digital Circuits Using Don't Care Conditions
- Contemporary integrated circuits are designed and manufactured in a globalized environment leading to concerns of piracy, overproduction and counterfeiting. The contribution of this paper is the creation and simulation of a layout obfuscation method that uses don't care conditions. We also propose proof-of-concept of a new functional or logic obfuscation technique that not only conceals, but modifies the sub-circuit functionality and can be implemented automatically during the design process. We propose several heuristic algorithms to maximize the RE complexity based on don't care based layout and functional obfuscation and methodical gate selection from intersecting output logic cones. Thus, the goal of protecting the design IP from malicious users is achieved. It also makes it significantly harder for rogue elements in the supply chain to replicate the same design with a different logic. We analyze the reverse engineering complexity by obfuscating ISCAS-85 Benchmarks. Our experimental results indicate that significant reverse engineering complexity can be achieved at minimal design overhead (average area overhead for layout obfuscation methods discussed is 5.51% and average delay overhead is about 7.732%). We discuss the strengths and limitations of our attack and suggest directions that may lead to improved logic encryption algorithms.
- 12:00 FPGA Based Pattern Generation and Synchonization for High Speed Structured Light 3D Camera
- Recently, structured light 3D imaging devices have received a keen attention due to their potential applications to robotics, industrial manufacturing and medical imaging. Most of these applications require high 3D precision yet high speed in image capturing for hard and/or soft real time environments. This paper presents a method of high speed image capturing for structured light 3D imaging sensors with FPGA based structured light pattern generation and projector-camera synchronization. The method reduces the time for pattern projection and camera triggering to 16msec from 100msec that should be required by conventional methods.
- 12:20 Face Recognition Using Completed Local Ternary Pattern (CLTP) Texture Descriptor
- Nowadays, face recognition becomes one of the important topics in the computer vision and image processing area. This is due to its importance where it can be used in many applications. The main key in the face recognition is how to extract distinguishable features from the image to perform high recognition accuracy. Local binary pattern (LBP) and many of its variants were used as texture features in many of face recognition systems. Although, LBP performed well in many fields, it is sensitive to noise, and different patterns of LBP may be classified into the same class that reduces its discriminating property. Completed Local Ternary Pattern (CLTP) is one of the new texture feature that be proposed to overcome the drawbacks of the LBP. The CLTP outperformed LBP and some of its variants in many fields such as texture, scene, and event image classification. In this study, the performance of CLTP for face recognition is studied and investigated. JAFFE, FEI, Caltech Pedestrian Faces, Face Recognition Data dataset and Georgia Tech dataset are used in the experiments. In the experimental results, CLTP outperformed some previous texture descriptors and achieves higher classification rate for face recognition task.
- 12:40 Measuring Cardiorespiratory Information in Sitting Position Using Multiple Piezoelectric Sensors with Independent Component Analysis
- We have been studying equipment to acquire cardiorespiratory information at home easily by piezoelectric sensors arranging on a seat surface of a chair. In our previous study, we suggested that cardiac and respiratory components could be extracted by executing template matching using two-dimensional cross-correlation function to signals, which were obtained from piezoelectric sensors. However, there was a difficulty of the signal extraction depending on the seating position. Therefore, in this study, we examined the measurement of heartbeat and breathing interval using independent component analysis and multiple piezoelectric sensors. Moreover, heartbeat and breathing intervals, which were obtained from extracted cardiorespiratory components using our developed automatic decision method, were compared with those which were obtained from electrocardiogram and pneumogram. As a result, we could achieve better error rate (0.93 ± 0.44% and 5.23 ± 3.04% for heartbeat and respiratory intervals, respectively) than our previous study.
Monday, December 19 11:00 - 12:40
CME 4: Control and Mechatronic Engineering 4
- 11:00 Prediction of Bioprocess Production Using Deep Neural Network Method
- Deep learning enhanced the state-of-the-art methods in genomics allows it to be used in analysing the biological data with high prediction. The training process of neural network with several hidden layers which has been facilitated by deep learning has been subjected into increased interest in achieving remarkable results in various fields. Thus, the extraction of bioprocess production can be implemented by pathway prediction in genomic metabolic network in eschericia coli. As metabolic engineering involves the manipulation of genes which have the potential to increase the yield of metabolite production. A mathematical model of this network is the foundation for the development of computational procedure that directs genetic manipulations that would eventually lead to optimized bioprocess production. Due to the ability of deep learning to be well suited in terms of genomics, modelling for biological network can be implemented. Each layer reveal the insight of biological network which enable pathway analysis to be implemented in order to extract the target bioprocess production. In this study, deep neural network has been to identify any set of gene deletion models that offers optimal results in xylitol production and its growth yield.
- 11:20 Deep Neural Network Method for the Prediction of Xylitol Production
- Bio-based chemical products such as xylitol have achieved remarkable attentions both in pharmaceutical and food industries due to their several advantages such as sugar substitute that can help diabetic patients and help in prevent tooth decay problem. To produce xylitol, recently, microbial host such as E. Coli often used as it is predicted that E. Coli can produce high level of xylitol. Therefore, metabolic engineering need to be done towards E. Coli and powerful tools are needed to manipulate, simulate and analyse the E. Coli metabolic pathway. Therefore, artificial intelligence methods such as deep learning method offer an efficient and powerful approach to be used. In this paper, one of the deep learning methods called deep neural network (DNN) will be used to analyse the xylitol production value and at the same time to predict which genes and pathway that give biggest effect in the process to produce xylitol in E. Coli. By using DNN, we can predict and analyse which pathways and genes are responsible to produce high level of xylitol in E. Coli. Results shows that, with an absent of genes pgi, tkt and tala, xylitol production can be boost up to the higher level.
- 11:40 A Study on Driver`s Steering Manoeuvre Behaviour Identification and Modelling in near Rear-End Collisio
- This paper presents the identification of driver`s steering maneuver behavior in near rear-end collision with the presence of distraction whilst driving. Time To Collision (TTC) is used as reflect to Drivers threat assessment. The steering behavior experiments are set up under real experiment environment and the naturalistic data from the experiment are collected. Four normal drivers are employed in the experiment to perform the maneuver. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used to develop the driver model. The result shows that all drivers manage to perform steering maneuver within the safe TTC region and the modelling results from ANN are reasonably positive. With further studies, this model would benefit to evaluate driving reliability to enhance traffic safety.
- 12:00 An Ensemble of Enhanced Fuzzy Min Max Neural Networks for Data Classification
- An ensemble of Enhanced Fuzzy Min Max (EFMM) neural networks for data classification is proposed in this paper. The certified belief in strength (CBS) method is used to formulate the ensemble EFMM model, with the aim to improve the performance of individual EFMM networks. The CBS method is used to measure trustworthiness of each individual EFMM network based on its reputation and strength indicators. Trust is built from strong elements associated with the EFMM network, allowing the CBS method to improve the performance of the ensemble model. An auction procedure based on the first-price sealed-bid scheme is adopted for determining the winning EFMM network in undertaking classification tasks. The effectiveness of the ensemble model is demonstrated using a number of benchmark data sets. Comparing with the existing EFMM networks, the proposed ensemble model is able to improve classification accuracy rates in the empirical study.
- 12:20 Using Neuro-Fuzzy Technique to Classify and Predict Electrical Engineering Students' Achievement upon Graduation Based on Mathematics Competency
- This paper discusses the findings of a case study that uses neuro-fuzzy tool to classify and predict Electrical engineering students graduation achievement based on mathematics competency. In this study, achievement upon graduation and mathematics grades were classified as the key performance index. This study is based on longitudinal progress and cross validation model on two mathematics subjects, semesters' performance, and graduation achievement of electrical students. The outcomes of this paper indicated that there is a correlation between mathematics competency with electrical engineering performance, and it's interesting to note that weak and satisfactory students in mathematics are not able to achieve first class upon graduation, and yet there is a small percentage of excellent and good students in mathematics could not graduate with high achievement. The findings of this study conclude that the combination of statistical analysis and machine learning can help us to extract knowledge and enable university management to help low achievers at early stage. It's hoped that the findings can help faculty management to review mathematics curriculum with respect to increasing range of engineering field.
EPE 4: Electrical Power Engineering 4
- 11:00 Exploration of the Potential of Reclaimed Waste Cooking Oil for Oil-Immersed Power Transformers
- In this study, reclaimed waste cooking oil is proposed as an alternative insulating liquid for oil-immersed power transformers. This oil is both environmentally friendly and readily available, which makes it an attractive alternative for insulation liquids. Reclamation is carried out by heating a mixture of waste cooking oil and Fuller's Earth adsorbent, which removes contaminants from the oil. The reclaimed oil is then filtered, resulting in an oil sample having characteristics that are similar to those for new cooking oil. Propyl gallate antioxidant is then added into the filtered oil. Four oil samples are investigated in this study: (1) new cooking oil (NCO), (2) waste cooking oil (WCO), (3) reclaimed oil (RWCO) and (4) reclaimed oil with propyl gallate antioxidant (RWCOPG). The AC breakdown voltage, moisture content and total acid number is measured for all oil samples according to the ASTM D1816, ASTM D1533 and ASTM D974 standard test method, respectively. The results show that the AC breakdown voltage is highest for the RWCOPG sample (28.08 kV), which is 0.4% higher than the standard requirement of 20 kV. The moisture content for this sample is 180.60 ppm, which is still below the allowable limit of 200 ppm. However, the total acid number is highest for the RWCOPG sample which indicates that it has high acidity. It is envisaged that the antioxidant-reclaimed waste cooking oil has great potential to be used as an insulating liquid for oil-immersed power transformers, but much work is still needed to reduce the total acid number of this oil.
- 11:20 Fractal Characteristic of Electrical Tree Grown in Silicone Rubber Under Environmental Stress
- One of the degradations of insulation is in the form of electrical treeing in which classified as a pre-breakdown phenomenon of electrical insulation. The electrical tree is commonly forming in the shape of tree-like or root-like which may have fractal structures. Due to this fractal structure, electrical treeing formation and patterns are analysed via fractal dimension and lacunarity to study the self-similarity patterns of electrical treeing. Many types of research have been conducted to study the fractal dimension and lacunarity of electrical treeing to fully understand the electrical tree mechanism and characteristics. However, fractal and lacunarity structures of electrical trees in silicone rubber correlated with humidity influence are not fully understood. This project involves the experiment set-up for obtaining the electrical trees in silicone rubber. The purpose of this project is to investigate the correlation between the characterisation of tree growth in silicone rubber with respect to the humidity influence. The obtained electrical tree patterns were measured by using a box-counting method to analyse the fractal dimension and sliding box lacunarity. Obtained results show that the growth of tree structures changes with the different value of relative humidity, in which dry humidity brought higher fractal dimension and lacunarity compared to that of moisture condition. It was suggested that the vulcanization network in silicone rubber with relative humidity led to the effect on treeing patterns and lifespan of solid insulation.
- 11:40 Measurement of Dielectric Properties of Low-Density Polyethylene Nanocomposites Using "Sub-Hertz" Dielectric Spectroscopy
- Recently, many studies have been conducted on the dielectric properties of Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE) nanocomposite and produced different results. However, the composition of LDPE polymer and Boron Nitride (BN) as nanofiller has neither been well understood nor producing a convenient result. Similarly, the dielectric spectroscopy measurement at "sub-hertz" frequency has been of little interest among researchers since it is often influenced by "conduction-like" effect. This research identified the dielectric properties of LDPE nanocomposites filled with Boron Nitride nanofillers by using dielectric spectroscopy. The dielectric loss and relative permittivity for three different filler concentrations were investigated under "sub-hertz" frequency ranges and room temperature. The cylindrical electrode with guard ring configuration was used to conduct the experiment, in accordance to the ASTM D150 standard. The results revealed that filled polymer has lower loss tangent and permittivity compared to the unfilled polymer, due to the strong interaction between nano-particle and a polymer. This strong interaction is believed to limit the movement of the polymer chain. The decrease in loss tangent also indicates lower quasi-DC at low frequency. Overall, it can be concluded that the presence of Boron Nitride nanofillers have affected the dielectric properties of LDPE composite and thereby indicating that BN nanofiller has a bright possibility in developing new type of insulating material.
- 12:00 Self-Healing Properties of Silicone Rubber Against Relative Humidity and Nanofiller
- Silicone rubber (SiR) is a polymer-based material widely used in the industry as electrical insulation. Self-healing properties in SiR is an interesting phenomenon which is not found in other polymeric materials attracting many researchers to investigate further. SiR has other good characteristics such as oil and solvents resistant; it won't degrade when exposed to sunlight, high gas permeability, and certainly high insulation resistance. However, effect of humidity and nanofiller on self-healing properties of SiR is not clearly understood. In this research work, effects of humidity and nanofiller amount on self-healing properties of SiR sample were investigated. The results revealed that the self-healing properties are better in neat silicone rubber compared to the neat silicone rubber with 90% of humidity and addition of nanofillers.
- 12:20 Characteristics of Mineral Oil-based Nanofluids for Power Transformer Application
- Trend in the field of nanomaterials-based transformer oil shows most of the conducted works have focused only on the transformer oil-based nanofluids but limited studies on the stability of transformer oil-based nanofluids. Since mineral oil-based nanofluids still can produce the sedimentation, thus the cold-atmospheric pressure plasma method is proposed to functionally modify the Silicon Oxide (SiO2) nanofiller in order to enhance the electrical properties of mineral oil-based nanofluids. The AC breakdown strength oil samples before and after modification were measured. It was found that the plasma treated nanofluids have higher AC breakdown voltage compared with pure oil and untreated nanofluids. Also. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy has been used in this study to analyse the physical changes of oil samples. It is concluded that the added silica nanofillers have a very significant effect on electrical properties in transformer oil-based fluids. The obtained results would enable the development of an improved class of liquid dielectrics for the application into power transformers.
Monday, December 19 12:40 - 14:00
Monday, December 19 14:00 - 15:00
CE 9: Communication Engineering 9
- 14:00 Interfade Duration Statistics At Ku-band for Satellite Earth Links System in Equatorial Malaysia: Modeling Distribution
- Fade dynamics is one of more important parameters when implementing Fade Mitigation Techniques (FMT) which can counteract an excessive attenuation in order to maintain system reliability and customer's quality of service (QoS). The statistics of probable duration between two inter rain fade enables system operator to estimate how long the system will need to recover before the next outage and assist in designing the FMTs. In this paper, inter-fade duration statistics have been derived from 1 year of slant path attenuation measurements at 12.2 GHz and shown the dependency of number of events with attenuation thresholds. Empirical inter-fade duration statistics are obtained and suitable model distribution are proposed.
- 14:20 X-band Operations Metamaterial Absorber with Circular Rings for Size Reduction
- A metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorber consisting of a big circular ring patch with four smaller suppression circular rings is presented in this report. An FR4 substrate was used and the incidental wave angles were varied from 00 to 600. The metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorber introduces the concept of size reduction by suppressing the resonance frequency. A peak absorption of 100% was achieved at 10.7 GHz by the absorber for both TE and TM polarization incident waves. Minimum absorption for both TE and TM mode of 90.6% was achieved under TE mode. The MTM absorber was being tested with and Ultra-wide band antenna and the results were reported.
- 14:40 Embroidery Leaf Shape Dipole Antenna Performances and Characterisation
- In this paper, leaf shape textile antenna in ISM band has been chosen to study. The operating frequency of the dipole antenna is 2.45GHz. The effect of conductive threads with three different types of sewing has been analysed. The first type of sewing leaf shape dipole antenna is to stitch around itself and embroidered into a fleece fabric with circular follow by vertical and horizontal stitch respectively. From measured return loss, the antenna with circular stitch shows better performances with optimum resonances compared with the two types of stitching. The measured results confirm that the circular stitch is more suitable for leaf shape dipole antenna design. Thus it can be concluded that different stitch gives different results for leaf shape dipole antenna.
Monday, December 19 14:00 - 15:40
CME 5: Control and Mechatronic Engineering 5
- 14:00 Intelligent Control for Visual Servoing System
- This paper presents intelligent control for visual servoing system. The proposed system consists of a camera that is placed on a servo motor based Pan Tilt Unit (PTU). Camera and PTU are connected to a personal computer for the image processing and controlling purpose. Color threshold method is used for object tracking and recognition. The PID control method and Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) method are compared in simulation using Simulink, MATLAB. Furthermore, two different types of FLC which differ in total rules number are designed and the performance to control the servo motor in tracking an object is analyzed. From the simulation result, PID controller has faster settling time and rise time but higher overshoot percentage compared to FLC. Higher overshoot percentage will cause the servo motor becomes damage in the real implementation. Therefore, FLC is chosen to be implemented on a home-built visual servoing system. Additionally, real-time experiment is conducted to analyze the performance of the proposed FLC. From the experimental result, it can be concluded that FLC with optimized parameters has the faster response and high accuracy in object tracking.
- 14:20 Modelling and Evaluation of Sequential Batch Reactor Using Artificial Neural Network
- The main objective of wastewater treatment plant is to release safe effluent not only to human health but also to the natural environment. An aerobic granular sludge technology is used for nutrient removal of wastewater treatment process using sequential batch reactor system. The nature of the process is highly complex and nonlinear makes the prediction of biological treatment is difficult to achieve. To study the nonlinear dynamic of aerobic granular sludge, high temperature real data at 40˚C were used to model sequential batch reactor using artificial neural network. In this work, the radial basis function neural network for modelling of nutrient removal process was studied. The network was optimized with self-organizing radial basis function neural network which adjusted the network structure size during learning phase. Performance of both network were evaluated and compared and the simulation results showed that the best prediction of the model was given by self-organizing radial basis function neural network.
- 14:40 Dynamic Modelling of Aerobic Granular Sludge Using Artificial Neural Networks
- Aerobic Granular Sludge (AGS) technology is a promising development in the field of aerobic wastewater treatment system. Aerobic granulation usually happened in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) system. Most available models for the system are structurally complex with the nonlinearity and uncertainty of the system makes it hard to predict. A reliable model of AGS is essential in order to provide a tool for predicting its performance. This paper proposes a dynamic neural network approach to predict the dynamic behavior of aerobic granular sludge SBRs. The developed model will be applied to predict the performance of AGS in terms of the removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The simulation uses the experimental data obtained from the sequencing batch reactor under three different conditions of temperature (30˚C, 40˚C and 50˚C). The overall results indicated that the dynamic of aerobic granular sludge SBR can be successfully estimated using dynamic neural network model, particularly at high temperature.
- 15:00 Fouling Prediction-based Neural Network for Membrane Bioreactor System
- Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is a new method for water and wastewater treatment due to its ability to produce better and high-quality effluent that meets water quality regulations. MBR also is an advance way to displace the conventional activated sludge (CAS) process. Even this membrane gives better performances compared to CAS, it does have few drawbacks such as high maintenance cost and fouling problem. In order to overcome this problem, an optimal MBR plant operation need to be developed. This can be achieved through an accurate model that can predict the fouling behaviour which could optimise the membrane operation. This paper presents the application of artificial neural network technique to predict the filtration of membrane bioreactor system. The Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) is applied to model the developed submerged MBR filtration system. RBFNN model is expected to give good prediction model of filtration system for estimating the fouling that formed during filtration process.
- 15:20 Forkloader Position Control for A Mini Heavy Loaded Vehicle Using Integration of Takagi-Sugeno-Kang Fuzzy Logic Control with Antiwindup Approaches
- This paper presents a proposed integrated Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) type Fuzzy Logic control (TSK-FLC) with Antiwindup elements for a forkloader position control of a Mini Heavy Loaded Forklift Autonomous Guided Vehicle (MHeLFAGV). The study has been carried out by modeling TSK-FLC as a close-loop control for each fork-lift axis movement. The degree of membership is designed with reference to the system response whereby ultrasonic sensor with 1cm resolution is used. Moreover the rule base is determine and optimized to deal with microcontroller processing speed. In order to cater the windup phenomenon a proportional and integrated antiwindup elements are integrated with the TSK-FLC model. This control strategy allows less memory consumption and expected to increase the time response of the control system. The experiment and analysis is done on the actual forkloader unit of MHeLFAGV system. The experiment is done on vertical axis motion since horizontal motion will have the same characteristic pattern of implementation and characteristic of tuning. The experiment shows that the proposed integrated TSK-FLC with antiwindup elements able to speed up the time response of the system and eliminating the overshoot as well as oscillation on the forkloader movement.
EPE 5: Electrical Power Engineering 5
- 14:00 An Adaptive PI Controller Using Artificial Neural Network with Improved Dynamic Respond for Photovoltaic Emulator
- The photovoltaic (PV) emulator is a nonlinear power supply that features the similar characteristic of a PV module. However, the dynamic respond of the PV emulator is slower compared to the real PV module. This paper proposed the combination of interleaved buck converter with two-stage LC filter to improve the dynamic performance of the PV emulator. The dynamic response of this converter is governed by the output resistance. The nonlinear characteristic of the PV causes instability of the PV emulator output. These two drawbacks can be solved by manipulating the proportional and the integral gain of the PI controller. In this paper, the artificial neural network is used in the adaptive PI controller to maintain the fast dynamic response of the PV emulator. This has been simulated with varied output resistance and irradiance. The simulation results show the respond time of the PV emulator output current is approximately 150 µs. By comparing the proposed method with the conventional method during start-up respond of the photovoltaic emulator, the dynamic performance of the output current has shown improvement of up to 80 % faster than the conventional method and the current overshoot is eliminated.
- 14:20 Portable Pico Linear Generator Design with Different Magnet Shapes for Wave Energy Conversion System
- Wave energy is one of the available alternatives to the conventional energy resources. Currently, there are abundant of wave energy converter technologies available but most of them are huge and suitable for large application. Thus, this paper aims to propose portable pico generator designs which can suit for a small scale application. This research mainly focused on investigating the performance of the designs with varying halbach magnet shapes. Two different magnet shapes, which are triangular and trapezoid are introduced and implemented onto the design while maintain other dimensions. Rectangular halbach magnet shape is used for reference purposes. Flux line, air-gap flux density, flux linkage and induced voltage were obtained by using Finite Element Analysis. All the designs have been optimized and the performances were compared. The best magnet shape for the design is evaluated based on the best induced voltage value, efficiency and material cost. The results show as per expected.
- 14:40 Design and Development of a Wind Turbine Emulator for Analyzing the Performance of Stand-alone Wind Energy Conversion System
- This paper describes the design and development of a Wind Turbine Emulator (WTE), which can be used to analyze and assess the performance of Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). The mathematical modeling of the WTE has been done using MATLAB/Simulink platform. A separately excited DC motor is deployed in order to reproduce the speed/torque, replacing the real wind turbine rotor. The half-bridge DC-DC power converter is developed to run the DC motor in a controlled fashion. Two PI controllers viz speed and current controller are employed which guarantee that the DC motor is following the theoretical (reference) rotational speed of the turbine rotor. A user interface is created in ControlDesk Next Generation, through which the input parameters of the WTE can be altered in real time and the instantaneous effect can be observed by analyzing the output parameters. The designed system offers wide range flexibility and provides a friendly environment in which wind speed and turbine parameters can be altered easily. Hence, offering user to conduct research on variable wind speeds. The DS1104 R&D controller board is employed for implementation of the developed Simulink model. The system design, the model used, and obtained results are presented in this paper.
- 15:00 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Emulator Using PI Controlled Buck Converter
- Alternative energy technologies are being popular for power generation applications nowadays. Among others, Fuel cell (FC) technology is quite popular. However, the FC unit is costly and vulnerable to any disturbances in input parameters. Thus, to perform research and experimentation, Fuel cell emulators (FCE) can be useful. FCEs can replicate actual FC behavior in different operating conditions. Thus, by using it the application area can be determined. In this study, a FCE system is modelled using MATLAB/Simulink®. The FCE system consists of a buck DC-DC converter and a proportional integral (PI) based controller incorporating an electrochemical model of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The PEMFC model is used to generate reference voltage of the controller which takes the load current as a requirement. The characteristics are compared with Ballard Mark V 5kW PEMFC stack specifications obtained from the datasheet. The results show that the FCE system is a suitable replacement of real PEMFC stack and can be used for research and development purpose.
- 15:20 Design and Performance of 8Slot-12Pole Permanent Magnet Flux Switching Machines for Electric Bicycle Application
- This paper presents a new design and performance of single phase permanent magnet flux-switching machine (PMFSM) for electric bicycle application. 8Slot-12Pole design machine were choose by analyzing the highest power density value. All active parts such as permanent magnet and armature coil are located on the stator, while the rotor part consists of only single piece iron. PMFSM have a great advantage with robust rotor structure that make it much higher power and applicable for EV application compared to SRM and IPMSM. The design, operating principles, characteristics of torque, and power of this new topology are investigated by JMAG-Designer via a 2D-FEA. Size of motor and volume of PM is designed at 75mm and 80g, respectively. Based on the investigation, it can be concluded that the proposed topology of single phase 8Slot 12Pole PMFSM achieved the target of highest performance of power density, approximately at 0.113W/mm3 with reduced permanent magnet and size of design motor. Due to the low torque performance of this initial design, further works is ongoing to improve the torque performance. In future work, outer rotor PMFSM structure design will be presented and compared with the "Deterministic Optimization Method" to improve the initial design.
EPE 6: Electrical Power Engineering 6
- 14:00 Deceleration-based Design of Auxiliary Energy Source for Battery Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Experimental Validation
- This paper proposes a novel control strategy and calculation of supercapacitors (SCs) auxiliary energy source used in a battery hybrid electric vehicle (BHEV) and validates with a small-scale electromechanical experiment. The intention of the control strategy is to increase the ability of energy recapture during the vehicle deceleration and decrease the battery voltage and power fluctuation. The control strategy utilizes the cascade voltage and current control of SCs tracking with the vehicle speed and acceleration respectively. The vehicle propulsion system is included in this study, for charging and discharging power of supercapacitors (SCs) according to the vehicle speed profile. A 2-quadrant DC motor drive system is used to simplify the AC motor drive system of the vehicle. This paper discusses the core features of the control strategy, through the numerical simulation and experiment which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy over the battery electric vehicle (BEV). The experimental results fully confirm the effectiveness of the proposed system.
- 14:20 Cross-Connected Source Multilevel Inverter for Active Power Filtering Using Unified Constant-Frequency Integration Control
- This paper proposes an Active Power Filter (APF) system which utilizes a five-level nonconventional Cross-Connected Source Multilevel Inverter (CCSMI) with a modified Unified Constant-Frequency Integration (UCI) control. The CCSMI consists of six power switches which can produce five output voltage levels. With the use of the CCSMI, the parts count is reduced with equivalent or better performance compared to the use of conventional multilevel inverters. The capability of the proposed system is tested using three types of nonlinear loads with different characteristics. The APF system is simulated under steady-state condition using MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained show improvement in the supply current Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) with room for enhancement, using the proposed APF system.
- 14:40 Battery Charge Control by State of Health (SOH) Estimation
- Battery lifetime is one of importance consideration in smart system with energy storage system, because it is shorter than others. Extended of battery lifetime can give benefit to entire system, especially to reduce cost. The lifetime is commonly estimated by State of Health (SOH). Decreasing of SOH indicates degradation of battery. It can be influenced by the battery operation, so that operational management is needed. This study proposes control block for charging battery by using decreasing value of SOH as reference. The control block is implemented in battery system that connected to DC bus by bidirectional chopper. Numerical simulation study is performed by using PSIM software version 10.0. The result shows that the proposed block control is successfully used. Moreover, the relative error is in acceptable range.
- 15:00 Disaggregated Electricity Bill Base on Occupant Utilization Factor and Time-of-use (ToU) Tariff
- Time of Use tariff is introduced to motivate users to change their electricity usage pattern. Commonly the tariff is high during peak hours and relatively low during off peak hours, to encourage users to reduce consumption during peak hours or shift it to off-peak hours. This tariff scheme provides opportunities for building owners to reduce their electricity bill provided that their electricity usage patterns of various spaces in that building at every hour are known. In practice, the kWh meter installed by the utility can only provide the overall hourly electricity consumption pattern. To know the usage pattern of different spaces or rooms, separate individual meter need to be installed in each space/room, which is costly and impractical. This paper presented the disaggregated electricity bill method base on user utilization factor and time of use (ToU) tariff. It estimates hourly electricity bill of each appliance at each space/room. Utilization factor is used to represent the electricity usage behavior of the occupants. The proposed method is applied on practical load profile data of a university building.
- 15:20 Enhanced Time of Use (EToU) Electricity Pricing for Industrial Customers in Malaysia
- New Time of Use (ToU) tariff scheme known as Enhanced ToU (EToU) has been introduced on for industrial customers in Malaysia. EToU scheme is the advanced version of current ToU where the daily time frame is divided into six period blocks, as compared to only two in the existing ToU. Mid-peak tariff is introduced on top of peak-hour and off-peak tariff. The new scheme is designed to reduce Malaysia's peak hour electricity demand. On customer side, they could be benefited from the low off-peak tariff by simply shifting their consumption. However, it depends on their consumption profile and their flexibility in shifting their consumption. Since EToU scheme is voluntary, each customer needs to perform cost-benefit analysis before deciding to switch into the scheme. This paper analyzes this problem by considering EToU tariff scheme for industry and customer's electricity consumption profile. Case studies using different practical data from two industries are presented and discussed in this paper
Monday, December 19 15:40 - 16:00
Monday, December 19 16:00 - 17:20
EPE 8: Electrical Power Engineering 8
- 16:00 The Effect of Plasma-treated Boron Nitride on Partial Discharge Characteristics of LDPE
- Power supply reliability is a key factor in a country economic stability. It is contributed by the realiable power distributor via transmission lines, overheads or underground cables. However, the power cables and its accessories are always exposed to pre-breakdown phenomena known as partial discharges (PD) which commonly occur in microvoids, defects or protrusions exist inside the insulation. To improve the performance of the cable insulation against PD, nanofillers are added into the insulating materials. However, to achieve enhanced PD resistance, the nanofillers must be homogeneously dispersed into the polymer matrices and highly bonded interfacial zones. Therefore, this could be achieved by employing method of surface functionalization treatment by using cold atmospheric plasma to strengthen the filler/polymer interfaces. In view of foregoing, this study investigated the effects of surface tretaed boron nitride (BN) nanoparticles in Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) on the PD characteristics by following CIGRE Method II at 7 kVrms applied voltage. The phase resolved PD characteristics were performed. The results revealed that by treating the nanofillers with cold plasma, the PD resistance of LDPE were highly achieved compared to the untreated BN nanofillers.
- 16:20 The Effect of Different Dielectric Materials in Designing High Performance Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) Capacitors
- A Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) capacitor with high capacitance, high breakdown voltage and low leakage current is aspired so that the device can be applied in many electronic applications. The most significant factors that affect the MIM capacitor's performance is the design and the dielectric materials used. In this study, the MIM capacitors are simulated using different dielectric materials and different number of dielectric layers from two layers up to seven layers. The effect of the different dielectric constants (k) to the performance of the MIM capacitors is also studied, whereas this work investigates the difference between low-k and high-k dielectric materials. The dielectric materials used in this study with high-k are Al2O3 and HfO2 while the low-k dielectric materials are SiO2 and Si3N4. The results demonstrate that the dielectric materials with high-k produce the highest capacitance. Results also show that metal-Al2O3 interfaces increases the performance of the MIM capacitors. By increasing the number of dielectric layers to seven stacks, the capacitance and breakdown voltage reach its highest value at 0.39 nF and 240 V, respectively.
- 16:40 Effect of Humidity on Partial Discharge Characteristics of Epoxy/Boron Nitride Nanocomposite Under High Voltage Stress
- Partial discharge (PD) may lead to the degradation of insulating materials and affect the lifetime of high voltage equipment. This paper describes the effect of relative humidity on PD characteristic of epoxy/boron nitride (BN) nanocomposite under high voltage (HV) stress. In this work, CIGRE Method II was utilized as an electrode configuration. BN nanofiller was chosen because of its high insulating properties with high thermal conductivity. The PD characteristics such as PD charge magnitude, PD number or occurrence, and average of PD charge during certain of ageing time under HV stress against relative humidity were examined. The results revealed that PD number of humid samples is higher about 8~14% compared to the normal ones. It is considered due to the decrease of surface resistance of the humid samples. The PD charge magnitudes of humid samples are slightly higher compared to the normal ones. The epoxy/BN nanocomposite has lesser PD number and magnitude compared to the neat epoxy samples.
- 17:00 Experimental Investigation on Vegetative Oils Under Accelerated Thermal Ageing Against Their Dielectric Strength
- Insulation is one of the most important parts in high voltage apparatus such as power transformer. Most power transformer use liquid insulation material, known as power transformer oil. Petroleum-based oil so called mineral oil has been used for many years as power transformer oil. This is due to its high dielectric field strength, low dielectric loses and good long-term performance. This research work has been carried out to investigate the effect of thermal accelerated ageing on electrical properties for several vegetative-based oils. The oil samples that have been used in this project are soy bean-based oil (FR3) and commercial palm-based oil (PFAE). As comparison, Hyrax mineral oil also been investigated. The results revealed that vegetative-based oil have as well as dielectric strength compared with mineral oil. It was found that the dielectric strength for all oil samples decreased when undergo thermal accelerated ageing process.
Monday, December 19 16:00 - 17:40
CME 6: Control and Mechatronic Engineering 6
- 16:00 Potential Field Based Lateral Motion Planning Approach with Combination of Steering Control and DYC for Collision Avoidance Driver Assistance Systems
- In this study, the development of motion planning and control for collision avoidance driver assistance systems is presented. A potential field approach has been used in formulating the collision avoidance algorithm based on predicted vehicle motion. Then, to realize the assistance systems for collision avoidance, steering control system and direct yaw moment control (DYC) is designed to follow the desired vehicle motion. Performance evaluation is conducted in simulation environment in term of its performance in avoiding the obstacles. Simulation results show that the vehicle collision avoidance assistance systems can successfully complete the avoidance behavior without colliding.
- 16:20 A Novel Integrated Dual Microneedle-Microfluidic Impedance Flow Cytometry for Cells Detection in Suspensions
- In this study, we introduce a new, simple and cost-effective an impedance detection of yeast cell concentration by using a novel integrated dual microneedle-microfluidic impedance flow cytometry. The reported method for impedance flow cytometry detection utilizes embedded electrode and probe in the microfluidic to perform measurement of electrical impedance when a presence of cells at sensing area. Nonetheless, this method requires costly and complicatedly fabrication process of electrode. Furthermore, to reuse the fabricated electrode, it also requires intensive and tedious cleaning process. Due to that, we present a dual microneedle integrated at the half height of the microchannel for cell detection as well as for electrical measurement. A commercial available Tungsten needle was utilized as a dual microneedle. The microneedle was easy to be removed from the disposable PDMS microchannel and can be reused with the simple cleaning process, such as washed by using ultrasonic cleaning. Although this device was low cost, it preserves the core functionality of the sensor, which is capable of detecting the passing cells at sensing area.
- 16:40 Neural Network-based Model Predictive Control with CPSOGSA for SMBR Filtration
- This paper presents the development of neural network based model predictive control (NNMPC) for controlling submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) filtration process. The main contribution of this paper is the integration of newly developed soft computing optimization technique name as cooperative hybrid particle swarm optimization and gravitational search algorithm (CPSOGSA) with the model predictive control. The CPSOGSA algorithm is used as a real-time optimization (RTO) in updating the NNMPC cost function. The developed controller is utilized to control SMBR filtration permeate flux in preventing flux decline from membrane fouling. The proposed NNMPC is compared with proportional integral derivative (PID) controller in term of the percentage overshoot, settling time and integral absolute error (IAE) criteria. The simulation result shows NNMPC perform better control compared with PID controller in term measured control performance of permeate flux.
- 17:00 Recursive Subspace Identification Algorithm Using the Propagator Based Method
- Subspace model identification (SMI) method is the effective method in identifying dynamic state space linear multivariable systems. Subspace identification, a sequence of state vectors can be obtained directly from the input and output data. From a numerical point of view, the SMI algorithms are not appropriate for online implementation because of the SVD computational complexity. For industrial applications, it is essential to have online recursive algorithms for model identification, where parameters can vary in time. Indeed, in many online identification scenarios, it is important to update the model as time goes on with a reduced computational cost. The main problem with recursive subspace identification is the SVD computation that is burdensome to update. Thus, it is necessary to find the alternative algorithms in order to apply the subspace concept in a recursive framework. In this paper, recursive subspace identification algorithm based on the propagator method which avoid the SVD computation is proposed.
- 17:20 Design and Development of a Mirror Effect Control Prosthetic Hand with Force Sensing
- Some of the already available prosthetic hands in the market are operated in open loop, without any feedback and expensive. This system counters those by having the prosthetic hand printed using 3D printer and consist of a feedback sensor to make it a closed loop system. The system generally consists of two sections, mainly Finger Input and Prosthetic Output. The two sections communicate wirelessly for data transferring. The main purpose of the system is to control the prosthetic hand wirelessly using the Mirror Glove by performing a mirror effect that will translate movement from the glove onto the prosthetic hand. The Mirror Glove monitors the movements/bending of each fingers using force sensitive sensor. The prosthetic hand also has a sensor known as force sensitive resistor. The sensors will feedback the pressure on the prosthetic hand during object grasping, allowing the prosthetic hand to grasp delicate object without damaging it. Overall, the system will imitate the flex and relaxing of fingers inside the Mirror Glove and wirelessly control distant prosthetic hand to imitate the human hand.
EPE 7: Electrical Power Engineering 7
- 16:00 Design Improvement of Three Phase 12Slot-14Pole Outer Rotor Field Excitation Flux Switching Motor (ORFEFSM)
- This paper present with design improvement of 12Slot-14Pole outer rotor field excitation flux switching motor, ORFEFSM from the initial design by implement Deterministic Optimization Method (DOM) which involve 2-dimensional Finite-Element Analysis (FEA). The design improvement starts with the non-active part, rotor and followed with active part, stator which involve the armature coil slot and field excitation coil (FEC) slot. Since it is one of local optimization method, this method involves more than one cycle of improvement depends on the design structure and slot-pole configuration until achieve optimum performance. However, the initial torque and power output of 12Slot-14Pole is 112.95 Nm and 50.46 kW. The main objective is to improve the structure in order to obtain optimum torque and power output. Besides, it is necessary to reduce flux saturation and optimize the flux flow between the rotor teeth and stator arc width. The target torque and power output performance is expected higher than 210 Nm and 123 kW. With the deterministic optimization method technique, the final torque and power output achived are 221.83 Nm and 189kW.
- 16:20 Design and Investigation of Outer Rotor Permanent Magnet Flux Switching Machine for Downhole Application
- Permanent magnet flux switching machine (PMFSM) is a joint venture of switch reluctance machine (SRM) and permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM). It has become a prominent research topic for various applications because of robust rotor structure, high torque and power densities but few were developed for downhole applications mainly due to harsh environmental conditions. Formerly, most of developed PMFSMs for downhole applications were mainly concentrated on inner-rotor type design, and difficult to find research work on outer-rotor configuration. Therefore, this paper introduces the design and investigation of PMFSM with outer-rotor configuration for downhole application. Primarily, the geometric topology of proposed design is described in detail. Then, the no load and load analysis are implemented in order to investigate the initial performance of the proposed design.
- 16:40 A Comprehensive Review of Fault Location Methods for Distribution Power System
- Fault on distribution system does not only affect the reliability of power supply but also contribute to increasing operational and maintenance cost borne by the utilities. Throughout the years, various methods have been studied and practised to solve problems related to the fault location in the distribution system. In this paper, the fault location methods are reviewed and summarised according to their categories. The fault location methods discussed in this paper are based on literature studies of outage mapping and field measurement for the distribution system. Furthermore, the component which influences the fault location methods such as unbalanced system, capacitance effects, distributed generation, and distribution topology are related to the explanation of the method. Finally, the field measurements are presented as in comparison which will clarify the effectiveness and the establishment of each method.
- 17:00 Reduction in Current THD of Grid Parallel Inverters Using Randomized PR Control
- In grid connected system, unity power factor current injection into the grid is vital. This can be achieved by choosing the right inverter topology, passive filter components, current controllers, and PWM switching scheme. This paper compares the output current harmonics profile between when using the conventional proportional resonant (PR) current controller and when using the modified PR current controller. By applying the latter technique, via experimental validation using TMS320F2812, the THD of the injected grid current in a parallel connected inverters system is improved.
- 17:20 Analysis of Permanent Magnet Demagnetization Effect Outer-Rotor Hybrid Excitation Flux Switching Motor
- This paper addresses the irreversible permanent magnet (PM) demagnetization analysis of hybrid excitation flux switching motor (HEFSM) with outer-rotor configuration. PM demagnetization cause the PM strength used in the motor significantly reduces and hence contributes less torque performance. The study is focused on thermal analysis and conducted at various temperature up to as high as 180 degrees Celsius which has a tendency to be demagnetized. Therefore, PM demagnetization is among a critical issue and influences the choice of the applied motor. The analysis is carried out based on finite element method (FEM) and percentage of PM demagnetization is then calculated. Finally, based on simulated and calculated results the final design outer-rotor HEFSM has only 0.85 percent PM demagnetization at very high temperature and obviously the is no PM demagnetization at normal operating conditions.