For full instructions, visit the IEEE ISSE website: http://ieeeisse.org

Program for 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering (ISSE)

Time Bramante 10 Bramante 11 Bramante 12 Bramante 14 Bramante 15 Gallery Near Bramante 10 Session

Monday, September 28

07:00-18:00           Registration  
08:00-10:00         1A1: Tutorial: Software Engineering for Systems Engineers  
10:00-10:15           Coffee Break
10:15-12:00         1A1: Tutorial: Software Engineering for Systems Engineers (Continued)  
12:00-13:00           Lunch
13:00-15:00         1A1: Tutorial: Software Engineering for Systems Engineers (Continued)  
15:00-17:30         1B1: Tutorial: Cyber Security for Systems Engineers  
17:30-18:00           Coffee Break
18:00-19:00         1B1: Tutorial: Cyber Security for Systems Engineers (Continued)    
19:00-20:00         Systems Engineering Workshop    

Tuesday, September 29

07:00-17:00           Registration  
08:15-08:30     Opening Remarks      
08:30-09:30     Keynote Speaker: Pasquale Arpaia      
09:30-10:00           Coffee Break
10:00-12:00   2B1: Systems and Sensors I 2B2: Optimization I 2B3: Model-based Systems Engineering I 2B4: Modeling and Simulation I  
12:00-13:00           Lunch
13:00-14:45   2C1: Panel 1: The Systems Engineering Body of Knowledge 2C2: Systems and Sensors II 2C3: Model-Based Systems Engineering II 2C4: Modeling and Simulation II  
14:45-15:15           Coffee Break
15:15-17:00   2D1: Special Session: Methods and Tools for Mechatronic Systems Engineering I 2D2: Optimization II 2D3: Special Session: Instrumentation systems under harsh environments 2D4: Systems and Sensors III  
18:00-19:00 Welcome Reception            

Wednesday, September 30

08:00-18:00           Registration  
08:45-10:30   3A1: Reliability and Risk management I 3A2: Systems and Energy 3A3: Special Session: Methods and Tools for Mechatronic Systems Engineering II 3A4: System Architecture I  
10:30-11:00           Coffee Break
11:00-12:45   3B1: Reliability and Risk management II   3B3: Special Session: Research at INCOSE Italy 3B4: System Architecture II  
12:45-13:30           Lunch
13:45-15:30   3C1: Panel 2: Systems Engineering and Software Engineering 3C2: Special Session: Theoretical Foundations of Systems Engineering (THEFOSE) I 3C3: Systems Engineering I 3C4: System Architecture III  
15:30-16:00           Coffee Break
16:00-17:45   3D1: Systems Thinking and its Impacts 3D2: Special Session: Theoretical Foundations of Systems Engineering (THEFOSE) II 3D3: Systems Engineering II 3D4: System Considerations  

Monday, September 28

Monday, September 28, 07:00 - 18:00

Registration

Room: Gallery near Bramante 10

Monday, September 28, 08:00 - 10:00

1A1: Tutorial: Software Engineering for Systems Engineers

Room: Bramante 15

Instructors: Dick Fairley, Software and Systems Engineering Associates (S2EA) & IEEE Computer SocietyMassood Towhidnejad, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical UniversityAbstract: Involvement of software engineers in projects and programs that involve development and modification of hardware, software, and manual operations is increasing as systems that depend on software become ever larger, more complex, and include more diverse kinds of components. It is well known that the majority of functionality and behavior of modern systems is provided by software, whether in health care, telecommunications, transportation, aeronautics, manufacturing, or military systems. This tutorial/workshop will cover some key areas that create problems when system engineers, software engineers, and other engineers work together on systems projects. Topics to be covered include: differences between physical artifacts and software: physical products versus logical products - and the consequences; differences in use of terminology for terms such as "performance," "verification," and "validation"; differences in approaches to component integration - discrete versus continuous; differences in approaches to problem solving - functional decomposition and quantified metrics versus associative decomposition and qualitative metrics; difference in processes - linear waterfall versus iterative agile; and differences personality traits - broad scope versus narrow scope; and differences between extroverts versus introverts. Techniques and strategies will be discussed on how systems engineers, software engineers, and other engineers can better understand their difference and integrate their work activities. Ample time will be allotted for discussions and interchanges of viewpoints.

Monday, September 28, 10:00 - 10:15

Coffee Break

Monday, September 28, 10:15 - 12:00

1A1: Tutorial: Software Engineering for Systems Engineers (Continued)

Room: Bramante 15

Instructors: Dick Fairley, Software and Systems Engineering Associates (S2EA) & IEEE Computer SocietyMassood Towhidnejad, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical UniversityAbstract: Involvement of software engineers in projects and programs that involve development and modification of hardware, software, and manual operations is increasing as systems that depend on software become ever larger, more complex, and include more diverse kinds of components. It is well known that the majority of functionality and behavior of modern systems is provided by software, whether in health care, telecommunications, transportation, aeronautics, manufacturing, or military systems. This tutorial/workshop will cover some key areas that create problems when system engineers, software engineers, and other engineers work together on systems projects. Topics to be covered include: differences between physical artifacts and software: physical products versus logical products - and the consequences; differences in use of terminology for terms such as "performance," "verification," and "validation"; differences in approaches to component integration - discrete versus continuous; differences in approaches to problem solving - functional decomposition and quantified metrics versus associative decomposition and qualitative metrics; difference in processes - linear waterfall versus iterative agile; and differences personality traits - broad scope versus narrow scope; and differences between extroverts versus introverts. Techniques and strategies will be discussed on how systems engineers, software engineers, and other engineers can better understand their difference and integrate their work activities. Ample time will be allotted for discussions and interchanges of viewpoints.

Monday, September 28, 12:00 - 13:00

Lunch

Monday, September 28, 13:00 - 15:00

1A1: Tutorial: Software Engineering for Systems Engineers (Continued)

Room: Bramante 15

Instructors: Dick Fairley, Software and Systems Engineering Associates (S2EA) & IEEE Computer SocietyMassood Towhidnejad, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical UniversityAbstract: Involvement of software engineers in projects and programs that involve development and modification of hardware, software, and manual operations is increasing as systems that depend on software become ever larger, more complex, and include more diverse kinds of components. It is well known that the majority of functionality and behavior of modern systems is provided by software, whether in health care, telecommunications, transportation, aeronautics, manufacturing, or military systems. This tutorial/workshop will cover some key areas that create problems when system engineers, software engineers, and other engineers work together on systems projects. Topics to be covered include: differences between physical artifacts and software: physical products versus logical products - and the consequences; differences in use of terminology for terms such as "performance," "verification," and "validation"; differences in approaches to component integration - discrete versus continuous; differences in approaches to problem solving - functional decomposition and quantified metrics versus associative decomposition and qualitative metrics; difference in processes - linear waterfall versus iterative agile; and differences personality traits - broad scope versus narrow scope; and differences between extroverts versus introverts. Techniques and strategies will be discussed on how systems engineers, software engineers, and other engineers can better understand their difference and integrate their work activities. Ample time will be allotted for discussions and interchanges of viewpoints.

Monday, September 28, 15:00 - 17:30

1B1: Tutorial: Cyber Security for Systems Engineers

Room: Bramante 15

Instructor: Robert Swarz, Worcester Polytechnic InstituteAbstract: This tutorial will describe the basic techniques and technologies that can be used by systems engineers to assure the confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of information exchanged across networks. After an overview of basic information security concepts, we will motivate the need for cyber security by outlining the threats impacting government, infrastructure, and industry and by describing case studies of some actual cyber attacks. Selected concepts will be expanded upon, such as TCP/IP-based network security principles, encryption, public key infrastructure, and authentication protocols, An overview of the legal, policy, and regulatory environment will be presented. We will conclude with a summary of common controls, as well as a discussion of principal sources of up-to-date information and guidance on cyber security threats

Monday, September 28, 17:30 - 18:00

Coffee Break

Monday, September 28, 18:00 - 19:00

1B1: Tutorial: Cyber Security for Systems Engineers (Continued)

Room: Bramante 15

Instructor: Robert Swarz, Worcester Polytechnic InstituteAbstract: This tutorial will describe the basic techniques and technologies that can be used by systems engineers to assure the confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of information exchanged across networks. After an overview of basic information security concepts, we will motivate the need for cyber security by outlining the threats impacting government, infrastructure, and industry and by describing case studies of some actual cyber attacks. Selected concepts will be expanded upon, such as TCP/IP-based network security principles, encryption, public key infrastructure, and authentication protocols, An overview of the legal, policy, and regulatory environment will be presented. We will conclude with a summary of common controls, as well as a discussion of principal sources of up-to-date information and guidance on cyber security threats

Monday, September 28, 19:00 - 20:00

Systems Engineering Workshop

Room: Bramante 15

The Systems Council will sponsor a Systems Engineering Workshop on Monday evening, 9/28/15 in Rome (maybe extended to Tuesday). If you are attending ISSE, and think you would benefit by being actively engaged in this Workshop, please advise Mr. Richard Milham (richardmillham@hotmail.com), Chair, Workforce Development Tech Committee or Mr. Roger Oliva (roger.oliva@ieee.org), Systems Council, VP Tech Ops. Topics are being refined and your help would be appreciated.

Tuesday, September 29

Tuesday, September 29, 07:00 - 17:00

Registration

Room: Gallery near Bramante 10

Tuesday, September 29, 08:15 - 08:30

Opening Remarks

Room: Bramante 12

Tuesday, September 29, 08:30 - 09:30

Keynote Speaker: Pasquale Arpaia

Room: Bramante 12

Instrumentation and measurements for systems engineering in the innovation of the largest machine ever built by the mankind: The Large Hadron Collider at CERNPasquale ArpaiaUniversity of Naples Frederico IICERNInnovum Biomedical srlRealizing, tuning, and innovating the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, the largest machine ever built by the mankind, fostered a powerful challenge in advanced large-scale systems and systems-of-systems applications. A key aspect has been the measurement of several physical quantities in unexplored ranges, but above all, by unprecedented precision. In this talk, some of most interesting results of this technological research effort, as well as its further most recent developments, are highlighted by paying specific attention to the engineering of complex systems. In particular, after a short survey on the Higgs boson hunting, the presentation highlights the ideas for the next-generation of gigantic accelerators under study at CERN, starting from the new experimental technologies for LHC upgrade, up to the new collider with a diameter of 100 km. Finally, the state of the art of CERN research on instrumentation and measurement that is mainly promoting these new developments of systems engineering is illustrated, by focusing on applications for magnets, power converters, high-temperature superconductors, and cryogenics plants. Pasquale Arpaia took MD and PhD in Electrical Engineering at University of Napoli Federico II (Italy), where now is professor of Instrumentation and Measurements. He is also Team Leader at European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). He was also scientific associate at Engine Institute and Biomedical Engineering Institute of Italian Council of National Research. He is Associate Editor of the Elsevier Journal Computer Standards & Interfaces, and in the past also of IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging and Manufacturing. He acted as scientific evaluator in several international research call panels. He has served as organizing and scientific committee member in IEEE and IMEKO Conferences. He was invited and keynote speaker to several international conferences. In the last years, he was scientific responsible of more than 30 awarded research projects in cooperation with industry and CERN, with related patents and licenses, and funded 4 academic spin-off companies. His main research interests include high-precision digital instrumentation and transducers for measurements in particle accelerators, evolutionary diagnostics, distributed measurement systems, ADC modeling and testing. In these fields, he published 2 books, several book chapters, and more than 210 scientific papers in international journals and conference proceedings. His PhD students were awarded in 2006 and 2010 at IEEE I2MTC, and in 2012 at IMEKO World Conferences.

Tuesday, September 29, 09:30 - 10:00

Coffee Break

Tuesday, September 29, 10:00 - 12:00

2B1: Systems and Sensors I

Room: Bramante 11
Chair: Paolo Carbone (University of Perugia, Italy)
10:00 A Hybrid Outdoor/Indoor Positioning System for IoT Applications
Guido De Angelis (Regione Umbria, Italy); Alessio De Angelis, Valter Pasku, Antonio Moschitta and Paolo Carbone (University of Perugia, Italy)
Motivated by the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT), and by the importance that location information has on many complex systems scenarios, we propose a hybrid scheme for user positioning in an urban scenario. First, the main system-level aspects related to the development of such an hybrid integrated system are discussed. Then, the architecture and principle of operation of the proposed system are described. Specifically, the proposed system uses both a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and an in-house developed Magnetic Positioning System (MPS). In the MPS system, the mobile node estimates distance by means of received-signal-strength measurements with respect to known-position transmitting nodes. To maintain receiver complexity and cost at a minimum, the location scheme combines the MPS technique and GNSS measurements using a handover-based strategy. A Kalman filter algorithm is used as the data integration mechanism over the time axis. The system was validated by experimental tests in a mixed outdoor/indoor environment, using an experimental prototype. Results demonstrate that the use of a local MPS provides increased location coverage, without service interruptions, when the number of visible satellites is inadequate. The obtained accuracy in the indoor environment is better than meter-level, thus fulfilling the requirements of many hybrid outdoor/indoor positioning applications.
10:40 Sensor Network Placement for Maximizing Detection of Vehicle Tracks and Minimizing Disjoint Coverage Areas
Mark Ball (Defence Research and Development Canada, Canada); Slawo Wesolkowski (DRDC, Canada)
The effective placement of intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) assets in a sensor network for optimal situational awareness is an important area of military operations research. The sensor network placement optimization problem is a type of assignment problem where possible sensor locations can be assigned sensors of different types (or no sensor). We apply a genetic algorithm to the sensor network node assignment problem, with the goal of optimizing for barrier, rather than blanket, coverage. This shifts the measure of effectiveness of the network from the amount of area coverage to continuity of coverage and the number of incoming targets detected. To address this problem, we simulate vehicle tracks crossing a nominal area of interest. We then apply the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA II) to determine the placement of sensors with the following objectives: to maximize the number of detected vehicle tracks, to minimize the number of discontinuities in coverage, and to minimize total sensor network cost. In this paper, we describe the sensor network node assignment problem, and our specific implementation of NSGA II. We then present a specific test scenario and a preliminary example of the generated non-dominated front including various sensor network configurations. Finally, we outline future work.
11:20 A smart railcar prototype for dangerous good transportation
Chiara Bersani and Roberto Sacile (University of Genova, Italy); Massimo D'Incà (University of Genoa, Italy); Alessandro Fausto (University of Genova, Italy)
Dangerous Good (DG) transportation constitutes a significant economic activity, which moved in 2011 more than 252.000 thousand of tonnes in Europe. In the EU-28 in 2012, 36 accidents occurred involving the transport of dangerous goods. In this paper the authors describe the architecture and the functionalities of a prototype to monitor in real time a railcar dedicated to Dangerous Good Transport (DGT). Improve rail safety and security with accurate monitoring of railcar, speed, and other shipment conditions is the main issues in DG rail transportation. This paper presents the implementation and the realization of a hardware and software systems to monitor in real time railway rolling stock for DG transport. The prototype consists of two main components: the hardware system which represents the railcar and a sensor network able to monitor the different status of each component of the vehicle; a web GIS software module able to visualize in real time the data of the simulations realized by the system. Special attention has been given to the choice of the On-Board Unit (OBU). This project, in fact, represents the first experience in the real time DG railcar monitoring system implemented by an open-source OBU that guarantees highly flexibility and the possibility to customize the technological solutions. The main objective of this application is the adoption of technical and functional innovative technologies to manage different subsystems in order to improve safety and security in the DG transport by rail.

2B2: Optimization I

Room: Bramante 12
Chair: Michela Robba (University of Genova, Italy)
10:00 An optimization based architecture for local systems managed by PLC devices
Michela Robba (University of Genova, Italy); Riccardo Minciardi (DIST, Italy); Mansueto Rossi and Federico Delfino (University of Genoa, Italy); Marco Rossi (UNIGE, Italy)
Hybrid systems at the local scale (from nanogrids to low voltage microgrids) that include renewables have experienced an extraordinary growth all over the world and have attracted the attention of both academies and industries to build economic and environmental appealing solutions based on innovative control architectures. These architectures have to take into account the uncertainty and the intermittency of renewables, and should provide in the future services to the Distribution System Operator. In this paper, two approaches are combined: an upper level MPC (Model Predictive Control)-based optimization algorithms provides set points to a lower level algorithm implemented on a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). The upper decision level (UDL) is based on a MPC-based optimization algorithm in which the time interval and the optimization horizon is higher than the lower level one. The UDL applies only the control referred to the first time interval and provides the set points for the lower level (LDL). The LDL tries to track the references of the UDL (through an algorithm implemented on a PLC and described in the following), taking into account real time measurements and the technical constraints. In the present project, the upper level controller exploits an OPC client to access information on the PLC, by means of an OPC server. The approach is tested for a portion of the University of Genova Smart Polygeneration Microgrid.
10:40 MPC-based tertiary and secondary optimal control in islanded microgrids
Michela Robba (University of Genova, Italy); Mansueto Rossi (University of Genoa, Italy); Riccardo Minciardi (DIST, Italy); Federico Delfino (University of Genoa, Italy); Giulio Ferro (UNIGE, Italy)
Microgrids can alleviate the management effort of a Distribution System Operator by clustering the overall smart grid in small areas that have the duty of managing their own grids and technologies. However, this implies a local management (both in grid-connected and islanded modes) and a higher level management of the interconnected microgrids or sub-areas. Moreover, overall when microgrids include renewables, attention should be focused on uncertainty assessment and robustness evaluation of the overall operations. Microgrids that are able to work both in grid-connected and islanded modes need a hierarchical structure based on tertiary, secondary and primary controllers, which are fundamental for the maintenance of frequency and stability. In this paper, two types of controllers are formalized and solved as optimal control problems: tertiary and secondary controls. For secondary control two different scaled single-phase models are used for the microgrid: one merely electric and the other one that takes into account the electromechanical characteristics of the synchronous machine. The approach is applied to a real test-bed facility: the University of Genova Smart Polygeneration Microgrid (SPM). Specifically, a portion of the microgrid is selected to study the behavior in islanded mode. The considered grid is characterized by: a diesel engine connected to an electrically excited synchronous generator, a photovoltaic plant and an electric storage (these last two are respectively connected to a couple of inverters set as current source generator (CSI)).
11:20 Capella Based Multiobjective Design Space Exploration of Systems
Omar Hammami (ENSTA PARISTECH, France)
System design exploration is a fundamental need with the increase in system complexity. Dramatic complexity increase in system design is posing increasing challenges for a system engineering under time and resources constraints. Stringent Time to market (T.T.M.) and decreasing budgets are pushing to reconsider the usual process in system engineering in order to reduce costs and system architecture design time. System architecture design have been proved to be NP-Hard and the direct consequence is that system architecture design should be considered as an optimization problem. Considering the system architecture design as a general optimization problem requires that system architecture evaluation be integrated in the resolution of the problem with an arbitrary degree of precision through multiple depth levels in abstraction and precision and taking into account the usual frameworks used in system engineering to define system architecture.Capella is a system engineering public domain tool which have been recently released by THALES. In this presentation we describe The SAC (System at Capella ) tool which allows based on Capella an automatic multiobjective exploration of system engineering. We report results based on two case studies and specify the multiphysics systems modelling issues. We compare this work with work based on IBM Rational DOORS for the requirement engineering part and MEGA international as an enterprise architecture modeling tool.

2B3: Model-based Systems Engineering I

Room: Bramante 14
Chair: Christian Tschirner (Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT & Project Group Mechatronic Systems Design, Germany)
10:00 Applying Model-Based Systems Engineering for Product Engineering Management: Concepts for Industrial Application
Christian Tschirner (Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT & Project Group Mechatronic Systems Design, Germany); Lukas Bretz (Fraunhofer Research Institution for Mechatronic Systems Design IEM, Germany); Roman Dumitrescu (Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT, Germany); Jürgen Gausemeier (Heinz Nixdorf Institute, Germany)
Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is regarded as the key to face the challenges of tomorrow's product engineering. Core of the MBSE is the so called system model, enabling a consistent specification of the product from different points of view. Nevertheless, we fear that the MBSE vision of INCOSE is not realistically achievable: There is much focus on the technical issues of MBSE, e.g. automatic code generation. But especially project issues driven by stakeholders as product managers or project management are neglected. This is critical, as on the one hand these stakeholders definitely gain benefits of the MBSE and on the other hand they have the possibility to accelerate MBSE introduction due to budget concerns. Thus, there is a critical need to connect these management activities to the MBSE domain providing more acceptance to the approach. Based on an analysis of current trends and inhibitors for MBSE we present different approaches to connect Model-Based Systems Engineering to a stakeholder analysis as representative method for management tasks. The foundation for this approach is the comprehension of the distinction of model and view, e.g. proposed by ISO/IEC 42010. In addition we use - based on previous work - so called MBSE concepts that allow a for tailoring of this paradigm.
10:40 Usage of Free Sketches in MBSE - Raising the applicability of Model-Based Systems Engineering for Mechanical Engineers
Georg Moeser (IPEK - Institute of Product Engineering at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany); Albert Albers (IPEK - Institute of Product Engineering at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)); Stephan Kümpel (Engineering Methods AG (:em AG), Germany)
A major cause for a lack in acceptance of today's interdisciplinary modeling approaches is the immense difference in abstraction between engineers' mental models and the available systems modeling languages. Especially mechanical engineers, who use graphical representations like sketches and 3D CAD models, struggle with so called "graphical modeling languages" such as SysML. These models represented by two-dimensional diagrams made out of boxes and lines, are not able to display real embodiment aspects and thus do not match with (mechanical) engineers mental models of systems. The state of research concerning function embodiment synthesis, free sketches and model-based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is presented. As the main contribution, this paper presents an approach to integrate free sketches into the formal models used in model-based systems engineering. Free sketches are defined as illustrations of technical content, which can be generated in every suitable way and may have no formal content. A detailed definition of free sketches and further explanation is given. Thus this paper contributes to an "Advanced Systems Engineering", in which a human-centered and model-based approach is targeted. The presented approach supports engineers during function embodiment synthesis by implementing knowledge management aspects. Two use cases are introduced, explaining how the new approach has an improving effect on engineering work.
11:20 Modern model-based development approach for embedded systems: practical experience
Sergey Vinogradov (Siemens LLC, Russia); Daniel Ratiu (Siemens AG, Germany); Artem Ozhigin (Siemens LLC, Russia)
SIBAS 32 control technology for rail vehicles is based on a modular structure and includes control units, such as the traction control unit or the central control unit, as well as input and output stations, such as driver's cab terminals and process I/Os. The devices are connected to the vehicle and train bus and are able to communicate. With the graphical engineering tool SIBAS G, the functions of the vehicle control and traction systems of the SIBAS 32 central processing units and signal processing units are configured on the basis of function blocks and then used to generate loadable programs. mbeddr is an open source model-based development workbench for embedded systems. It features C-code extensions that allow multi-paradigm programming. Embedded-domain specific abstractions like state machines, components, decision tables, mathematical notations can be seamlessly combined with C code whenever needed and finally the regular C-code is generated out of the models. Typesystem extensions that are aware of physical units can be used to make the code more robust. In addition to pure development, the tool supports definition of requirements, product-lines, and code documentation. For performing quality assurance mbeddr features first class support for tests and user friendly formal verification based on the CBMC model checker. The paper describes the case study which was aimed at the practical application of mbeddr in railway domain and integration of mbeddr with traditional development tool chain SIBAS-G. The following aspects have been in focus during the work: a) matching the application requirements and domain-specific language used for implementation, extension needs; b) integration of model-based approach into traditional product lifecycle; c) modeling and code generation capabilities of model-based development workbench. In the case study the application logic of automated train driving system developed in SIBAS G environment has been used.

2B4: Modeling and Simulation I

Room: Bramante 15
Chair: Jean-Yves Choley (SUPMECA, France)
10:00 Method for system level vibro-acoustic gear modeling and simulation of electro-mechanical drive trains
Tim Dackermann and Rolando Dölling (Robert Bosch GmbH, Germany); Lars Hedrich (University of Frankfurt, Germany)
A generic simulation method within heterogeneous system modeling is proposed enabling multi-domain vibro-acoustic gear simulation of electro-mechanical drive trains. The modeling approach accounts for cross-domain system simulation and numerical vibro-acoustic analysis including vibration excitation, structure-borne noise transmission and airborne sound emission. Peripheral mechanisms allow conservative coupling between different physical domains e.g. mechanical, electrical and thermal domain using a generalized physical network. The simulation method fulfills typical system model requirements - modularity, reusability, extensibility, simplicity and efficiency - by choosing a specific simulation technique for each system part. With regard towards the vibro-acoustic analysis, efficient lumped parameter modeling of gear mesh, multi-body simulation of gear components and bidirectional coupling between modal modes of gear housing geometries and rigid-body motion, ensure rapid prototyping. For method verification a system level vibro-acoustic gear model of an electro-mechanical drive train is generated. The simulation model allows studying rotational oscillations of the output shaft as well as three-dimensional multi-body vibration of gear parts and peripheral components. Though no partial differential equations are solved during the system simulation, spatial distribution of housing deflection can be analyzed. Subsequently, experimental results of motor torque and motor speed as well as surface vibration measured by means of a laser vibrometer are used for model validation. It is shown that the proposed method enables the analysis of airborne sound emission within system simulation. Finally, limitations of the modeling approach are illustrated.
10:40 Emulation System on Smart Grid Fast Automated Demand Response of Widely-distributed Stochastically-operating Building Facilities
The fast automated demand response (FastADR) is gaining attentions for ancillary services, or load frequency control (LFC), of the future smart grid. A cluster of building air-conditioner facilities can be targets of the FastADR. However, the main issue is the realization of minute-by-minute feedback control of a large number of widely distributed target loads. So far, concerns about the large-scale feedback control were raised due to large communication delays, coarse sampling rates, and various response behaviors. In order to analyze characteristics, many studies have been carried out. Some research works have proposed FastADR models on load behavior of air-conditioners. A pair of dead time and first-order transfer function was one of the most popular models for typical packaged air-conditioners. However, these simple response models are not enough for study on more accurate feedback control for the FastADR for the ancillary services.The power consumption dynamics of a cluster of building air-conditioning facilities are far complicated than those of residential primitive air-conditioners. Furthermore the responses to FastADR are significantly stochastic due to local controls and opt-out operations. In addition, the wide-area FastADR communications will be done by periodical "PULL-reading" from demand side entities because of network security. This makes significantly large stochastic timing delays on the total wide-area FastADR control system. Even high-level preceding studies' FastADR simulations were inadequate in modeling this realistic and stochastic behavior of the target loads. In this work, we have developed a realistic and stochastic emulation system for the FastADR of these complicated facilities. A neural network behavior model is built from actual facilities' time-series data. The emulation system consists of 120 models with different stochastic disturbances, an aggregator's one-min-sampling feedback controller, and actual FastADR communication networks with the dummy Internet. We found that some step responses of FastADR sometimes become oscillative depending on the parameters of aggregator's wide-area feedback control.
11:20 Multiple Hypothesis Testing with Application in Vibrating Signals Analysis
Theodor D. Popescu (National Institute for Research and Development in Informatics, Romania); Mihaela Andrei (Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, Romania)
The change detection and diagnosis methods have gained considerable attention in scientific research and appears to be the central issue in various application areas, such as: speech processing, analysis of biomedical signals, signal processing in cars, digital data transmission systems, underwater acoustics, geophysics, failure detection in controlled systems (aeronautics, chemical and nuclear processes, event detection of incident on freeways, leak detection for pipelines), etc. These applications need some robust change detection schemes to work well and separate the changes in the experimental conditions from the real changes in the system, especially for systems with arbitrary and non-stationary known or unknown inputs. The objective of the paper is to develop a such kind of change detection and diagnosis scheme, for multiple hypothesis testing, able to discriminate the model parameter and noise variance changes. The problem formulation, discussed in the paper, assumes the off-line or batch-wise data processing, although the solution is sequential in data and an on-line data processing can be used. The change detection model is the simplest possible extension of linear regression models to data with abruptly changing properties. It is assumed that the data can be described by one linear regression model within each segment with distinct parameter vector and noise variance. Finally, we include some Monte-Carlo simulations for change detection in a second order FIR model and the experimental results obtained in analysis of seismic signals, using the proposed approach.

Tuesday, September 29, 12:00 - 13:00

Lunch

Tuesday, September 29, 13:00 - 14:45

2C1: Panel 1: The Systems Engineering Body of Knowledge

Room: Bramante 11
13:00 The Systems Engineering Body of Knowledge
Claus Nielsen (Cranfield University, United Kingdom (Great Britain))
Systems Engineering is a young discipline in the history of engineering, and it is still in the process of establishing its knowledge area when compared to many other engineering disciplines. A body of knowledge is all about capturing and presenting knowledge such that is can be made easily available and shared. The Systems Engineering Body of Knowledge (SEBoK; www.sebokwiki.org) is a relatively new endeavour to create a guide to the breadth and depth of Systems Engineering related knowledge. This session will provide a brief overview of the Systems Engineering Body of Knowledge and via a panel debate cover; current state of the SEBoK, the relationship between the SEBoK and the INCOSE Systems Engineering handbook and the ISO/IEEE Standard 15288, and the future of the Systems Engineering body of knowledge.

2C2: Systems and Sensors II

Room: Bramante 12
Chair: Marek Miskowicz (AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland)
13:00 I2C Hardware Master Serial Interface for Asynchronous ADCs
Marek Miskowicz, Wojciech Andrysiewicz and Dariusz Koscielnik (AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland)
The implementation of the I2C compatible serial interface for asynchronous ADCs that output data irregularly in time is reported in the paper. The device contains I2C hardware master-transmitter functionality and is capable of operating fully autonomously in I2C bus communication system. In particular, the asynchronous ADC with proposed I2C interface is able to initiate data transfer on the bus when new data are available on the converter output.
13:35 New Harmonics Current Mitigation Technique in Induction Motor Driving Reciprocating Compressor
Francesco Grasso (University of Florence, Italy); Andrea Fusi and Alessandro Ussi (CST Compression Service Technology Srl, Italy)
Reciprocating machines, and especially reciprocating compressors, produce large fluctuating torques. These cyclic torques induce periodic angular oscillations (i.e. torsional vibrations) to the driving shaft. When a reciprocating compressor is driven by an electric motor, also the rotor of the latter is subjected to these oscillations. Synchronizing torques, damping torques and pulsating primary currents are developed due to this vibratory motion of the rotor. Consequently the actual instantaneous line current is sum of instantaneous values of steady state mean load current and pulsating currents. The main standards associations (IEC, IEEE, NEMA, API) have issued standards and guidelines for the construction of electric motor driving compressors, designed for several application (chemical, petrochemical, natural gas, etc.). For example, API 618 establishes limits for electric motor current pulsation with respect to the full load current value, consistent with NEMA MG-1 and IEC 60034: for synchronous motors this limit is fixed to 66%, while for induction to 40%, and IEEE Standards 519-2014 has established recommendation for the design of electrical system that include both linear and non-linear loads which can be source of harmonics. In order to verify these limits, a dynamic study of the system composed by the compressor and the electric motor is required. This study was traditionally performed in a two-step procedure that separates the mechanical and the electrical systems. At first a Torsional Vibration Analysis (TVA) was carried-out, under the packager responsibility, modeling the mechanical system with a lumped parameter scheme without taking into account the electrical part; after that, the electric motor supplier performs a source current pulsation analysis on the electric motor system, based on the TVA results. On industrial TVA of compression units, only recently, the effect of the motor air-gap has been taken into account by adding a spring and a damper between motor and ground in the model. This model is more accurate than the traditional one, but is applicable only to the steady-state condition and still fails to consider the reciprocal effects between the two parts of the system. The new model links together the mechanical and the electrical part of the system and describes in a more accurate way the whole system behavior, getting at the same time more consistent results for the torsional behavior and the current pulsations. This has been possible by using a multi-physics simulation software capable of simultaneously solve the electrical and mechanical equations of the systems. Starting from this model, new mitigation techniques can be applied in reducing the harmonics effects in currents pulsations. In this paper, a new harmonics current mitigation technique, based on hybrid active filter, is presented for induction motor driving reciprocating compressors.
14:10 Study and development of a multiplexed radiation instrument solution for CERN facilities
Daniel Perrin (CERN - European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Switzerland); Hamza Boukabache (CERN, Switzerland); Michel Pangallo (CERN - European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Switzerland)
CERN designs, builds and operates particle accelerators and experimental areas for scientific research to understand the fundamentals of particle physics. The radiation detectors installed at several places close to the beam lines and target of these areas allows CERN to precisely monitor radiation levels. This permits users to know the exact value of the radiation dose rate at any given point for personnel access and ensure the work in a safe condition. In the dedicated CERN target areas known as TCC2 and TDC2, 28 detectors are installed to measure induced radiation activity. The digital signal coming from each underground detector is sent through a long cable (around 150m) to an Area Controller monitoring system (ARCON) installed on the surface. The existing infrastructure has limitations due to the number of existing monitoring inputs available, and that there is already in place a significant cabling infrastructure. To overcome these constraints an innovative and bespoke circuit has been developed in order to multiplex 28 channels to 12 with a practical and simple programmable interface.

2C3: Model-Based Systems Engineering II

Room: Bramante 14
Chair: Enrico Vezzetti (Politecnico di Torino, Italy)
13:00 An Approach: SysML-based Automated Requirements Verification
Aurelijus Morkevicius (Kaunas University of Technology & No Magic Europe, Lithuania); Nerijus Jankevicius (No Magic Europe, Lithuania)
Model Based System Engineering (MBSE) promises increase in productivity by shifting from documents-centric repository to models. To reach this promise organization needs to implement proper practices to enable productive modelling. Nowadays, MBSE is enabled by Systems Modelling Language (SysML). SysML is used to capture systems design as descriptive and analytical system models, which relate text-based requirements to the system design model and provide an infrastructure to support analysis and verification. However, SysML is not a methodology, nor a method. This opens-up discussions of how to utilize SysML provided infrastructure to successfully achieve analysis and verification objectives in the context of a particular engineering problem. In this paper a new approach of how model of the system, expressed with sufficient precision in SysML, can be used to support early requirements validation and design verification, particularly when coupled with SysML parametric standard-based execution and simulation environment, is introduced. In particular the approach combines several different techniques: (i) formalization of text-based requirements, (ii) requirements traceability, (iii) gap and coverage analysis, (iv) definition of test cases and analysis models, (v) automated requirements verification, and (vi) recording and publishing verification results. The approach is implemented in the Cameo Simulation Toolkit(tm), a plug-in for MagicDraw(r) CASE tool, and is proven by a case-study from an automotive industry and real-life findings in different systems engineering domains.
13:35 Integrating the model based system engineering (MBSE) approach in a PLM platform for supporting data traceability in the aerospace domain
Enrico Vezzetti, Sandro Moos, Maria Grazia Violante, Marco Alemanni, Federica Marcolin and Francesca Rotolo (Politecnico di Torino, Italy); Elena Valfre (AleniaAermacchi, Italy); Stefano Tornincasa (Politecnico di Torino, Italy)
Traditionally, the development of complex mechatronic products, such as products in aerospace or automotive domain, have employed a "document-based" Systems Engineering (SE) approach to perform the systems engineering activities. This approach is characterized by the generation of textual specifications and design documents that are used and exchanged between all project users. Today, innovative interdisciplinary product development requires a rethinking of current methods and IT solutions, employing an efficient Systems Engineering strategy. The goal is to move from a "document-based" approach to a "model-based" approach that addresses all engineering disciplines. The "Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE)" methodology is an approach that involves modeling for supporting system requirements definition and management, design, analysis, verification and validation activities. This approach provides a set of data and models that allows design teams to analyze the performances of the different product configurations in an early stage and to ensure product data traceability along the entire product lifecycle maintaining a structured relation between costumer requirements and all the product solution analyzed. At present a shared operative approached aimed at integrating MBSE in a Product Life Cycle Management scenario doesn't exist. For that reason, the paper outlines the key activities to deploy successfully a MBSE methodology, based on the Systems Modeling Language (SysML) within a PLM platform by the use of the Product Functional View.
14:10 Implementing Model-Based Systems Engineering based on Shared Services: Concepts for Industrial Application
Michael Bansmann (Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT, Germany); Christian Tschirner (Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT & Project Group Mechatronic Systems Design, Germany); Roman Dumitrescu (Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT, Germany)
Two mega trends in product engineering require a re-thinking of established ways of working: The technical evolution to intelligent technical systems and the re-design of value creation networks, now integrating partners from all over the world. This leads to a reduction of the depth of development and production but might increase the flexibility and efficiency of the corresponding processes. Yet, within such a distributed collaboration the coordination effort increases. Due to this, there is a growing interest in the Systems Engineering (SE) approach. Yet, the implementation of SE in organizational structures is challenging for enterprises outside aircraft industry. FRIEDENTHAL suggests the deployment of a multidisciplinary SE-team responsible for requirements, architecture and analysis of the system as well as integrating and testing. We expect the shared service concept known from administration as promising to generate synergistic effects for a distributed value creation: Shared Services centralize a subset of existing decentralized business functions in semi-autonomous business units. They empower process quality, better monitoring and control of processes as well as cost reduction. Up to now such concepts are implemented for administrative functions, e.g. finance and accounting. Yet, Shared Service concepts in practice usually do not support product development activities.We present a first approach for implementing Model-Based Systems Engineering based on Shared Services.

2C4: Modeling and Simulation II

Room: Bramante 15
Chair: Marc Priggemeyer (RWTH Aachen University, Germany)
13:00 From Goals to Systems via Technical Requirements and Physical Models: Design of an Intelligent Cash Handling System
Christopher Lankeit (University of Paderborn & Heinz Nixdorf Institute, Germany); Matthias Lochbichler (University of Paderborn, Germany); Felix Oestersötebier (Heinz Nixdorf Institute, Germany); Ansgar Traechtler (University of Paderborn, Germany); Martin Landwehr (Wincor Nixdorf International GmbH, Germany)
In the development of intelligent mechatronic systems, a gap of tools and methodologies exists, when technical requirements meet physical behavior modeling. Consistency and pervasiveness between requirements, development and modeling is not fully achieved and more sophisticated methods are needed. In a first step, the meaning of requirements in terms of intelligent mechatronic systems is pointed out. Challenges in obtaining technical requirements are worked out. A demand for action is derived and an approach to tackle these challenges is then presented. A consistent development process is described with the help of an application example - the development of a robotic system is displayed. Particularly for multidisciplinary systems, design methodologies are needed. Complexity in those systems is on a superior level and needs to be handled effectively and efficiently. We therefore enrich a design method for intelligent mechatronic systems with a more detailed integration of physical models. Our approach starts with a given system goal. It is shown how to derive technical requirements of the system. A simulation model is worked out systematically via the combination of physical modeling and the utilization of partial models. A possibility to gather the gained information is shown at the end with the help of a N3 matrix. The N3 matrix is easily modifiable and intelligible by a wide range of developers. The approach increases consistency from early development phases to technical requirements. The utilization of partial and physical models shows the potential for symbiosis. The approach is evaluated at the end.
13:35 A Simulation of Digital Load Sensing System for Water Hydraulics
Pha Pham (Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan)
Recently, the application of water hydraulics has been increasing in many fields as shown in [1], [2], [3]. However, water hydraulics with servo or proportional valve still remains inherent disadvantages such as low energy efficiency and high installation cost, which prevent water hydraulics from applying widely. Water hydraulic variable displacement pump does not exist in the market and therefore supply pressure of water hydraulic systems cannot be adjusted by using load sensing system, this is a one of the important reasons for low energy efficiency in water hydraulic systems. This study aims to introduce a novel digital load sensing system (DLS) that uses a set of On/Off valves assembled to a servo cylinder system for reducing much surplus pressure thanks to the supply pressure track a required pressure. By using of fast On/Off valves, the supply pressure can be tracked the reference pressure quickly, this ensures that the energy consumption of the system is reduced much while the control performance of the load still remains in high quality. The simulation results showed that by applying the digital load sensing system, the energy efficiency can increase nearly double in comparison with a system that does not use digital load sensing system.
14:10 Virtual Testbeds for On-Orbit Servicing - Design and Implementation of Space Robotics Applications
Marc Priggemeyer (RWTH Aachen University, Germany); Eric Guiffo Kaigom (Institute for Man-Machine Interaction, RWTH Aachen University, Germany); Juergen Rossmann (Technical University of Aachen, Germany)
Virtual Testbeds for On-Orbit Servicing - Design and Implementation of Space Robotics Applications Keywords: OOS; Space; Robotics; Virtual Testbed; Planning; Tracking Abstract Robotic servicing of satellites on-orbit will play an important role in extending their lifespan and mitigating space debris expansion. However, most maneuvers related to these goals present a set of unique challenges which are hard to assess in reality. On the other hand, a reliable prediction of the feasibility of servicing maneuvers is increasingly required. This paper presents a simulation-driven framework in which satellites approaching for servicing purposes is first decomposed in heterogeneous system components fulfilling specific mission critical objectives. These include vision-based tracking and estimation of the state of target satellites and robotic motion planning and control to reach a desired point on the satellite. A subsequent integration of these components allows to systematically capture key processes behind on-orbit satellites approaching in a holistic fashion. The high modularization and systematical interplays between the constituting system components enable a flexible and gradual enhancement of simulation fidelity. The significance of simulation results has been evaluated with respect to real setups. These results substantiate the effectiveness of the approach in facilitating complex and hazardous space activities while cutting down costs.

Tuesday, September 29, 14:45 - 15:15

Coffee Break

Tuesday, September 29, 15:15 - 17:00

2D1: Special Session: Methods and Tools for Mechatronic Systems Engineering I

Room: Bramante 11
Chair: Jean-Yves Choley (SUPMECA, France)
15:15 Implementing a Model-based Design and Test Workflow
Vincent Socci (LHP Software & IEEE BoD, USA)
A model-based design workflow for embedded control systems can accelerate product development, improve performance, increase reliability, and reduce engineering cost. Several current technology trends are driving engineering organizations to establish model-based workflows that enable concurrent and collaborative engineering. In this way, embedded controls engineers can quickly develop reliable products of the highest performance. This paper discusses trends in automotive embedded controls and explains the use of model-based engineering workflows to accelerate embedded controls development. These trends include: platform-based requirements, systems/HW/SW co-design, agile methods, rapid prototyping needs, growing software content, integrated data systems, greater system complexity, and growing engineering needs. A model-based design workflow improves product development processes in the current engineering paradigm. Methods to accelerate development of model-based controls through the V cycle are described. Unconstrained prototyping with constrained design is shown as an effective means to converge on an implementation. Pros and cons of product development processes are contrasted. Model-based workflows provide a framework for controls engineers to incrementally create requirements, evaluate algorithms, develop architectures, coordinate designs, and facilitate requirements-based systems verification and validation testing. A framework that integrates requirements and testing proves that requirements-based testing improves system reliability and reduces development risks. Industry standards, such as ISO26262 and DO-178C, enforce such a framework. Tools and technologies that can be used to support model-based development from functional requirements to automated testing are outlined. Readers gain an understanding of how to establish and deploy a model-based design workflow into their organizations to effectively and efficiently manage the development life-cycle of embedded controls.
15:41 SAMOS for Spatial Architecture based on Multi-physics and Organisation of Systems in conceptual design
Romain Barbedienne (IRT SystemX & Laboratoire QUARTZ, France); Yethreb Ben Messaoud (Laboratoire QUARTZ, France); Jean-Yves Choley (SUPMECA, France); Olivia Penas (Laboratoire Quartz & SUPMECA, France); Achour Ouslimani (Laboratoire QUARTZ, France); Alain Riviere (Institut Superieur De Mecanique, France)
The conceptual design is a decisive phase where the simulation teams would like to quickly pre-validate spatial architectures from the physical architecture proposed by the system architects. In order to support them to efficiently achieve this task while meeting various industrial requirements, three approaches were proposed and compared, and finally the last and innovative approach called SAMOS is presented and described. The corresponding platform will allow to validate the spatial allocation of components under geometrical and multi-physical constraints, while facilitating the collaboration between the different design actors during the conceptual design.
16:07 Design and use of system models in mechatronic design
Andreas Kellner (Institute of Mechatronic Design and Production, Johannes Kepler, Austria); Peter Hehenberger (University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Austria); Michael Friedl (Institute of Machine Design and Hydraulic Drives, Johannes Kepler University, Austria); Lukas Weingartner (Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria)
This contribution outlines the creation and use of system models for the successful and efficient design and development of multidisciplinary mechatronic systems. As functionality increases, so the complexity of mechatronic systems increases. Furthermore, a variety of engineering disciplines are involved in the development of these systems, which makes the whole design process even more complex. Handling such development tasks and their complexity requires the kind of holistic view of the whole system and basic understanding of the main design parameters and their mutual influences that can be achieved using system models. This paper reviews the literature on system models and presents fundamental principles and methodologies (i.e., "top-down" and "bottom-up" approaches) for the creation of system models in mechatronic design. Two industrial examples from the field of continuous casting are used to show the advantages of system models.
16:33 Object-oriented Model Validation for Single Bowden Power Window System Development
Stanislao Patalano, Ferdinando Vitolo and Antonio Lanzotti (University of Naples Federico II, Italy)
The paper deals with automotive power window systems and, in particular, tackles the problem of validating the object-oriented model of a single bowden system, to be used within a Model-Based System Engineering (MBSE) approach. Therefore, the paper tackles the problem of increasing accuracy of object-oriented models by defining model refinements i.e. by identifying objects whose modelling has to be improved. Firstly, the role of object-oriented modelling and the main characteristics of the power window system are summarized. Then, the object-oriented model of an automotive single bowden power window system is presented. Finally, the experimental phase, performed to characterize the behavior of the real system is summarised and the validation of simulation model, as well as the identification of model refinement, are accomplished.

2D2: Optimization II

Room: Bramante 12
Chair: Guilherme Baumgarten (OFFIS e. V.
, Germany)
15:15 SPEM 2.0 as Process Baseline Meta-Model for the Development and Optimization of Complex Embedded Systems
Guilherme Baumgarten (OFFIS e. V.
, Germany); Maike Rosinger (OFFIS e. V., Germany); Anna Todino (Alenia Aermacchi S.p.A., Italy); Rubén de Juan-Marín (Instituto Tecnológico de Informática, Spain)
The Software & Systems Process Engineering Meta-Model Specification Version 2.0 (SPEM 2.0) is well known in industry and research domains as a process-oriented meta-model and it is often used as baseline meta-model for processes related to software engineering, being largely applied in the context of multidisciplinary projects. Outcomes from two large projects - the European CRYSTAL and the German SPES_XT - come to prove its worth and to indicate feasible ways of implementing different processes by means of software frameworks based on this specification and taking advantage of an existing conform tool, the Eclipse Process Framework Composer. In the first case, SPEM 2.0 was used as the baseline meta-model for the CRYSTAL Platform Builder, a software platform for integration of diverse software tools that composes the CRYSTAL Reference Technology Platform, this way improving interoperability while decreasing embedded systems design effort and cost. It was as well used for tailoring product development processes, which are the main input for the Platform Builder itself. In the second occasion, SPEM 2.0 was also employed as the baseline meta-model for the Design Space Exploration process, which finds optimized solutions for the deployment of logical components in terms of tasks or processes (software components) to technical components (hardware resources) with respect to a set of optimization goals and constraints. Furthermore, it is used in the generation of a supporting tool called the Architecture Wizard, which guides the system engineer during the Design Space Exploration process. We present achieved outcomes from both described cases, indicating similarities, differences and complementing ideas between each approach regarding SPEM 2.0 as baseline meta-model. We propose as well what we see as a natural continuation of the already developed work and how to achieve it: the integration of results from both use cases facilitated by the use of the same baseline meta-model and of the same process framework tool.
15:41 Generic Menu Optimization for Multi-profile Customer Systems
Jeyhun Karimov, Ahmet Ozbayoglu and Bulent Tavli (TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Turkey); Erdogan Dogdu (Cankaya University, Turkey)
The use of optimal ATM menu structuring for different customer profiles is essential because of usability, efficiency, and customer satisfaction. Especially in competitive industries such as banking, having optimal user interface (UI) is a must. Determining the optimal menu structure is generally accomplished through manual adjustment of the menu elements. However, such an approach is inherently flawed due to the overwhelming size of the optimization variables' search space. Previous studies on menu optimization either are based on customer questionnaires or made for only a specific menu type using heuristic approaches (i.e., not generic). In this paper, we propose an systematic optimization method for menu structuring problem through a novel Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) framework. Our optimization approach is not specific to a predetermined menu class, on the contrary, the MIP model is designed to be a generic optimization framework that can be applied to a wide range of menu optimization problems. We evaluated the performance gains on a dataset of actual ATM usage logs for a period of 18 months consisting of 40 million transactions. We validated our results with both simulation application and mining of existing data logs. The results show that the proposed optimization approach provides significant reduction in the average transaction completion time and the overall click count.
16:07 A Sustainable Energy-Aware Resource Management Strategy for IoT Cloud Federation
The advent of both Cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT) is changing the way to conceive distributed systems. Nowadays, we can talk about IoT Cloud to indicate a new type of distributed system consisting of a set of smart IoT devices or sensors interconnected with a remote Cloud infrastructure, platform, or software. Energy sustainability in IoT Cloud providers offers new tempting business opportunities for organizations, but at the same time it raises new challenges. In this paper, a flexible IoT Cloud federation energy management strategy is presented for optimizing the allocation of geographically localized smart sensors. We define the concept of IoT Cloud Federation as a mesh of IoT Cloud providers that are interconnected to provide a universal decentralized sensing and actuating environment where everything is driven by constraints and agreements in a ubiquitous infrastructure. In particular, a dynamic algorithm able to improve energy sustainability in a federated IoT Cloud ecosystem is discussed. In addition, we analyze a use-case driven strategy that allows both IoT Cloud providers and brokers to determine the paths to reach possible destination IoT devices in which computational resources should be dynamically migrated in order to push down the energy consumption due to IoT distributed applications.
16:33 Assessing wine quality using a decision tree
Seunghan Lee, Juyoung Park and Kyungtae Kang (Hanyang University, Korea)
In response to the increasing popularity of wine and its adoption in new markets, the wine industry is improving its technologies for both wine making and sales. Definitive statements about wine quality are notoriously difficult to make; but more objective metrics are key to expansion into a wider market, in which new wine drinkers seek reassurance on the merit of a wine. The quality of a wine is generally assessed by sensory and physiochemical methods. The taste of a trained panelist currently gives more informed results, but this method of quality measurement is time-consuming and expensive. Physical and chemical tests are more repeatable, and are routinely used to characterize wine through measurements of density, sugar, tannin, alcohol and acidity levels. Our predictive model applies the C4.5 algorithm to build a decision tree, based on physiochemical characteristics of wine, and uses it to predict taste preferences. C4.5 constructs a decision tree by recursive subdivision, selecting the most influential attribute from the training instances at each node, and splitting that set of instances into subsets with high and low values of that attribute; each of these subsets then becomes a child node. After subdivision is complete, all the instances are distributed across the leaf nodes. We evaluated our predictive model using the Wine Quality Data Set from the UCI Machine Learning Repository, and results suggest that this model could offer untutored consumers a better chance of selecting a high-quality wine.

2D3: Special Session: Instrumentation systems under harsh environments

Room: Bramante 14
Chair: Hamza Boukabache (CERN, Switzerland)
15:15 Development of a versatile approach, based on programmable System on Chip for Structural Health Monitoring using V cycle model for a hardware conception
Sabeha Zedek (LAAS-CNRS, France); Jean Yves Fourniols (LAAS-CNRS, INSA, France); Christophe Escriba (Université de Toulouse, France)
Our main subject of interest is the Structural Health Monitoring in aeronautics. Most of our works are dedicated to the detection of delamination disbands and cracks in heterogeneous (Composite) and homogenous (aluminum 2024) structures of the aircraft structure. To successfully combine detection and alert generation we based our approach on the use of new generation of chip called SoC (System on Chip). We tried to develop an autonomous system able to detect damages on aircraft structure. According to several previous results using FPGA (Field Programmable Analog Array), PSoC (Programmable System on Chip), we proved the principle of detection embedded to a programmable system, and we also saw the limits of this kind of system for a complex system combining conditioning and algorithms of detection. That's why we focused our effort on a more powerful chip called Zynq. The approach of development, test and implementation was based on an approach close to the V cycle. The V model represents a software development process that we adapted to the hardware conception. In this paper, we will describe our methodology and give some of the results we get during our experimentation about crack detection in aeronautic structures (Composite and Aluminum, we will also explain how depveloppement according to the V methodology helped us insure the good operation of the electronic system.
15:50 Musculoskeletal Analysis of Underground Mining Activities
Mohammed Hossny (Institute for Intelligent Systems Research and Innovation (IISRI), Australia); Saeid Nahavandi and Darius Nahavandi (Deakin University, Australia); Vahid Haydari and Shannon Harding (Swick Mining Services, Australia)
This paper presents a framework for motion capture and musculoskeletal analysis of underground mining activities. The framework discusses suitable motion capture solutions, musculoskeletal modelling and best practices. Preliminary analysis was conducted to assess quantitative musculoskeletal risks of rod handling and fitting with the drilling rig. The preliminary results of the analysis provide recommendations to minimise risks of potential muscular injuries.
16:25 Countering Improvised Explosive Devices through a Multi-Point Haptic Teleoperation System
Saeid Nahavandi, James Mullins and Michael Fielding (Deakin University, Australia); Hamid Abdi (Deakin University); Zoran Najdovski (Deakin University, Australia)
Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) are reported as the number one cause of injury and death for allied troops in the current theater of operation. Current stand-off technologies for Counter IED (CIED) tasks rely on robotic platforms that have not improved in capability over the past decade to combat the ever increasing threat of IEDs. While they provide operational capability, the effectiveness of these platforms is limited. This is because they primarily utilise video and audio feedback, and require extensive training and specialist operators. Recent operational experience has demonstrated the need for robotic systems that are highly capable yet easily operable for high fidelity manipulation. Force feedback provides an operator with more intuitive control of a robotic system. This sense of touch allows an operator to obtain a sense of feel from a stand-off location of what the robot touches or grasps through a human-robot interface. This paper reports the design and development of a Haptically-Enabled Counter IED robotic system that was funded by the Australian Defence Force. The presented work focuses on the design methodology for the system, and provides the results of the manipulator analysis and trial outcomes.

2D4: Systems and Sensors III

Room: Bramante 15
Chair: Jongwoon Yoo (NASA Ames Research Center, USA)
15:15 Avionics and Perching Systems of Free-Flying Robots for the International Space Station
Jongwoon Yoo, In-Won Park, Vinh To, Jason Q. H. Lum and Trey Smith (NASA Ames Research Center, USA)
This paper introduces NASA's new free-flying robot, Astrobee, especially focusing on its avionics and perching subsystems. Astrobee is a cube-shaped autonomous robot designed for various missions on the International Space Station (ISS). Its major goal is to offload routine and repetitive work from the ISS crews and assist their science activities. Astrobee is also designed for scientists to use it as a micro-gravity robotics research platform. It can host various science equipment and software, allowing scientists to conduct their experiments using Astrobees on the ISS. It has a small compliant, detachable arm with a griper so that it can perch on the ISS wall to support long duration tasks. This arm will grasp ISS handrails to hold its position without using propulsion or navigation subsystems to minimize power consumption. Due to its special missions and operating environment, Astrobee has a set of unique design requirements. This paper gives an overview of Astrobee and the details of its avionics and perching subsystems with distinctive design challenges. We also present the trade studies that we have conducted to decide the critical hardware and software components for the avionics. A prototype implementation with a micro-gravity test environment is presented, demonstrating the performance and capabilities of Astrobee.
15:50 Analysis of the corporal movement alterations using a 3D body tracking sensor
Raquel Torres (Universidad Simón Bolívar, Venezuela); Monica Karel Huerta, Roger Clotet and Ricardo Gonzalez (Simon Bolivar University, Venezuela); Giovanny Sagbay (Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, Ecuador); Jose Pirrone (Universidad Catolica Andres Bello, Venezuela); David Rivas (Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Ecuador); Angel Soto (Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, Ecuador)
This paper proposes a system, which is intended to capture the body movements and human posture in order to use this data to assist physicians in movement alteration diagnosis. The system consists in four phases: Acquisition of the corporal movement with the Kinect Sensor, Extraction of the particular characteristic for scene captured by Kinect Sensor, Skeletal recognition and Processing of the acquired data. The system generates graphics which may be used to detect posture alterations and other movement disorders. The use of the Kinect Sensor (which is a non-invasive sensor) brings the advantage of avoiding the errors from body-sensor interface. The corporal movement is outlined by the variations of the body posture during a period of time. If posture changes could be measured accurately during a period of time, the obtained information would be very useful for a lot of research fields, as health and sports. The increase of the information accuracy allows to establish more precisely objectives in several investigations. Several motion pathologies can be associated with movements characterized by specific location, amplitude and frequency. Parkinson's Disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. Additionally, PD is one of the oldest chronic degenerative diseases for which there are records. PD occurs when nerve cells in the substantia nigra of the midbrain, central area that controls movement, die or suffer any impairment.
16:25 Optimizing of the MV network by operating voltage for energy efficiency improvement
Kruno Trupinić (HEP-ODS Elektra Slavonski Brod, Croatia); Marinko Stojkov (University of Osijek, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Slavonski Brod, Croatia); Tomislav Alinjak (HEP-ODS Elektra Slavonski Brod, Croatia); Domagoj Trupinic (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Croatia)
Implementation method of temporal and spatial optimization of the operating voltage along low voltage and medium voltage networks are described in the paper. Basic idea is to improve energy efficiency improvement and reduce power losses. The method is based on load flow calculation with variable input data on power load (consumers demand) and operating voltage along analysed network. The objective is to determine the minimum values of power losses which are complex mathematical functions in dependence of power load-time function and operating voltage-time function. The optimization process of selecting operating voltage of MV network (inside technical possibilities) is based on minimum point of mathematical function of complex variables (power losses). Dependence of power losses in conductors and windings of power transformers on power load, generally is represented by: P_LI=f(I^2)~f(1/U^2 ) where PLI represents active power losses caused by the current flow in the observed network elements. Dependence of power losses in transformer cores and dielectrics on operating voltage generally is defined by expression: P_LU=f(U^2) where PLU represents active power losses caused by level of operating voltage in the observed network elements. By comparing these two expressions, it is clear that the basis for optimum voltage regulation in terms of increasing energy efficiency has to be a compromise between these two conflicting requirements, in other words finding the minimum of total losses as the sum of PLI and PLU for observed network, its topology and power load. According to the calculation of part of real power network, the reduction of losses in the MV network based on this procedure is 2-6%, depending on the existing type of voltage regulation, the topology of network, power lines and power transformers types and its power load time function. An additional positive effect of this procedure is more balanced temporal and spatial voltage distribution along the MV network and also in connected low voltage network. It is so important because its influence to today's trend of voltage optimization to end-users, and also including important target for improving energy efficiency in electricity distribution, supply and application by end-users. Implementation of this procedure should certainly takes into account effect of increasing losses due to non-linear loads, which significantly increases the losses dependent on the load, especially in the windings of power transformers. Likewise, the increasing share of distributed generation which reduces the load on the MV network must not be neglected.

Tuesday, September 29, 18:00 - 19:00

Welcome Reception

Room: Bramante 10

Wednesday, September 30

Wednesday, September 30, 08:00 - 18:00

Registration

Room: Gallery near Bramante 10

Wednesday, September 30, 08:45 - 10:30

3A1: Reliability and Risk management I

Room: Bramante 11
Chair: Paolo Carbone (University of Perugia, Italy)
08:45 Risk Management Across Variants: Requirements and outlook for an efficient risk assessment of machines
Robert Schmitt, Björn Falk and Maximilian Ruessmann (Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering WZL, Germany); Christian Brecher, Werner Herfs and Adam Malik (Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering (WZL) of RWTH Aachen, Germany)
The directive 2006/42/EC sets out essential safety requirements that a machine manufacturer has to meet, before its products may be sold on the European market. The core procedure to meet the provisions of the directive is the so called risk assessment. It is an iterative procedure that should be followed at particular consecutive stages of the machine life cycle. The results of the risk assessment must be considered by the manufacturer in the design and construction phase of the machine. At present, the risk assessment in the industrial environment is often carried out in an unsystematic way and isolated from the entire product development process. This is mainly due to a lack of integrated process and role descriptions, insufficient tool support for process users and a missing data exchange between the different interface processes and industrial IT systems. The research project VariSafe aims at improving this process in regard to efficiency and quality. This paper presents the industrial requirements regarding the risk assessment process and its software support. Based on these requirements a target process and an accompanying data model are described. They represent the foundation for a future software prototype which allows exchanges with interface processes and a certain degree of automation in carrying out and documenting the risk assessment.
09:20 A system of systems approach to evaluate at-risk human behaviour in the transport by road
Silvia De Nadai (University of Genova, Italy); Mauro Benza, Massimo D'Incà and Francesco Parodi (University of Genoa, Italy); Roberto Sacile (University of Genova, Italy)
Long abstract In the transportation of goods and people, human behaviour (HB) is a major risk factor. In this study, technological and methodological approach to enhance safety in different transport modes is described, where the human factor represents a system interacting with other complex systems involved in the transportation process. The idea that actions and reactions may be strongly affected by "the heart or the head" clearly shows their importance in the HB monitoring and control [1]. In fact, the neural regulation of circulatory function is mainly effected through the interplay of the sympathetic and vagal outflows. This interaction can be explored by assessing cardiovascular rhythmicity with appropriate spectral methodologies [2]. Recordings from the driver and the vehicle may give valuable information for a close estimation of driver's functional state, its evolution across time and thus a better understanding of driver's behavior. [3] The current research has been developed in two stages: simulation and field context. In both stages, the objective is to find relationships in the data collected from the driver (i.e. physiological data), the truck (e.g. CanBus data), and the surrounding environment (e.g. weather and traffic conditions). In this system of system (SoS), the proposed model is composed of several devices: • Wearable sensor systems • Sensors and can bus • On board unit • Information from other sources (traffic, weather, tec..) CanBus (according to abnormal use of the controls of the vehicles) and the wearable systems (according to anomalous physiological patterns) allow the acquisition of the most important parameters about any stress or at risk behaviour of the driver. The onboard unit (OBU) is able to detect abnormal value trends in these parameters and send messages by GPRS to the central system, for database storage. Moreover, this unit can receive data from the base station for example to configure thresholds (customized for the driver) and to allow the making of some decisions independently. The physiological parameters are acquired by two different systems: an integrated wearable wellness system that consists of a particular type of t-shirt equipped with three types of sensors, and a wearable, wireless electrophysiology sensor system for the recording of Electroencephalography signal (EEG). About the first device the monitored parameters are: • Hear Rate (HR), is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, expressed as beats per minute (bpm) • RR interval, is the inverse of HR • Breathing Rate (BR), the number of respirations taken within a set amount of time, typically 60 seconds. • Posture • Movement The HR and BR are monitored using sensors that are fully integrated into the fabric structure (Figure 2), while Posture and Movement are controlled by a 3-D accelerometer is embedded in the electronic device called SEW3, by CSEM. This device integrates algorithms that pre-process raw data providing the following parameters: • Electrocardiogram (ECG) • Heart rate variability (HRV) • Breathing Rate (BR) • Analysis of movement Data are stored internally, with a micro-SD, and/or directly transmitted via BlueTooth(R) to the OBU with a BlueTooth/Serial converter. The currently monitored data are: the HR, the HRV and the BR. These samples are acquired at a specific frequency. In simulation, the HR is sent to the PC/On-board Unit every five seconds, twelve samples per minute, which is expressed in beats per minute. HRV is sent every sixty seconds, one sample per minute, while BR is sent every fifteen seconds, four samples per minute, which is expressed in respirations per minute. The electrophysiology sensor system allows recording EEG signal and monitoring in real time: • 8 channels signal (by eight dry electrode) • Electrooculography (EOG) • Spectrum of power spectral density The eight channels signals are monitored using dry electrodes and two reference electrodes. Monitoring EOG requires two electrodes in the frontal position. All this information is integrated with automotive information coming from the vehicle. In the full paper, we present results of the monitoring session in the field and in simulation, which presents interesting features which may help to discover near miss accidents, thus improving the statistics related to risk events. References [1] The inevitable link between heart and behavior. New insights from biomedical research and implications for clinical practice, Andrea Sgoifo, Nicola Montano, Carol Shively, Julian Thayer, Andrew Steptoe, Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 33 (2009) 61-62. [2] Heart rate variability explored in the frequency domain: a tool to investigate the link between heart and behavior, Nicola Montano, Alberto Porta, Chiara Cogliati, Giorgio Costantino, Eleonora Tobaldini, Karina Rabello Casali, Ferdinando Iellamo, Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 33 (2009) 71-80. [3] An integrated platform to assess driver's physiological and functional states, C. Ramon, A. Clarion, C. Gehin, C. Petit, C. Collet & A. Dittmar, 30th Annual International IEEE EMBS conference, August 20-24, 2008
09:55 Two-Step Extremum Response Surface Method of Reliability Analysis on Flexible Mechanism
Chunyi Zhang and Lukai Song (Harbin University of Science & Technology, P.R. China)
To improve the precision and efficiency of reliability analysis of flexible mechanism, Two-step Extremum Response Surface Method (TERSM) of reliability analysis is proposed. Dynamics differential equations of the flexible mechanism were established by using the integrated modal method and the flexible multi-body system dynamics method. By using the Monte Carlo Method (MCM), the random sample values of the input dynamic parameters were obtained and dynamics differential equations were solved for each random sample value which revealed the responses of their displacement, speed and acceleration in certain time domain. On this basis, dynamic stresses and deflections were obtained. By taking the extremum values of the stresses and the deflections as output responses and the random sample values of dynamic parameters as input quantities, Extremum Response Surface functions (ERSF) were established. Taking maximum and minimum values of output extremum responses as parts of the sampling points, the coefficients of ERSF were solved. Definite expressions of ERSF were obtained to analyze the reliability of flexible mechanism. The comparison with various other methods shows that this method has greatly improved the computational speed while keeping acceptable computational accuracy, TERSM is proved to be a high precision and high efficiency in dynamic reliability analysis of flexible mechanism, and this method has opened up an effective way for reliability optimization of flexible mechanism.

3A2: Systems and Energy

Room: Bramante 12
Chair: Marek Miskowicz (AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland)
08:45 System Approach to the Pre-Design of Electric Propulsion Systems for Road Vehicles
Moncef Hammadi (SUPMECA & QUARTZ EA 7393, France); Stanislao Patalano (University of Naples Federico II, Italy); Ottorino Veneri (CNR - National Research Council of Italy - Istituto Motori, Italy); Maurizio Iebba (University of Naples Federico II, Italy); Felipe Camargo Rosa (CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Brazil); Giovanni Copertino (University of Naples Federico II, Italy); Clemente Capasso (CNR - National Research Council of Italy - Istituto Motori, Italy)
In the research domain of electric propulsion vehicles, engineers constantly come up with new solutions and innovative ways to solve the problems of dealing with energy supply on efficient propulsion systems. However, the process to distinguish which one is the best alternative generally requires a series of experimental tests to be carried out, which can be quite costly and not as adequate as an engineering project must be. Therefore, this paper presents a method that can reduce the costs related to physical experiments performed on real electric vehicle laboratory test benches, by designing a useful computational engineering tool that could virtually simulate that situation and provide solutions to the most common problems encountered on the domain of battery-powered vehicles. The present work was achieved in the context of the international research program PLACIS, which allowed this project to be carried out by a partnership between the engineering school Supméca and the Italian institutions Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II and CNR - Istituto Motori. The objective of this project was to create a Modelica library and implement it on a virtual test bench that could help a designer to choose the best configuration for an electric propulsion system by a complete analysis of its behavior. Moreover, the methodology used for the development of this computational tool was based on the Logical and Physical levels of the RFLP approach, and its achievement was possible due to the use of the softwares Dymola and ModelCenter. While Dymola performed the simulations of the test bench model, ModelCenter was used as optimization tool in order to find the best configuration of parameters of the electric propulsion system. Particularly, this approach was applied to an electric Scooter and the results were compared to experimental data collected by Istituto Motori on their real laboratory test bench. Therefore, on this paper, both the method used to treat this problem and the specific components of electric vehicle test bench model designed in Dymola are listed and described, with a special attention to the equations that govern their functioning. Finally, the results obtained corroborated the validation of the model and also allowed the study to go even beyond the problem, in which an analysis of the relation between vehicle speed, range and the battery's life cycle was carried out.
09:37 Analyzing improvements for a mine maintenance system of connected equipment and machines: the value and benefits of data sharing
Joakim Fröberg (SICS & Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Sweden); Stig Larsson (SICS, Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Sweden); Ulf Marklund (Boliden AB, Sweden)
Mines are being more and more automated and both equipment and machines are increasingly connected and integrated into collaborative mine automation systems. For a mine operator, the goal of mine automation is to increase the safety, productivity, and quality of the mine operation. This includes goals of more efficient and effective procedures such as maintenance and monitoring of diagnostic and production status. By combining signals from connected systems, there are many possible applications that could substantially aid in achieving the goals of an enhanced mine operation. For instance, combining diagnostic data from a Load-Haul-Dump machine, LHD, with production, and maintenance planning systems could enable a much more efficient service planning procedure. Or, combining position data from several systems could yield a much better precision and thereby enable new safety mechanisms that preempts and avoids collisions with people or machines. Mining machines and other equipment, as well as mine automation systems come from many developing organizations, and are themselves commercial products that are integrated into a the mine automation system. A modern mine is thus an example of the trend towards the internet-of-things, IoT, more and more products are connected to the internet and to a local networks. In addition, vehicles or machines communicates to enable new features, so called machine-to-machine, or machine-to-infrastructure, M2X, communication. The mine system can be described as a System-of-systems, SoS, or a federated system, where several systems participate in collaborative goals, while also performing specific tasks. Many methods for systems engineering and system architecture analysis are formed on the basis that we analyze the stakeholder needs and quality attributes, and thereby come up with an architecture that best support these needs. In a SoS, each system is a product with its own life cycle and, in this case, also a business model and business value. For each organization, there are constraints related to the effectiveness of its own products. Both from a design perspective and a business perspective. Our study indicate that there is a large potential value in sharing data, both for the mine operator and for the product vendors, whether it is a machine OEM or an equipment vendor. The problem initially lies in the ability to analyze the overall potential for new value creating features, and to relate that to what signals and data sharing that is beneficial - both for a system supplier, integrators and for a mine operations organization. Without this knowledge, an organization may attempt secrecy of outgoing data, while trying to improve own product performance by incoming data - this would be a suboptimal design for all, we believe. We have devised a method to map out any envisioned new collaborative functions for a complex SoS such as the mine operation. We relate the collaborative goals to the needs of shared signals, and thereby indicate a business value of shared data. Our method visualize, and categorize functions and signal needs. It aids in analyzing the value of data in the specific usage context - in our case study, the mine operation. Our method can support analysis of a complex SoS system and visualize business value to each involved organization. This would aid in understanding what data is valuable to share, and to avoid unnecessary protection of uncritical, but readily available data.

3A3: Special Session: Methods and Tools for Mechatronic Systems Engineering II

Room: Bramante 14
Chair: Moncef Hammadi (SUPMECA & QUARTZ EA 7393, France)
08:45 SysML Extensions for Safety-Critical Mechatronic Systems Design
Faïda Mhenni and Jean-Yves Choley (SUPMECA, France); Nga Nguyen (EISTI, France)
Mechatronic systems become widely used as onboard systems with the development of electric and hybrid vehicles, more-electric aircraft, etc. to achieve critical missions as the control of the vehicles and aircrafts. The synergistic aspect of mechatronic systems makes their design challenging to take into account all the interactions among components of different domains. The safety-critical aspect of these systems implies rigorous safety analyses during the design. Consequently, designing such complex systems implies new tools and methodologies to manage the complexity and safety concerns while keeping within short time-to-market and budget constraints. Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) and Model-Based Safety Assessment (MBSA) turn out to be compulsory for the design and safety assessment of complex mechatronic systems. However, they need to be integrated efficiently during the design process to avoid costly late design changes. In order to perform consistent and exhaustive system modeling and safety analysis of safety-critical mechatronic systems, the system model shall be extended to include additional information helping in the generation of safety artifacts. In this paper, we propose some SysML extensions to better model mechatronics specificities such as interconnection components and multi-physical interactions, as well as some safety aspects for a better integration of MBSE and MBSA. These proposals are applied to an Electro-Mechanical Actuator (EMA) for aeronautics industry.
09:20 Towards the Integration of Thermal Physics and Geometrical Constraints for a 3D-Multiphysical Sketcher
Stefano Papa (University of Naples Federico II, Italy); Jean-Yves Choley (SUPMECA, France); Stanislao Patalano (University of Naples Federico II, Italy); Salvatore Gerbino (University of Molise, Italy); Antonio Lanzotti (University of Naples Federico II, Italy)
The paper deals with the relationship between geometrical or topological entities of complex systems and the physics in which the systems are involved. In particular, the paper deepens the integration of thermal physics with geometrical constraints. Therefore, the results of the work could be used within the development of a 3D-multiphysical sketcher viz. a tool for the preliminary design of complex systems, characterized by the presence of one or more overlapping physics. Firstly, the model of Topologically & Technologically Related Surfaces (TTRS) is used and related Minimal Reference Geometrical Elements (MRGEs) and constraint conditions are implemented by means of Modelica language. Then, the implementation of new objects for MRGEs and constraint conditions are verified by applying them to a mechanical assembly. Finally, the integration of TTRS model within thermal physics is applied to the case of the designing for electronic boards.
09:55 Needs for a 3D Enriched Ontology for Mechatronic Systems Design
Régis Plateaux (Laboratoire QUARTZ & Supmeca, France); Olivia Penas (Laboratoire Quartz & SUPMECA, France); Peter Hehenberger (University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Austria); Moncef Hammadi (SUPMECA & QUARTZ EA 7393, France); Faïda Mhenni (SUPMECA, France); Aude Warniez (Laboratoire QUARTZ & Supmeca, France); Jean-Yves Choley (SUPMECA, France)

3A4: System Architecture I

Room: Bramante 15
Chair: Jean-Luc Wippler (Luca Ingénierie, France)
08:45 An Implementation Architecture Design of LU Decomposition in Resource-limited System
Yang Wang, Huamin Tao, Shanzhu Xiao and Huadong Dai (National University of Defense Technology, P.R. China)
LU decomposition is a key kernel of computation in liner algebra and various engineering applications; however it is a computation intensive method at the same time. In lots of applications, the computation needs to be carried out in a real time with limited resources, and then it is of great necessity to accelerate the computing process via applying parallel algorithms on different platforms, such as FPGA. In this dissertation, based on the platform of FPGA, we proposed an implementation architecture of LU decomposition that is suitable for resource-limited systems. The processing element (PE) is designed based on the mature IP core provided by Xilinx. In our design, the PE is reused to execute multiple computing tasks at different clock cycles via pipeline technology, which makes our design more resource-efficient and available for the application with limited hardware resources and real-time requirement. Based on the LU factorization algorithm, the parallelism analysis of the computing process is given. The architecture design and data scheduling scheme are also discussed in detail, such as the design of a Scheduling Counter (SC) which is used for extracting the computational results at the right clock cycle, and the characteristic of resource-consuming and working frequency. Our design works at 73.5MHZ, the comparison is made with MATLAB software based on the simulation and theoretical analysis. It shows that our design achieves a fairly good accelerating ratio considering the application scenarios and resources consumed. It is also in accordance with our motivation to design a module to be used in some real-time applications with relatively few resources. Moreover, the architecture proposed can be expanded easily to play a role in higher dimension matrix factorization situation.
09:11 System Design Requirements for Net-centric Device Management in Internet of Things
Simon G. M. Koo (Ananse, Hong Kong); Eric Beckmann and Diane Keng (Santa Clara Universirty, USA)
Internet of Things (IoT) has attracted the attention of the technical world recently, and according to Gartner Inc., there will be nearly 26 billion devices on the IoT by the year 2020. The Internet of Things is also expected to have at least five to ten years before reaching "plateau of productivity," and more and more universities are interested in offering courses on this subject. While there is no formal definition of the IoT, it can generally be described as a huge network connected by the web and sensing devices including radio frequency identification devices (RFID), various sensors, global positioning systems, etc., and the system can identify, trace, follow, and monitor objects automatically and can be controlled remotely from anywhere. With the rapid expansion of the Internet of Things (IoT) into many aspects of human life, there is a rising need of an integrated platform to handle a wide range of heterogeneous devices. In this paper, we survey the current designs of IoT platforms and presented a set of design requirements, followed by proposing our design of a PaaS architecture for heterogeneous device management in IoT. We will then present an overview of our proposed platform design and how it addresses the requirements in order to offer a scalable and seamless core with an easy-to-use programming interface to control and access to global sensors and actuators via heterogeneous network infrastructures.
09:37 Analysis of a Driver and Automated Driving System Interaction Using a Communicating Sequential Process
This study presents an analysis of the interaction between a driver and an automated driving system (ADS) using a communicating sequential process (CSP). Level 3 of automated vehicles requires that drivers are able to take control from the ADS in emergency situations. To allow this, the interactions between the driver and ADS must be treated as part of the safety system. In an emergency situation, the ADS must know the driver's current state, to judge whether to hand over control of driving. If the ADS cannot monitor this successfully, the driver may be inappropriately given control of the vehicle. In this study, the driver and the ADS were treated as a concurrent system in a system of systems, in which both operated independently, while interacting through a human machine interface. A CSP model was built to describe the interactions between them, and these were analyzed using model checking. The CSP model was based on analysis using System Modeling Language. A simple four-stage model of human information processing was used to describe the driver's state transitions. The study contributes to the analysis of the interactions between an ADS and the behavior of a driver, and will help designers of automated vehicles.
10:03 Chances are the architecture looks fuzzy: Pitch it right!
Jean-Luc Wippler (Luca Ingénierie, France); Dominique Luzeaux (Ministry of Defense, and Ecole Polytechnique, France); Thierry Morlaye (OCTO, France)
Architecture, as the "fundamental organization of a system, embodied in its components, their relationships to each other and to the environment, and the principles governing its design and evolution" (ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010), indubitably takes a central place in sharing knowledge/insight/vision between a wide set of stakeholders. Recent developments (e.g. ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010) tend to emphasize an analytical approach to describe a system architecture, breaking down its description into a set of views, each one for a specific concern related to a specific stakeholder. In some key moments where go/no-go decisions have to be taken, or when a contractual agreement is negotiated between an ordering institution and a prime contractor, this analytical approach has to be reinforced by a more synthetic one in order to 'pitch' the architecture and grasp its essential idea in an instant. Some late initiatives like A3A0 (Borches Juzgado, Pedro Daniel (2010) A3 architecture overviews, a tool for effective communication in product evolution. thesis.) tend to bridge that gap and propose effective means. The authors, through their field experiences both as system engineering professionals on both contractual sides and as lecturers, have promoted different ways to 'pitch' an architecture: using intellectual tools from System Thinking (e.g. analogy or metaphors), adapting the 'high concept' approach of movie industry, emphasizing intentional rather than extensional definition… This paper will provide an overview of such techniques along with some concrete examples.

Wednesday, September 30, 10:30 - 11:00

Coffee Break

Wednesday, September 30, 11:00 - 12:45

3B1: Reliability and Risk management II

Room: Bramante 11
Chair: Lorenzo Ciani (University of Florence, Italy)
11:00 Reliability assessment for complex systems: a new approach based on RBD models
Marcantonio Catelani, Lorenzo Ciani and Matteo Venzi (University of Florence, Italy)
Reliability assessment represent a key issue in any advanced technology application where the systems must satisfy high level of reliability in order to guarantee ambient, personnel and system safety. This paper is focused on Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) technique with the aim of providing a reliability prediction for complex systems. In particular the case study is focused on gas turbine auxiliary systems. These systems are made up of hydraulic items (valves, pumps, filters, etc.) and electronic ones (sensors, instruments, control logic); these complex structures can be decomposed to a collection of blocks and interconnections in order to achieve reliability performance of the whole system. The aim of this paper is to introduce a new approach to assess standby redundant architectures widely used many field of applications and allow project engineers to focus system design on reliability assessment: in this way project engineers can reduce time-delivery, reduce time for improvements, achieve reliability targets and guarantee availability performance to the costumers. Furthermore a dedicated tool is shown, RBDesigner, that semi-automatically generates a RBD starting from the sketch of thermal-hydraulic systems and provides the most important reliability parameters. The strengths of the developed tools were provided by a comparison with other commercial software solutions.
11:35 The Domino Effect in Complex Systems: An Interdisciplinary View
Ernestina Cianca (University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy); Mauro De Sanctis (University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Italy & Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN), Russia); Alfonso Farina (Leonardo Company Consultant, Italy); Massimiliano Coletta (University of Rome Tor Vergata - CTIF, Italy); Marina Ruggieri (University of Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy); Peter Lindgren (Aarhus University Birk, Italy)
This paper aims to clarify the interdisciplinary aspects of the science of complexity in relation to complex systems. Several definitions of complexity related to different areas of engineering and mathematics are discussed. Taking an interdisciplinary view would help in identifying commonalities between disciplines and discover new phenomena and models adopted by other disciplines. This work focuses on the domino effect in complex systems. In particular, the domino effect is defined and a model based on statistical physics is applied to complex system of different disciplines including engineering, medicine and economics.
12:10 (DPMLA)-Weighted Dynamic Characteristics and Predictable Movement Learning Algorithm to Improve Video Streaming in Heterogeneous Environments
Niall Maher (Athlone Institute of Technology & College, Ireland); Enda Fallon and Shane Banks (Athlone Institute of Technology, Ireland)
Mobile video is a key driver in the growth of mobile data. In heterogeneous networking environments, multimedia sessions are particularly vulnerable to varying network capabilities of underlying networks. This paper proposes a weighted dynamic and predictable based learning algorithm to improve video streaming in heterogeneous network environments (DPMLA). Current handover methods for seamless video streaming are performance limited as they do not consider how predictability movement can be used to alter the network handover decision. Research has shown that 93% of human movement is predictable. Studies also suggest that end user movement can be reliably predicted using mobile telecom services. The DPMLA algorithm considers both the dynamic performance of the network (Received Signal Strength (RSS), delay, loss) with a measure of the predictability of end user movement. Results illustrate that the DPMLA algorithm optimizes network selection and improves overall video streaming performance.

3B3: Special Session: Research at INCOSE Italy

Room: Bramante 14
Chair: Andrea D'Ambrogio (University of Rome TorVergata, Italy)
11:00 Integration of heterogenous functional-vs-physical simulation within the industrial system design activity
Eugenio Brusa and Davide Ferretto (Politecnico di Torino, Italy); Ambra Calà (Otto-von-Guericke Universität, Magdeburg & Siemens AG, Germany)
The 'Systems Engineering' (SE) approach is currently changing the design and development of industrial product manufactured through a direct processing of materials. Its influence upon the machine and system design activity is herein analyzed, by focusing on the integration of functional and physical models. Assessing a suitable tool to predict the system performance through a heterogeneous simulation is a main goal of the research activity. As an example of application a flywheel system for the kinetic energy storage is used to describe some typical features of this technical domain.
11:26 A Service Systems Engineering Framework with Application to Performance Based Logistics
Massimiliano Filippi (Selex-ES, Italy); Andrea D'Ambrogio (University of Rome TorVergata, Italy); Marco Lisi (European Space Agency, The Netherlands)
Although Systems Engineering (SE) is becoming progressively the leading discipline in the development of engineered systems, most of the functions performed by a system are "delivered" as services. This leads to what is referred to as Service Systems Engineering (SSE), which has its basis in the SE and, for specific types of services, represents the driving discipline to design successful systems capable of delivering effective services. In the defence market, the acquisition of defence and weapon systems is facing, in the last decades, a continuous budget contraction for both the acquisition and the support of the delivered systems. The main scope of support services, as an instance of SSE, is to define, deliver and asses the proper blend of services to ensure optimal system performance at an affordable life cycle cost. This paper introduces a model for the definition, implementation and continuous assessment of operational availability, in order to ensure that the required performance is met in a cost-effective way throughout the system lifecycle. The amount, distribution and continuous readiness of the logistic resources required to meet the target availability is the primary scope of what is referred to as performance based logistics, which this paper addresses by introducing a SSE framework to tailor, design, deliver and monitor logistic resources.
11:52 Leveraging the BPMN Standard to Govern Engineering Processes in a Collaborative Environment
Dario Campagna, Stefano Costanzo and Carlos Kavka (ESTECO SpA, Italy); Carlo Poloni (Università di Trieste, Italy); Alessandro Turco (ESTECO SpA, Italy)
We propose the use of Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) standard to manage engineering design workflow complexity. In particular we show how it is possible to combine manual and automated activities in an easy graphical collaborative tool. The BPMN standard (certified by Object Management Group, OMG) couples an expressive graphical representation with a rigorous XML encoding of processes and the interactions among them. In this paper we present an analysis of the applicability of the BPMN standard to engineering processes together with prototype implementation of a collaborative web-based environment. Complex engineering scenarios involving automated simulation tasks depending on human-based decisions are fully implemented with a few proposed specific extensions (allowed by the BPMN specification). Our prototype mimics a Software as a Service (SaaS) platform and constitutes an Extreme Collaboration environment where users can model their processes, share them with co-workers and launch and monitor their executions. The central role is played by the `"user task", through which it is possible to model Collaborative Decision Making sessions integrated in the engineering processes.
12:18 Modeling of System Properties: research challenges and promising solutions
Alfredo Garro and Andrea Tundis (University of Calabria, Italy)
Modeling of system properties deals with formally expressing constraints and requirements that influence and determine the structure and behavior of a system. System Property Models enable the verification of system properties through real or simulated experiments so as to support their evaluation during system design and their monitoring during system operation. However, several research challenges should be addressed to effectively handle systems properties, ranging from conceptual properties representation to tracing and verification. The paper aims at discussing these main challenges and presenting some promising solutions by focusing on those resulting from recent Systems Engineering research efforts.

3B4: System Architecture II

Room: Bramante 15
Chair: Ernestina Cianca (University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy)
11:00 Future Space-based Communications Infrastructures based on High Throughput Satellites and Software Defined Networking
Tommaso Rossi (University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Italy); Mauro De Sanctis (University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Italy & Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN), Russia); Ernestina Cianca and Carlo Fragale (University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy); Marina Ruggieri (University of Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy); Hector T. Fenech (Eutelsat S.A., France)
The use of satellite for communication services has been limited traditionally to broadcasting, network access in rural areas and terrestrial network backup technology (i.e. in case of natural disasters or for air and sea coverage); moreover, satellite systems are not flexible in terms of configuration updating. Currently, the trend is changing, supported by the rapid development of broadband satellite access networks. As a matter of fact, High-Throughput Satellite (HTS) access networks are swiftly evolving with the goal to support the so-called "terabit-connectivity". On the other hand, terrestrial network architectures are embracing new paradigms as Network Function Virtualization (NFV) and Software Defined Networking (SDN), i.e. the ambitious vision to centralize the network control logic, making the network nodes programmable introducing some abstraction levels accessed through control interfaces (API). SDN paradigm provides the opportunity to manage network services through abstraction of lower-level functionality; this can be done decoupling the network control plane from the data plane and through network virtualisation and "softwarization". The introduction of SDN and NFV paradigms into the current evolution trend of HTS could provide great benefit to the service providers and to the users, enabling the creation of innovative "demand attentive networks" able to support novel fine-grained services and optimising resource usage. In this paper the application of SDN paradigm to future HTS systems will be discussed, identifying the most interesting use cases and perspectives.
11:26 Contract Platform and Tools
Haifeng Zhu (UTRC, USA)
This paper describes a specification language for platforms using contracts. We provided the intuitive meaning, models and analysis of contract-based platforms. By using Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT), architectures designed from such platforms can be verified. When the SMT tool has difficulty in deciding the verification, we provide support for users to identify possible changes that may overcome such limitations, which includes dealing with decidable fragment in logic and incomplete fragments for the SMT tool. We showed a GUI tool that support processing of such a language, with examples of electrical power systems design
11:52 Enabling Rational Decision Making with Provenance-annotated OSLC Relationships
Lonnie VanZandt, III (Sodius, USA)
Architects create models to enable their stakeholders to proactively make rational decisions. The information stored in lifecycle management repositories is not only the contained collections of concepts but also the synthetic network of relationships between those concepts. Because Knowledge is justified true belief and stakeholders should not trust unjustified claims, architects have a responsibility to their stakeholders to provide justification for the relationships they make within their models. Today, modeling tools and notations only enable architects to make indefensible axiomatic relational claims. Therefore, with current lifecycle management repositories and tools, stakeholders cannot make rational decisions using their architects' models. Provenance properties address stakeholders' questions of Who did What, Where, When, and Why. While data without provenance is unsuitable for sound rational decision-making - because the claims in the data cannot be trusted - data combined with provenance transforms that data into justified information. A provenance-enabled Open Services Lifecycle Collaboration hub allows architects to augment their models with provenance, to provide the evidence and warrants of classical argumentation, to support rational decision-making. With such a provenance-tracking OSLC hub, architects can defend their otherwise axiomatic claims for all the creation, update, delete, and query accesses to the structural and behavioral resources and for the relational links between those resources.
12:18 Integrated Wireless and Sensing Technology for Dentistry: an Early Warning System for Implant-Supported Prosthesis
Gianpaolo Sannino (University of Rome Tor Vergata - CTIF, Italy); Ernestina Cianca (University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy); Massimiliano Coletta (University of Rome Tor Vergata - CTIF, Italy); Ramjee Prasad (Aalborg University, Denmark); Marina Ruggieri (University of Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy); Diego Sbardella (University of Rome Tor Vergata - CTIF, Italy)
The maturity of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is pushing forward innovative and multidisciplinary applications that are dramatically improving the penetration of ICT itself in the everyday life of global citizens. Among the multidisciplinary scenarios, Tele-Health is playing a key-role due to its direct impact in the Quality of Life (QoL) of people at individual and social levels. Furthermore, the increase in the number and average age of the elderly people in industrialized areas is pointing out some Health areas where the ICT contribution could change dramatically the performance and the cost of the cures for both the public health system and the private patients. One of these areas is Dentistry, where we are assisting to a significant growth of technology-driven approaches to the cure. This contribution deals with the above technology-driven trend for Dentistry. The paper will address a harmonic merging between ICT - in particular integrated wireless and sensing technologies - with advanced fixed implant-supported prosthesis. One of the prerequisites for long-term success in implant rehabilitation is the stability of the restoration. The coupling and the stability between implants and prosthetic structures is usually ensured by connection screws, which are tightened by using torque wrenches. Nevertheless, screw loosening can occur, due to off-axis loading generated during masticatory function. A poor fit as well as mobility between structures introduces harmful tensile, compressive and bending forces, which may be dangerous for the osteointegration process and/or lead to failure of the components (connection screws, prosthetic framework). This could bring about the requirement for new surgical and/or prosthodontic procedures with a consequent increase of treatment time and costs for both patients and clinical-laboratory team. The proposed system is conceived for an early warning on the prosthesis performance and a partial remote management of the related actions from the dentist. The system includes a sensor for micro-displacement to be inserted in the implant, with embedded wireless communications capabilities, thus being able to communicate with a smartphone/tablet in the close proximity of the patient. The systems is conceived to ease a cooperative approach between dentist and patient, that will both receive the information related to prosthesis performance - in particular in terms of micro-displacement - in an early mode, thus preventing fatal damages to the structure. The information messages will be tailored to dentist and patient so that each of the two will take the specific required actions. Smartphones or tablets could be the user (dentist and patient) devices, through a tailored application. This paper will purpose a novel system with an innovative approach to the related energy management as well as the dentist-patient cooperative communication, along with some experimental results. The wide potential of the system is to contribute to the quality of life of patients and the cost reduction of the treatment. Therefore, the molecular and biochemical approaches undertaken to unravel possible metabolic alterations (with particular reference to quantification of recognized markers of inflammation or tissutal damage), occurring during prosthesis implantation and long-term wearing, will be discussed.

Wednesday, September 30, 12:45 - 13:30

Lunch

Wednesday, September 30, 13:45 - 15:30

3C1: Panel 2: Systems Engineering and Software Engineering

Room: Bramante 11
Chair: Dick Fairley (Software and Systems Engineering Associates - S2EA & IEEE Computer Society, USA)
13:45 Systems Engineering and Software Engineering
Dick Fairley (Software and Systems Engineering Associates - S2EA & IEEE Computer Society, USA)
Systems engineering and software engineering increasingly interact as project and programs that involve development and modification of hardware, software, and manual operations become ever larger, more complex, and more dependent on software. It is well known that the majority of functionality and behavior of modern systems is provided by software, whether in health care, telecommunications, transportation, aeronautics, manufacturing, military systems, or other kinds of systems. Software engineering topics of interest to systems engineers include: differences between physical artifacts and software: physical products versus logical products - and the consequences; differences in use of terminology for terms such as "performance," "verification," and "validation"; differences in approaches to component integration - discrete versus continuous; differences in approaches to problem solving - functional decomposition and quantified metrics versus associative decomposition and qualitative metrics; and difference in processes - linear waterfall versus iterative agile. This panel session will cover these issues as they are addressed in the systems engineering body of knowledge (sebokwiki.org), the ISO/IEC/IEEE Standards 15288 and 12207, the systems engineering skill area of the software engineering competency model (SWECOM: http://www.computer.org/web/peb/swecom), and other relevant standards and guidelines. This panel session will focus on the role of software engineering in systems engineering as presented in the cited standards and guidelines, particularly from the viewpoint of a systems engineer working with software engineers on systems engineering projects and programs. Strategies and techniques will be discussed on how systems engineers and software engineers can better integrate their work activities.

3C2: Special Session: Theoretical Foundations of Systems Engineering (THEFOSE) I

Room: Bramante 12
Chair: William Edmonson (North Carolina A&T State University, USA)
13:45 PLACIS: Systems engineering through a project-based learning approach
Antoine Lanthony and Alexis Francois (ISMEP-SUPMECA, France); Moncef Hammadi (SUPMECA & QUARTZ EA 7393, France); Jean-Yves Choley (SUPMECA, France); Stanislao Patalano (University of Naples Federico II, Italy); Ottorino Veneri (CNR - National Research Council of Italy - Istituto Motori, Italy); Antoine Brunner (ISMEP-SUPMECA, France)
PLACIS (Collaborative Platform for Systems Engineering) is a project funded by the French National Agency for Research under the "Investments for the future" program. PLACIS started in September 2012 and is run by Institut Polytechnique Grand Paris (IPGP, gathering ISMEP - Supméca, ENSEA and EISTI). In the framework of both a rapid change in engineering education and a need of young engineers able to think "systems", PLACIS aims to promote active learning and teaching through industrial, international and at-a-distance collaborative projects, carried out by engineer students. The main general objectives of PLACIS are to develop or create the involvement of teachers and students into new teaching practice, but also to answer the needs of the industry. We train students not only to become classic engineers, but also to be able to understand multidisciplinary and industrial issues, to work in teams with people from different cultures, all these points giving them the ability to move easily in today's and tomorrow's industrial world and to think "systems", to really understand a context and be able to propose adapted answers that are more than the old "think global, act local". In order to illustrate concretely what is PLACIS, we can easily rely on the example of an industrial project started at the beginning of PLACIS in September 2012 and which is still in progress between Istituto Motori - CNR (IM-CNR), Università di Napoli Federico II (UNINA) and Institut Polytechnique Grand Paris (IPGP).
14:20 Formal Requirement Management for the Responsive and Formal Design Process
Solomon Gebreyohannes (NC A&T University, USA); William Edmonson and Jules Chenou (North Carolina A&T State University, USA); Natasha Neogi (NASA LaRC, USA); Albert Esterline (North Carolina A&T State University, USA)
In this paper, we present the formal requirement management of the RFD process that extracts a formal theory from requirements written in a natural language. The RFD process was developed as a procedure used in designing Cyber-Physical System (CPS) and represents an integration of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) with formal methods to ensure a "correct-by-construction" design. The extraction of a formal theory is based on Channel Theory as developed by Barwise and Seligman, which is established as a framework for the "flow of information" in terms of category theory. A system which consists of components connected via channels. Each component is observed as information- flow network and mathematically modeled using a notion of a classification. A classification is a table representation of an information-flow network. Regularities (that represents global behavior of the system) of a classification are captured using a theory (a set of formulas or constraints). One goal of the RFD is to insure that the requirements are formally consistent. In this paper, we develop a set of algorithms that extracts a theory from a classification, though not necessarily unique. This work is inclusive of an algorithm which checks whether a regular closure (based on structural rules) of a theory is a theory of a given classification. An example of this work is demonstrated through a satellite communication Store and Forward operation.
14:55 THEFOSE - Theoretical Foundations of System Engineering: A First Feedback
Omar Hammami (ENSTA Paris tech, France); William Edmonson (North Carolina A&T State University, USA)
This paper presents a feedback on the first special session on the theoretical foundations on system engineering held during SYSCON 2015.The papers presented during this special session adressed several topics related to formal verification of systems, optimization of systems (bilevel stochastic, game theory, multiobjective), systems evaluation through simulation , safety analysis of systems, architecture frameworks and theoretical complexity of systems. We propose in this paper a unified framework for the integration of all these contributions as a first feedback and analyze the interactions between these contributions. In turn this opens new research avenues.

3C3: Systems Engineering I

Room: Bramante 14
Chair: Charles Pickar (Naval Postgraduate School, USA)
13:45 Using the role matrix technique to identify organisational changes: A practical study within London Underground escalators maintenance service
Luminita Ciocoiu, Carys Siemieniuch and Ella-Mae Hubbard (Loughborough University, United Kingdom (Great Britain))
Increasing financial and service demand pressures drives the London Underground maintenance business to shift its focus from reactive to proactive maintenance. Part of the strategy is to enhance the current condition monitoring capability through the introduction of intelligent remote condition monitoring (RCM) systems that could provide advisory information regarding the optimum time to undertake maintenance interventions. In this paper we present a case study that utilises the Role Matrix Technique (RMT) to identify the organisational challenges associated with the implementation of the RCM system within the London Underground escalator maintenance service. The RMT is a paper-based method developed by Siemieniuch and Sinclair [8] with the purpose of defining and visualising the relationships between the roles in a given process. The RMT can be used as a means to promote discussions between process owners and other stakeholders regarding the roles that should be involved in a process and the responsibilities and relationships between them, to ensure that the process is as effective and efficient as it can be [9]. The RMT has been proven to be a straightforward and powerful technique to identify and represent possible organisational changes and potential alternative organisational configurations associated with introduction of intelligent systems, such as the RCM within an organisation, in this case the LU escalator maintenance part of the business. The analysis revealed that the changes in the current condition monitoring related roles would have a knock-on effect on the activities involved in the maintenance process. This in turn triggers a change in the responsibilities that the current roles have and therefore will impact the configuration of the activities within the maintenance process and inevitably the timing and positioning of decision points within the system.
14:20 Beyond Cost, Schedule and Performance: Managing system-of-systems programs
Charles Pickar (Naval Postgraduate School, USA)
Project management theory has not advanced beyond that developed in the mid-20th century, even as project management practice struggles with managing complex systems development. Cost, schedule and performance are insufficient management focal points in the challenged world of system-of-systems development. Acknowledging the systems aspect in managing projects, and the problem solving methodologies of systems engineering provides a basis rooted in engineering to address the challenges of the system-of-systems program management. This paper is a survey of systems, management and the cognitive sciences. The intent is to identify system-of-systems management focal points that go beyond the methodism approach to project management prevalent today. A systems approach to project management complements the increased importance of systems engineering. The idea of adopting a systems approach to general management has been suggested in the literature since the 1960s. The emphasis of these early studies included the pursuit of efficiency, an emphasis on planning, and a general belief that systems thinking would lead to success. Key to this idea is that system engineering management of the technical aspects of development should be mirrored by a systems approach in the management of that technical effort This paper surveys systems, management and the cognitive sciences to model management principles suitable for the effective management of system-of-systems development. The intent is to define a system-of-systems project management approach that goes beyond the methodism used in project management today. The end state is identification of system-of-systems attributes that together with cost, schedule and performance will be able to provide a framework for management.
14:55 A System Engineering Data Management Framework in a Large Scale Project in the ATM Domain
Luigi Mazzucchelli (ENAV S.p.A., Italy); Enrico Mancin (IBM Italia SpA, Italy)
SESAR (Single European Sky ATM Research is the technological pillar of the Single European Sky. It aims to improve Air Traffic Management (ATM) performance by modernizing and harmonizing ATM systems through the definition, development, validation and deployment of innovative technological and operational solutions. These innovative solutions constitute what is known as the SESAR concept of operations. The SESAR programme constitutes one of the biggest project of projects worldwide in the ATM domain. An impressive value was injected by the SESAR Joint Undertaking, in its leading role of the programme, to ensure that a programme of such dimension is delivering the impacts and solutions it demands. In this context, hundreds of operational projects and technical projects, that - respectively - describes the (ATM) operational need and that deliver the right industrial products, posed a huge challenge to the system engineering perspective. It was the first time in the ATM domain, apart of the US NextGen program, that a such a complexity of scale was addressed. In SESAR, a set of transversal projects was appointed to guarantee the necessary level of consistency. The WP3 "Verification and Validation Infrastructure" is one of the major work-packages in the programme incorporating ten different sub-projects, including all the major European Air Service Navigation providers (ANSPs), all the major manufacturing Industries of the domain (Ground and Airborne) and managed by ENAV S.p.A. It has a transversal role for all the programme. This turns the WP3 as the primary testimony of all SESAR developments for the Verification and Validation Platforms in Europe in the period 2009-2016. It collected more than one-thousand engineering artifacts, ranging from user requirements to architecture to verification and validation results for more than two hundred validation exercises. In this context, the limitations of the SESAR approach in which Operational, Technical and Transversal project are cooperating in producing a set of deliverables (i.e. documents) posed a severe limitation in quality product delivery. As a consequence, the approach for system engineering in future programmes (such as SESAR 2020) shall be improved to achieve better results, economy of scale, improved number of results in a reference period - improving the economy of scale and giving to the instruments to the governance of processes. By taking a optimized approach across the lifecycle and through-out all levels of systems development from the highest system level to subsystem and component levels, development programs are more likely to meet cost and schedule targets. This means taking and implementing an holistic viewpoint supported by robust and yet simple data management framework In this respect, the paper introduces a System Engineering Data Management Framework (SE-DMF) that is be able to secure key main objectives: Development and maintenance of processes, methods and tools for Requirements Management and Requirement quality assurance, Design, implementation, maintenance and operation of suitable Tools suitable to support Requirement Management in a large scale collaborative environment - distributed geographically and heterogeneous, Setting up a framework and a SE-DMF (Cloud) platform to let operate and administer the processes and tools and ensuring technical consistency and traceability in the largest ATM programme in Europe.

3C4: System Architecture III

Room: Bramante 15
Chair: Gianluca Sforza (Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy)
13:45 Reusable SystemVerilog-UVM design framework with constrained stimuli modeling for High Energy Physics applications
Sara Marconi (University of Perugia & INFN Perugia - CERN, Italy); Elia Conti (University of Perugia & INFN Perugia, Italy); Pisana Placidi (University of Perugia, Italy); Jorgen Christiansen (CERN, Switzerland)
A system-level design framework based on SystemVerilog and the standard Universal Verification Methodology is a valuable tool to handle system complexity, evaluate multiple system architectures and achieve best design optimization through the concurrent contribution of multiple designers. This paper is focused on the implementation of such a platform for HEP applications. The specific target are next generation pixel readout integrated circuits for the High Luminosity - Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and the work is performed in the framework of the RD53 and CHIPIX65 collaborations. Thanks to the innovative verification methodology used, the environment features high flexibility and reusability of components. The framework enables designers to simulate and verify multiple DUTs and architectures, which can be described at different abstraction levels (e.g. Transaction Level, RTL,..), in an automated fashion. Constrained and configurable modeling of a wide set of stimuli is provided and statistics on chip performance are collected in order to guide design choices at different stages of the flow. This work is focused on the evaluation of alternative strategies for sharing buffering resources, which are limited in the application because of the impact on area and power consumption. Simulation results are reported for two possible configurations (i.e. sharing within 2x2 or 4x4 pixels) in terms of buffer occupancy.
14:11 Capability audit for modular system development - Assessing important factors for establishing and maintaining common modular system architectures
Markus Heilemann (University of Bath); Steve Culley (University of Bath, United Kingdom (Great Britain))
For companies which want to tackle complexity by improving commonality, modular product architectures are seen as important enabler for sharing standardized modules across different projects. Although numerous examples in systems business can be found where companies established modular architectures, they still face difficulties to reuse standardized architectural elements in a wide range of different engineering projects. One of the major reason for these difficulties is the focus on single system development projects instead of scoping multiple projects. However, when transitioning from single-solution focus toward a more generic multi-solution focus, engineering projects are prone to failure due to lack of time, resources, motivation and information. Consequently, the common modular product architecture loses its stability and breaks apart which results in branched architectures, isolated projects and system with little commonality. Therefore, it is the aim of this paper to present an audit questionnaire that assesses the capability of a company to establish common modular system architectures from which a high variety of different systems can be derived. In order to develop the audit questionnaire, issues, important factors and appropriate means of support were identified and tested during a longitudinal case study in industry for more than four years. The innovative audit questionnaire suggests concrete actions to improve system engineering processes concerning their capability to create modules that can be shared across a wide variety of products. This support will help companies to cut complexity, cost and risk of failure in transitioning toward modular system development with common architectures.
14:37 An Advanced System Architecture for the Maintenance Work in Extreme Environment
Md Fasiul Alam (National Kapodistrian University of Athens); Serafeim Katsikas (Prisma Electronics SA); Stathes Hadjiefthymiades (National Kapodistrian University of Athens)
The scientific objective of this paper is to figure out an advanced platform for personnel supervision and maintenance tasks. It is very essential to improve safety, reduce errors and decrease the time needed for scheduled or sudden interventions in extreme environments, including features, methods and tools. Current technology is stand-alone and none of the available technologies are integrated in a fully reliable system in order to perform maintenance work in extreme environment. In our study, a maintenance work at ATLAS detector in Large Hadron Collider at European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) has been considered. The research challenges lie in the development of real-time data-transmission, instantaneous analysis of data coming from different inputs, local intelligences in low power embedded system, interaction with multiple on-site users, complex interfaces, and portability. The proposed architecture is allocated with many sub-processing units. These are by name Video Data acquisition, Personnel Transreceving Unit (PTU), Head Mounted Display (HMD) and Web Server. Video Data acquisition system includes hardware integrated on the helmet, cameras, IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) sensors, laser, LED light, electronic board, WiFi module plus its associated software. The mobile PTU is responsible for local data processing for various sensors, image processing, 3D pose estimation, audio data acquisition, visualization and wireless interfaced devices. This PTU is based on the interactions and combinations between sub sensor modules. Sub-sensors modules are based on modular concept that can work independently or together. The main task of the processing group are 2D object detection, 3D pose determination, Pose filtering (Sensor Fusion), visualization of the information from different sources. Parts of this work are also related to process sensors data and to establish wireless communication with control and DAQ system. All hardware and software related to these tasks are compatible with commercially available frameworks. The HMD (Head Mounted Display) will be used in order to visualize the acquired information. These are HW ad SW that will render the required information (video, 3D, 2D, and sensors data) on the Head Mounted Display (HMD) hardware. This component includes HW and SW to communicate the augmented reality content to the user and to display visual information on a worker's field of view (FOV). The module serves as a supervision post, providing sensor data, video and audio stream to the supervisor. It stores data and provide the means for the supervisor to easily communicate and instruct the worker. It decides, selects and serves the AR content on multiple PTUs, automatically or with minor supervisor intervention. As a third offline function, the control system is responsible for calculating and compiling radiation maps, given the input the gamma imaging camera, as well as information of other data. Finally, this module handles the creation and configuration of the feature databases. The development of this system to be compatible with a wearable use in a highly challenging environment presents an excellent opportunity to integrate today's leading technical knowledge in a product which can become accessible to industry and general public. This study is a part of the EDUSAFE project, a Marie Curie ITN project focusing on research into the use of Virtual and Augmented Reality (VR/AR) during planned and emergency maintenance in extreme environments.
15:03 Advanced design of Automated Border Control gates: biometric system techniques and research trends
Gianluca Sforza, Ruggero Donida Labati, Angelo Genovese, Enrique Munoz Ballester and Vincenzo Piuri (Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy); Fabio Scotti (Universita' degli Studi di Milano, Italy)
The increasing demand of border crossing of today asks to speed-up the clearance process at the Border Crossing Points (BCP). Automated Border Control (ABC) gates can verify the identity of the travelers crossing the borders by exploiting the biometric traits, without the need of a constant human intervention. Biometric technologies have a relevant impact on the improvement of efficiency, effectiveness and security of the checking processes. Automated biometric checks can increase the border processing throughput of the BCP, as well as facilitate the clearance procedures, especially to frequent foreign national travelers. In ABC, the biometrics of the traveler stored into the electronic document are compared with live acquisitions, to grant the passage of the border. This paper presents the latest substantial advances in the design of ABC gates. In particular, the Biometric Verification System is presented in detail, including its hardware and software components, and the procedures followed during the biometric verification of the traveler's identity. The complex issue of measuring the performance of an ABC system is addressed, considering the real applicability of the various figures of merit usually adopted to evaluate a biometric system. The main challenges about the biometric systems currently used in ABC gates and the research trends are also highlighted.

Wednesday, September 30, 15:30 - 16:00

Coffee Break

Wednesday, September 30, 16:00 - 17:45

3D1: Systems Thinking and its Impacts

Room: Bramante 11
Chair: Thomas A McDermott, Jr (Georgia Tech Research Institute & Georgia Tech Sam Nunn School of International Affairs, USA)
16:00 Wireless transmitter of basic necessities for children with cerebral palsy
Eduardo Pinos (Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, Ecuador)
This article presents a study of the advantages of using the needs transmitter designed for children with cerebral palsy. One of the problems these children face due to their living conditions have to do with everyday communication. This paralysis affects different areas of cerebral cortex, from gestation stage until the first five years of their life preventing them from performing basic activities such as playing, eating, toileting, among others. This transmitter has been a system of disability support. Therefore, the implementation of an innovative wireless system makes communication processes faster as it is a technological tool based on the use of pictograms; visualization facilitates to know the desires of children with CP. It also helps develop motor skills and language, improving cognitive deficits as well as their self-esteem thus allowing inclusion in their daily chores. The transmitter of basic needs is part of the program of Technical Aids for disabled people, which aims to improve their quality of life and thus find ways of educational and social inclusion. Currently, the University must assimilate the idea that the main sources of productivity and competitiveness depends mainly on the creativity of the generation of knowledge and proper information processing. It should be directed to favor most vulnerable. The proposals made today are not strongly designed or strategically planned especially when today in Ecuador, there are new regulations that the institutions have accepted and obeyed. However, there has not been established a guidelines for educational inclusion yet. It is not well known that technology can propose an Assistive Technology Disability Program looking for a multidisciplinary integration. The main actor of these changes leads us to form groups and stronger teaching-learning proposals and thus provide real solutions to real problems in our Ecuadorian society.
16:26 Maintenance of Human Capital by the Healthcare System: Societal and Political Impacts of Healthcare System Integration
Dennis Folds (Georgia Institute of Technology & GTRI, USA)
The healthcare system in a society is a major socio-technical system of systems that is essential to security and prosperity. Introduction of better-integrated information systems and improved medical technology has the potential to improve the cost effectiveness of the healthcare system at the societal level. These new technologies will allow healthcare services to be provided more effectively in extra-clinical settings such as schools, workplaces, and homes. There is a need for systems engineering tools to help plan the evolution of integrated healthcare systems. The need for such tools is particularly pressing in the developing world, where existing healthcare facilities may be largely isolated from each other. As these healthcare systems gain access to easier exchange of information and communications networks to enable telemedicine and remote patient monitoring, decision makers need tools to help them decide on the level of investment in these various technologies. These tools need models of the major components relevant to healthcare system performance and effectiveness. The present paper describes a notional model of the societal-level impacts of healthcare, and a discussion of the political implications. The key variables in the model are the subjective well being (SWB) and standard of living (SOL) of the population. With SWB and SOL at acceptable levels in the population, the impact of healthcare system performance in terms of reduction in disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and lost work days (LWDs) can be predicted and used, along with cost, to guide systems engineering decisions.
16:52 OpenSEAT: a Computer Framework to Jointly Model Qualitative Evaluation and Quantitative Design Aspects of Complex Sociotechnical Systems
Thomas A McDermott, Jr (Georgia Tech Research Institute & Georgia Tech Sam Nunn School of International Affairs, USA); Dennis Folds (Georgia Institute of Technology & GTRI, USA); Tommer R Ender and Nicholas Bollweg (Georgia Tech Research Institute, USA)
Complex sociotechnical systems and associated "wicked problems" do not have closed loop solutions. For example redevelopment projects that are undertaken to improve sustainability and resilience of urban built infrastructure do not often take into account the livelihoods of the resident population as formal design parameters unless the "mental models" of key stakeholders can relate the physical and human aspects together. Few people have the experience, system understanding, and influence to maintain these relationships throughout the system lifecycle. We would like to formally capture these mental models, but we lack the tools to successfully integrate the quantitative and verifiable physical infrastructure design models with the more qualitative social models that must be evaluated over time. This paper discusses the development of a design tool framework and an associated use case that combines qualitative evaluation and quantitative design aspects of a complex system into a common model-based systems engineering (MBSE) environment. This allows us to develop several new systems engineering paradigms: definition of "system constructs" that represent aggregation of combined physical and social design parameters; representation of multiple contexts in the design artifacts; formal capture of system level conceptual design into a common knowledge environment; and collaborative design tools that span multiple disciplines and differing abstraction levels. The OpenSEAT initiative is utilizing emerging research on software and systems-of-systems engineering methods and tools to design a modeling and simulation framework for data analysis and decision support in such complex sociotechnical systems. The framework supports conceptual models that capture the qualitative analysis of emerging sociotechnical systems and phenomena, which are then used to inform analytical models that can be used to analyze relevant objective measures and relationships of a design in operational use. Many aspects of the tool framework are mature, but projects using the tool framework to actually merge quantitative and qualitative analysis are currently in the conceptual design phases. One current project is developing a novel model representing human capital development in association with emerging technological systems development. The human capital model is then represented in a design tradespace that addresses both physical and social aspects of sustainable and resilient communities. We discuss this work in progress in hopes of attracting collaborators to jointly explore significant applications of the toolset.
17:18 A problem solving method using Context types
Tim Mackley (Cranfield University, United Kingdom (Great Britain))
Many shortfalls in problem solving can with hindsight be attributed to applying the wrong approach for the specific problem and its situation or context. Having identified a problem it can then be both a challenge to determine strategies that will succeed in its solution and also to communicate the value of what is proposed to gain acceptance of the way forward. We encourage a "systems approach", but how do we determine the particular approach to take for problems as diverse as the next airplane concept compared with improving the UK National Health Service? The challenge addressed in this paper is to select an approach based upon both an understanding of the problem context and an identification of the severity of the problem in terms of the risk it poses to the problem solver. This paper proposes a method based on "Context types" characterized by four-quadrant matrices. It allows the assignment of qualitative risk to a problem which in turn allows the user to tailor a problem solving approach accordingly. Some Context types are derived from existing concepts of systems thinking, but others are devised in order to provide a more comprehensive analysis of complex problems. Keywords — systems thinking; systems engineering and theory; context; complexity theory; risk analysis; engineering management.

3D2: Special Session: Theoretical Foundations of Systems Engineering (THEFOSE) II

Room: Bramante 12
Chair: Omar Hammami (ENSTA PARISTECH, France)
16:00 Multiobjective Optimization of Collaborative Process for Modeling and Simulation
Omar Hammami (ENSTA, France)
Dramatic complexity increase in system design is posing increasing challenges for a system engineering under time and resources constraints. Stringent Time to market (T.T.M.) and decreasing budgets are pushing to reconsider the usual process in system engineering in order to reduce costs and system architecture design time. System architecture design have been proved to be NP-Hard and the direct consequence is that system architecture design should be considered as an optimization problem. Considering the system architecture design as a general optimization problem requires that system architecture evaluation be integrated in the resolution of the problem with an arbitrary degree of precision through multiple depth levels in abstraction and precision and taking into account the usual frameworks used in system engineering to define system architecture. System engineering efficiency requires a seamless approach to system design. Several proposals in order to close the gap between collaborative processes, modeling processes and simulation processes. In this paper we present a multiobjective optimization approach to an integrated Collaborative Process for Modeling and Simulation. We start by a theoretical complexity analysis of the different system engineering steps involved in the process and prove the NP-completeness of several steps. This implies that the global process is at least NP-Complete and therefore requires automatic optimization techniques.Due to the conflicting requirements of various stakeholders, the multiobjective optimization approach integrate the various requirements as objectives. In particular the interactions between the system architect, the model architect and the model providers are of special interest. Indeed, model composability both from performance point of view and semantic point of view is by itself an optimization problem.
16:35 An Ontology Mindset for System Engineering
Dominique Ernadote (Airbus Defence and Space, France)
This paper presents an approach to support model- based system engineering (MBSE) which combines a standard meta- model such as UML, SysML, or NAF, with dedicated project ontologies that ease the understanding and creation of models. The approach is formalized using category theory to determine the conditions for use of project ontologies while ensuring that the resulting models comply with the selected metamodel. The paper exposes the advantages of the proposed approach over a direct metamodel-based approach or an ontology-based approach using a domain specific language (DSL).
17:10 Towards a Theoretical Foundation for Agile Development
Raman Kumar Agrawalla (Tata Consultancy Services Ltd., India)
Is it not the idea and the vision of corporates dealing in software development to create and deliver good and great software? The answer could be in affirmative. And towards this larger end of delivering high quality software and ensuring customer satisfaction, promulgated explicitly or imbibed implicitly, there has been sustained efforts towards creating and adopting new ways, new models and methods of software development. As we know, in 2001, some stalwarts and experts in various software development methods congregated in Snowbird, Utah to sign what is known as the 'agile manifesto'. Much water has flown since then across the Ganges and the Thames. The present paper is a theoretical reflection on the agile development paradigm and in the process the paper tries to propose a theoretical foundation to this fertile field, taking a system's perspective; including the system-of-systems understanding. The theoretical foundation that we present in the paper is built on the ideas relating to change as in Goldratt's Thinking Processes of the theory of constraints. For theoretical evidence, the paper discusses agile development principles and practices and then maps the agile principles to the elements of the thinking processes. We argue that since agile development is all about customer centricity, customer proximity with respect to his needs and change requirements, feedback and change in general; the theoretical underpinnings for agile development stay hidden in the body of knowledge relating to 'cybernetics of cybernetics' and the thinking processes of the theory of constraints. However, in the present paper, the focus remains to find the theoretical foundation to agile development through the change challenges and dynamics as expounded by Kotter and the thinking processes; as explained in the paper.

3D3: Systems Engineering II

Room: Bramante 14
Chair: Jill Madison (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA)
16:00 Power and Interests: Stakeholder Salience and Agendas in System Requirements Negotiations
Power and Interests: Stakeholder Salience and Agendas in System Requirements Negotiations Real world projects often behave very differently than standard systems engineering practice would suggest; stakeholder negotiations focus on expedient reality and must satisfy numerous political considerations. We propose extensions to stakeholder salience models, adding agendas and utility functions, and we use these models to explore negotiations among stakeholders with different resources and interests. This work allows nuanced expression of stakeholder salience and agendas, supporting analysis of negotiation strategies and decision trade spaces. We use these stakeholder characterizations to determine the types of tactics likely to be used during negotiations involving stakeholders with different salience profiles, and we investigate the resulting impact on stakeholder satisfaction with the process. Our preliminary experimental results indicate that stakeholders generally seem to have been more satisfied with the result than with the negotiation process itself - perhaps a natural by-product of any negotiation requiring compromise. We also note that prolonged negotiation, whether due to positive or negative negotiation tactics, is linked to a reduced stakeholder satisfaction with the process. Finally, there seems to be little to no correlation between an individual stakeholder's utility score and either result or process satisfaction. Keywords—stakeholder salience, decision trade space, stakeholder engagement
16:35 System Engineering Approach to the Communications Technology at Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS)
Muhammad Suryanegara (Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia); Naufan Raharya (University of Sydney, Australia); Muhamad Asvial (Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia)
We report our work about system engineering approach to UAS (unmanned aircraft system). We limit the approach by focusing on the domain view of communications technology. The perspective of such view is refined to the 3 main dimensions, i.e. technological innovation, standardization, and country specific issue. UAS is structured as a system consisting of drone (Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle or UAV) and its supporting elements, such as unmanned aircraft control station (Unmanned Aircraft Control System or UACS) [1]. The acronym of UAS has been adopted to reflect the system complexity, including ground stations and other elements besides the actual air vehicles. The most popular element of such system is unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV), which is commonly called drone. The vehicle has been widely used in various applications, including for the commercial, security, surveillance, public interest, scientific and military. Recent R&D have enlarge the possibility to develop further applications, including a mean to support transportation, monitoring oil fields, mobile cellular systems and also natural disaster relief. UAS popularity has made the technology much in demand by the market to be implemented. However, there are several issues need to be considered before its implementation. One of such issues is the communications technology supporting the operation of UAS. Therefore, our work is trying to approach the issue of communications technology by using a system engineering perspective. The full paper shall comprise of 5 sections. The second section discusses the technical review of the communications system in UAS. The third section discusses the proposed system engineering framework used to approach the case, consisting of 3 dimensions of domain view, while conclusion is presented in the fourth section.
17:10 Combining Systems Engineering with Technology and Manufacturing Readiness Levels to Advance Research and Development
Jill Madison, James Hayes, Daniel T Keller and Nicholas Lombardo (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA)
The Nuclear Explosions and Monitoring Program (NEMP) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) performs research and development on a suite of gas processing systems that detect and monitor atmospheric signatures indicative of nuclear explosions. Since the program is large and diverse, a systematic approach for how technology is developed and transferred is needed. This approach would standardize the technology development process across the program for consistent product delivery and facilitate technology transfer to outside entities. In addition, this new process would be made available to other R&D projects within PNNL to standardize their technology development processes. Since the NEMP has a strong record of successful laboratory system development, there was not a need to design a new R&D and technology development process, rather to strengthen it with systems engineering principles. An analysis was performed that compared the old NEMP technology development process to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and Manufacturing Readiness Levels (MRLs). A gap analysis was performed that identified the areas in which more rigor was needed and where the systems engineering principles should be applied. The analysis concluded in three specific areas that required increased rigor: requirements analysis and tracking, design review standardization, and verification and validation. In response to the gap analysis, a standardized set of templates was created to ensure both standardization and the necessary components of each activity were sufficiently addressed. Also, a suite of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) tools were applied to the program to aide in the process management of the project. Depending on the project, different tools were applied ranging from an excel workbook used as a requirements verification matrix to Cradle, a requirements development and tracking software package. Work still remains on the process roll-out and full implementation within the program. Specifically lessons are being learned for the technology transfer process to a third-party manufacturer. As the process is defined, it will be incorporated. Since the process was first applied to larger projects that require technology transfer, there is also work to be done to tailor the process to smaller research focused projects. The lessons learned from the application to smaller projects will provide NEMP the ability to better tailor their process effectively and provide standardization without stifling innovation. Outline: I. Abstract II. Introduction/Background a. NEMP program description b. Systems Engineering process need description III. Methods: Describe the methods used a. TRL/MRL evaluation: how the analysis was performed, who participated b. Templates: Creating and refining useful templates for both project specific work and for the broader program c. Tools: Implementing tools for requirements analysis and tracking, determining when it was appropriate to use the tools IV. Results a. TRL/MRL Analysis: Detailed description of the delta between the original process and the TRL/MRL process. b. How the templates were created and refined c. How the requirements development tools were selected and a description of when each type of tool was appropriate for use. d. Lessons learned including what worked and what did not V. Conclusion/Remaining Work a. Full implementation across the program b. Continual lessons learned specifically in technology transfer to a third-party manufacturer

3D4: System Considerations

Room: Bramante 15
Chair: Thilo Sauter (Danube University Krems & Vienna University of Technology, Austria)
16:00 Active Learning via Lego Mindstorms in Systems Engineering Education
Claus Nielsen and Paul Adams (Cranfield University, United Kingdom (Great Britain))
The education of Systems Engineers involves many learning aspects that cannot be taught through lecturing alone, such as how to handle unforeseen issues, and establish a holistic view of a system. An approach is presented that allows students to experience key phases of a Systems Engineering life-cycle, from requirements and design to system realisation and test, by using Lego Mindstorms as an active learning tool. Mindstorms has seen widespread use in educational settings because the central principles of the robotic kits can quickly be comprehended. Using Lego allows the focus to be on the Systems Engineering instead of other engineering efforts that would otherwise be required, e.g. electrical, software and mechanical engineering, while still including enough flexibility to not hinder creativity and design solutions. Using this approach enables students to observe the emergent outcomes of their design choices through the testing process and as a consequence, they may better understand the through-life impacts of decisions made earlier in the process. The approach is evaluated on the basis of student feedback and is shown to be an effective way of allowing Systems Engineering students to apply the techniques they have been thought, and equally to develop their own ways of applying Systems Engineering.
16:35 Hierarchical Key Management for Smart Grids
Albert N. Treytl (Danube University Krems); Thilo Sauter (Danube University Krems & Vienna University of Technology, Austria)
Smart grids constitute complex network environments interconnecting diverse entities. Data transfer in smart grids is sensitive and must be properly protected. In this context, key distribution and management is one of the biggest challenges. However, proven security approaches from the IT world can be used only to a certain extent. In particular, resource limitations in the communication network for the last mile and the field devices must be taken into account, which makes popular asymmetric public key infrastructures difficult to apply. This paper proposes an efficient solution based on symmetric keys, which has advantages for highly resource limited devices and networks. Keys are stored in security tokens, and key management follows a four-level hierarchical approach which allows to establish parallel and mutually isolated security domains for multiple service providers sharing the communication infrastructure in the smart grid. In addition, the actual session keys used for regular data exchange in the smart grid can be derived automatically by the field devices to save communication bandwidth, and thus changed frequently to increase system security. Execution time measurements of the cryptographic algorithms and estimations of the expected network overhead induced by the key management scheme demonstrate the viability and efficiency of the approach.
17:10 Systems Engineering Education for all Engineers
Richard Adcock (Cranfield University & BKCASE, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Tom Gannon (WPI, USA); Alice Squires (Washington State University, USA); Shamsnaz Virani (Worcester Polytechnic Instiute, USA)
The International Council on Systems Engineering (www.INCOSE.org) is an industrial, academic and government focused organization which takes an interest in all aspects of the professional practice of Systems Engineering. One of our strategic aims is to take a lead role in the creation of products, events and collaborations to enable and support the education of Systems Engineers and the inclusion of appropriate Systems Engineering knowledge in the education of all engineers. We understand that this sit within a broader context of the role of systems thinking in education of all types and levels. Many of our members are also connected into this broader agenda alongside colleagues from other disciplines. To contribute to this aim INCOSE have run a number of Academic Forum meetings to engage with professional university societies and engineering faculty to advance our shared aims of: 1. Sharing current experiences and successful practices to create a community of those interested in systems related education. 2. To create learning modules, examples, and other practical products to help advance this education. 3. To lobby professional societies and government agencies to add system education to their future plans. Such an event was hosted at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) on May 18-19, 2015; co-sponsored by the Systems Engineering Research Centre (SERC) and the American Society of Engineering Education (ASEE), with a follow on event at the ASEE conference on June 14th and at the INCOSE International Symposium in July (13th-17th). The theme of this forum is to improve the use of SE knowledge in the University Education of All Engineering students, and to provide products and services to enable this. This presentation will give a summary of the outcomes of this event and resulting plans for additional events and initial products to support this aim.