### Program for 2014 International Conference on Connected Vehicles & Expo

Time Schubert 1, First Floor Schubert 2, First Floor Schubert 4, First Floor Schubert 5, First Floor

#### Monday, November 3

08:30-10:20 Registration
10:20-12:20 TUTORIAL: GLOVE Architecture integration of GNSS and vehicular communications   TS0-01: Science without Borders (remote presentations) TS0-02: Science without Borders (remote presentations)
13:30-15:30 P1: Opening Plenary
15:30-15:50 Networking Break
15:50-18:30 P2: Opening Plenary
18:30-18:50 Networking Break
18:50-20:30 Networking Reception

#### Tuesday, November 4

08:30-10:00 P3: Morning Plenary
10:00-10:20 Networking Break
10:20-12:20 TS4-01: Automotive Electronics and Automatic Control TS6-01: Electric Vehicle and Transportation Electrification TS1-01: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking TS2-01: Mobile Internet, Mobility Internet and Internet of Things
12:20-13:30 Networking Lunch & Interactive Session
13:30-15:30 TS4-02: Automotive Electronics and Automatic Control TS6-02: Electric Vehicle and Transportation Electrification TS1-02: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking TS3-01: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles
15:30-15:50 Networking Break
15:50-17:50 TS5-01: Transportation and Connected Vehicles TS6-03: Electric Vehicle and Transportation Electrification TS1-03: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking TS3-02: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles
17:50-18:00 Networking Break
18:00-18:50 P4: Wrap-up Plenary

#### Wednesday, November 5

08:30-10:00 P5: Morning Plenary
10:00-10:20 Networking Break
10:20-12:20 TS5-02: Transportation and Connected Vehicles TS6-04: Electric Vehicle and Transportation Electrification TS1-04: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking TS3-03: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles
12:20-13:30 Networking Lunch & Interactive Session
13:30-15:30 TS5-03: Transportation and Connected Vehicles TS6-05: Electric Vehicle and Transportation Electrification TS1-05: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking TS3-04: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles
15:30-15:50 Networking Break
15:50-17:50 TS5-04: Transportation and Connected Vehicles TS4-03: Automotive Electronics and Automatic Control TS1-06: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking TS3-05: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles
17:50-18:00 Networking Break
18:00-18:50 P6: Wrap-up Plenary
19:50-21:30 Networking Banquet (off-site)

#### Thursday, November 6

08:30-10:00 P7: Morning Plenary
10:00-10:20 Networking Break
10:20-12:20 TS8-01: Practices, Standards, Policy, Economics, and Social Implications TS7-01: Geographic, Spatial and Social Information Systems TS1-07: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking TS2-02: Mobile Internet, Mobility Internet and Internet of Things
12:20-13:30 Networking Lunch & Interactive Session
13:30-15:30 SS3: Future Transportation: Connected, Automated, Intelligent, Electric and Electronic TS7-02: Geographic, Spatial and Social Information Systems TS1-08: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking TS5-05: Transportation and Connected Vehicles
15:30-15:50 Networking Break
15:50-17:50 SS4: Future Transportation: Connected, Automated, Intelligent, Electric and Electronic TS7-03: Geographic, Spatial and Social Information Systems TS1-09: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking TS5-06: Transportation and Connected Vehicles
17:50-18:00 Networking Break
18:00-18:50 P8: Wrap-up Plenary

#### Friday, November 7

08:30-10:00 P9: Morning Plenary
10:00-10:20 Networking Break
10:20-12:20 SS1: Future Transportation: Connected, Automated, Intelligent, Electric and Electronic TS3-06: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles TS1-10: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking TS1-12: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking
12:20-13:30 Networking Lunch & Interactive Session
13:30-15:30 SS2: Future Transportation: Connected, Automated, Intelligent, Electric and Electronic TS3-07: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles TS1-11: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking TS1-13: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking
15:30-16:50 P10: Awards & Closing Ceremony

### Monday, November 3 10:20 - 12:20

#### TUTORIAL: GLOVE Architecture integration of GNSS and vehicular communications

Riccardo Scopigno and Davide Margaria (Istituto Superiore Mario Boella, Italy); Tankut Acarman (Galatasaray University, Turkey); Jerzy Nawrocki (Space Research Centre, Poland); Bernhard Kloiber (DLR, Germany); Ali Ufuk Peker (Infotech Bilişim ve İletisim
Room: Schubert 1, First Floor

Tutorial Abstract

Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are considered as one of the most valuable means for improving road safety and transport efficiency and as an enabler of value-added services for passengers and drivers. With VANETs, drivers will receive information about nearby nodes (also beyond their visual horizon) and about events occurring in the neighborhood: this will represent a concrete opportunity for further improving the driving experience and safety, leveraging ICT solutions. VANETs have already been standardized (international harmonization is still in progress) and undergone field operational tests. Even if they are still being investigated for solving possible issues related to their scalability in the future – when a large number of cars will have been equipped with VANET transceivers – they are ready for day-1 exploitation.

VANETs are expected to have the same impact on driving, as GNSS (GPS) navigators had in the past years, with an ever increasing number of equipped cars. Even more, the availability and reliability of positioning based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) is still improving and, last but not least, new GNSSes are being deployed. In particular, Galileo is the European global satellite-based navigation system, a unique civil system under civil control that will start early services in 2015. By offering dual frequencies as standard, Galileo will deliver real-time positioning with unprecedented accuracy for a publicly available system. Furthermore, Galileo will offer enhanced availability and coverage with respect to other navigation systems. There is no need to wait to the full constellation in order to join the significant improvements, because it is fully interoperable with GPS, the United States’ Global Positioning System

From a conceptual point of view, VANETs and Galileo are just two enablers. GLOVE is a technological STREP project which addresses the mutual benefits coming from the cross-domain integration between the two. The problem is split into three steps, corresponding to the functional blocks constituting the overall GLOVE OBU: a GNSS receiver (OBUg) suitable to receive GPS/Galileo signals and to exploit SBAS (Satellite Based Augmentation System) corrections (e.g. provided by EGNOS or EDAS), integrating also information other than GNSS signals (e.g. from VANET domain); a VANET transceiver/router (OBUv) benefiting as much as possible from both time and space information; a block (OBU^) performing the integration between GNSS and VANET data, expected to improve existing vehicular services and to enable novel ones.

PART 1: The role of GNSS in VANETs (45 min)

• Fundamentals of VANETs

o MAC issues in VANETs (hidden terminal, congestion, spatial reuse).

o Decentralized congestion control techniques

• The role of Galileo and GPS time and position in current VANET solutions

o Position in CAM/DENM messages

o Geo-forwarding

o Channel switching and absolute synchronization

• Possible future on-board uses of Galileo and GPS

o Position based MACs

o Alternative TDMA approaches: the case of MS-ALOHA

- Synchronization constraints

o The role of certified time and position (future services)

PART 2: On-board GNSS receivers (30 min)

• GNSS: recent trends and role of Galileo

o The basic principles of satellite navigation

o Current status of GNSS constellations

o Galileo: role and opportunities

• The need for GNSS position integrity and authentication in ITS

o The growing menace of jamming and spoofing attacks

o Other issues in urban scenarios (multipath, non-line-of-sight signals, …)

o The classic (aviation-born) integrity approach

o The “Local Integrity” approach

o Anti-spoofing techniques

o Galileo: solutions for signal authentication

PART 3: On-board integration: the GLOVE perspective (45 min)

• On-board synchronization: results

• Other types of integration: GLOVE approach

o OBUg: Mutual positioning (collaborative positioning)

- Proof of concept

o OBUg: Cars as sensors for GNSS signal quality assessment

o OBUv: possible new MAC methods

- Visual demonstrations

o OBU^: integration of VANET messages on the navigator

- New non-distractive on-board HMIs

- The role of companion devices

Intended length

2 hours

Intended audience and assumed background knowledge

The tutorial addresses typical ICCVE attendees that, according to the topics of the tutorial can be classified as: newcomers, industrial professionals and skilled researchers.

The instructors will provide details on their slides but, depending on the feedback of the audience, they will skip some of them just highlighting results - all the information will be however available through the electronic copy of slides.

In order not to bore the audience and to simplify the comprehension, several details (propagation phenomena and their impact, protocol performance, etc.) will be facilitated through examples, simulation results and, sometimes, visual animations (they have developed two Visualization tools).

#### TS0-01: Science without Borders (remote presentations)

Room: Schubert 4, First Floor
10:20 Price Incentivised Electric Vehicle Charge Control for Community Voltage Regulation
Damian Kelly (Intel, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Fabio Baroncelli (CNIT, Italy); Christopher Fowler (Intel Labs Europe, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); David Boundy (Intel Labs Europe, Ireland); Annabelle Pratt (National Renewable Energy Lab, USA)
With the growing availability of Electric Vehicles, there is a significant opportunity to use battery "smart-charging" for voltage regulation. This work designs and experimentally evaluates a system for price-incentivised electric vehicle charging. The system is designed to eliminate negative impacts to the user while minimising the cost of charging and achieving a more favourable voltage behaviour throughout the local grid over time. The practical issues associated with a real-life deployment are identified and resolved. The efficacy of the system is evaluated in the challenging scenario in which EVs are deployed in six closely distributed homes, serviced by the same low voltage residential distribution feeder.
Presenter bio: Damian Kelly was awarded a PhD in 2010 by NUI Maynooth, Ireland for his research and development of smart home systems to monitor elders to detect cognitive decline. More recently he worked with Intel to develop algorithms for their smart home and energy management systems. He is an expert in rapid prototyping and development of algorithms in extensible software platforms with highly agile teams.
10:40 A Geographical Segment Architecture for VANET
Aidi Huang and Mehul Motani (National University of Singapore, Singapore)
Equipped with wireless transceivers, vehicles can be connected into a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) to collect, share and utilize data for a variety of purposes, such as safety, navigation and entertainment. As diverse sensors are integrated into vehicles and large numbers of wireless access points (AP) are deployed within cities, far more data can be collected and utilized to support smarter applications. However, the data explosion puts further strain on the broadcasting and routing protocols which are already challenged by the high mobility vehicular environment. In this paper, a geographical segment architecture (GSA) which clusters vehicles based on their geographic locations is proposed. Leveraging on a two-tier architecture, the GSA can exploit cluster IDs and the infrastructure to implement efficient broadcasting strategies and routing protocols. Simulation results show that GSA based protocols can achieve low delay broadcasting and high throughput routing.
11:00 Impact of Electric Vehicle Infrastructure on the University of Southern California MicroGrid
Zeming Jiang, Mohammed Beshir and Laith Shalalfeh (University of Southern California, USA)
with the growing penetration of the electric vehicles to our daily life owing to their economic and environmental benefits, there will be both opportunities and challenges to the utilities when adopting plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) to the distribution network. In this paper, a thorough analysis based on real-world project is conducted to evaluate the impact of electric vehicles infrastructure on the grid relating to system load flow, load factor, and voltage stability. University of Southern California (USC) Distribution microgrid was selected and tested along with different case scenarios utilizing the electrical distribution design (EDD) software to find out the potential impacts to the grid.
Presenter bio: Zeming Jiang is currently a PhD student in University of Southern California, majoring in Electrical Engineering. He is now acting as a research assistant in Los Angeles Smart Grid Regional Demonstration Project - USC EV program. His research intests are: smart grid, electric vehicle technology and power system analysis.
11:20 Enabling Location Based Services for Hyperlocal Marketing in Connected Vehicles
Vishnu Narayanan B (Amrita University, India); Rosmi Rehman (Vrije University, The Netherlands); Alin Devassy Ananyase (Robert Bosch(RBEI) & Amrita Center for Wireless Networks and Applications, India); Subramanian Rama (Dell Inc., USA); Punit Ahluwalia (University of Texas at Pan Am, USA); Anand Ramachandran (Amrita University, India)
Location based services is a class of computing services that uses the consumer's location data in order to personalize and enable features and services. Services include those for mapping and tracking, emergency response and disaster management and location based advertising. Of these services, location based advertising, also knows as hyperlocal marketing, accounts for the largest market share. In this paper we provide a motivating example of a hyperlocal marketing service applicable to connected vehicles and explore communication architectures for enabling such location based services. The specific scenario we consider uses sensors to automatically detect automotive problems in an intelligent vehicle and share the information wirelessly with a hyperlocal marketing server. The server, in turn, gets a dynamically updated list of hyperlocal services from retailers which would be analyzed, filtered and delivered to the consumer wirelessly so that the consumer could avail of a suitable service to address the issue. While considering different architectures we highlight the lack of a suitable standard for vehicle-to-infrastructure communication and suggest that this area needs further study.
Presenter bio: Vishnu Narayanan received his Bachelor of Technology degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering from Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kollam, India in 2014. He is currently working as a Research Associate in the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering in Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham. His research interests include Embedded System Design, Wireless Communication, Computer Vision and Machine Learning. He has worked in several pioneering projects such as Electronic Traffic Signboard and Infringement Warning System in Vehicles, Voice Controlled Wheelchair and Autonomous Robot Navigation using Stereo Vision.
11:40 Coordinated, Progressive Vehicular Headlight Glare Reduction for Driver Safety using Wireless Sensor Networks
Alin Devassy Ananyase (Robert Bosch(RBEI) & Amrita Center for Wireless Networks and Applications, India); Nithya G (Amrita Viswa Vidyapeetham, India); Vishnu Narayanan B and Anand Ramachandran (Amrita University, India)
Driving at night is one of the leading causes of traffic related deaths. The lack of adequate light at night impairs a driver, preventing him/her from being able to judge distances between objects accurately as well as preventing a driver from recognizing various objects on the street and avoiding them. Additionally, high intensity light from the headlights of oncoming vehicles causes temporary blindness, leading to accidents. In our proposed research, we measure the intensity of light incident on a vehicle (say V1) from an oncoming vehicle (say V2). If the light intensity is above a certain threshold – calibrated a priori – then vehicle V1 automatically requests the oncoming vehicle V2 to reduce its light intensity. The reduction in light intensity is automatically done by the oncoming vehicle V2 by lowering its light beam fractionally so as to satisfy the first vehicle's (V1's) request, while still maintaining adequate light for the driver of oncoming vehicle (V2). This process may need to be repeated several times before two vehicles cross each other. Thus an optimal headlight attenuation is achieved which satisfies both parties, thereby improving visibility and traffic safety.
Presenter bio: Vishnu Narayanan received his Bachelor of Technology degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering from Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kollam, India in 2014. He is currently working as a Research Associate in the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering in Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham. His research interests include Embedded System Design, Wireless Communication, Computer Vision and Machine Learning. He has worked in several pioneering projects such as Electronic Traffic Signboard and Infringement Warning System in Vehicles, Voice Controlled Wheelchair and Autonomous Robot Navigation using Stereo Vision.

#### TS0-02: Science without Borders (remote presentations)

Room: Schubert 5, First Floor
10:20 Southeast Michigan 2014 Test Bed Project Architecture Update: Developing, Refining and Implementing the USDOT's Connected Vehicle Reference Implementation Architecture
The US Department of Transportation's (USDOT) Southeast Michigan Connected Vehicle Test Bed originally hosted the USDOT Proof of Concept Testing (POC), starting in 2007. The USDOT, following the success of the POC, initiated the development of a Connected Vehicle Reference Implementation Architecture (CVRIA), and in 2013 began the final design of trial implementation of the CVRIA at the USDOT's Southeast Michigan Connected Vehicle Test Bed. All users of this facility will be encouraged to develop and deploy solutions (hardware and software) using a common graphical language that is based on the updated ITS National Architecture. The development of the project architecture for the Southeast Michigan 2014 Test Bed project has been an iterative process as it is the first real-world implementation of the CVRIA. As a result, the initial architecture design shown in December 2013 has evolved significantly based both on lessons learned from the development and showcasing of the architecture and from the implementation of various components that resulted in changes to the architecture to facilitate implementation and long-term growth and use of the system. The Southeast Michigan Test Bed must be built to accommodate a wide range of user agreements. It must be secure and accessible to a wide range of users, including the traveler - often multi-modal - and commercial and transportation providers and authorities. In addition, in must be flexible enough to support additional test beds throughout the country by providing a common platform that permits those facilities to focus their resources on testing and developing applications and systems that are relevant to those test beds. In this paper we present the updated system architecture and our process for evaluation through industry collaboration.
10:40 Front-End Buck-Rectifiers with Regeneration Capabilities
Poonam Chaudhary (ABB GISL, India); P Sen Sarma (IIT Kanpur, India)
This paper presents a high-frequency (HF) transformer solution for front-end rectification, which will especially find its suitability for traction applications. The topology is based on PWM buck-rectifier (CSI topology) and is capable of rectification and attenuation of ac voltage in a single stage. Considering the demand of high quality source current and upf operation, a single-loop control scheme is proposed which maintains constant load voltage both under powering and regenerative modes. Based on the analytical derivations, simulation results for load transition from powering to regenerative mode are included.
11:00 Edge level Vehicular Traffic Estimation using Cellular Infrastructure and Other sources
Manish Chaturvedi (Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, India); Sanjay Srivastava (Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology, India)
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) play major role in generating fine grained vehicular traffic information for city wide or larger region. However, in developing countries like India, limited ITS infrastructure is available. On the other hand, cellular infrastructure is widely deployed in India with more than 867 million cellular connections and more than 70% cellular teledensity. Also, on some major arterial roads, video cameras are deployed for surveillance purpose. Aim of this study is to assess feasibility of using these alternate sources to generate accurate traffic information for all the edges in road network. The simulation results show that, even with large location error of 250-500 meters, edge level vehicle flow estimation with good accuracy (less than 10% error) is feasible using cellular network data. Using cellular network data alone, the edges can be classified as congested or uncongested. For edge level speed estimation, we propose a simple and novel approach for fusing widely available but erroneous flow data from cellular network with the spatially sparse but accurate flow-speed data from other sources (e.g. loop detector or video cameras). The simulation results show that edge level speed estimation with good accuracy (less than 15% median error) is feasible using the proposed approach.
11:20 Development of risk factor management method for federation of clouds
Rasim Alguliyev and Fargana Abdullayeva (Institute of Information Technology, ANAS, Azerbaijan)
This paper suggests an approach for providing the dynamic federations of clouds. The approach is based on risk assessment technology and implements cloud federations without consideration of identity federations. Here, for solving this problem, first of all, important factors which are capable of seriously influencing the information security level of clouds are selected and then hierarchical risk assessment architecture is proposed based on these factors. Then, cloud provider's risk priority vectors are formed by applying the AHP methodology and fuzzy logic excerpt type risk evaluation is carried out based on this vector.
Presenter bio: Fargana Abdullayeva is a senior scientist researcher in Institute of Information Technology of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. Her research interests include Information Security, Cloud Computing Security, social networks analysis.
Presenter bio: Rasim Alguliyev has been a professor of Azerbaijan Technical University and Azerbaijan State Oil Academy. He is academic-secretary and active member of ANAS Presidium. He is the director of the Institute of Information Technology of ANAS. His research interests include virtual private networks, information security, cloud computing security, intelligent network, CDN technology, data mining, social networks analysis, ad hoc networks, sensor networks.
11:40 Vehicle Road Distance Measurement and Maintenance in RFID Systems on Roads
Yan Huo and Yumeng Lu (Beijing Jiaotong University, P.R. China); Wei Cheng (University of Washington Tacoma, USA); Tao Jing (Beijing Jiaotong University, P.R. China)
In order to enhance the safety of driving, we propose a vehicle road distance measurement and maintenance system (RDMMS) based on the emerging RFID systems on Roads (RSR), where RFID tags are deployed on the road surface to provide road information to the vehicle that has installed an RFID reader. RDMMS can measure the road distance between two vehicles via analyzing the information stored in the RFID tags and adjust the vehicle speed according to the safe distance requirement and the estimated status of the vehicle in front. Simulations demonstrate that RDMMS can always successfully avoid rear-end collision under several driving environments while keeping the driver comfortable.
Presenter bio: Wei Cheng's research interests include Cyber-Physical Systems, RFID Systems, Cognitive Networks, Security, Underwater Sensor Networks, Algorithm design and analysis.

### Tuesday, November 4 10:20 - 12:20

#### TS4-01: Automotive Electronics and Automatic Control

Room: Schubert 1, First Floor
Chairs: Mohammad Naserian (Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center, USA), Lina Altoaimy (King Saud University, Saudi Arabia)
10:20 Modern Vibration Signal Processing Techniques for Vehicle Gearbox Fault Diagnosis
Mohamed El Morsy (Czech Technical University in Prague (CTU), Prague, Czech Republic.); Gabriela Achtenova (Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic)
This paper presents modern vibration signal-processing techniques for vehicle gearbox fault diagnosis, via the wavelet analysis (WT) and the envelope technique. The results show that all approaches are effective for detecting and diagnosing localised gear faults under different operation conditions, and are more sensitive and robust than current gear diagnostic techniques. Where, the wavelet analysis is regarded as a powerful tool for the detection of sudden changes in non-stationary signals. The envelope technique has been extensively used for rolling bearing diagnostics. In the present work a scheme of using the envelope technique for early detection of gear tooth pits. The pitting defect is manufactured on the tooth side of gear of the fifth speed on the intermediate shaft of vehicle gearbox. The objective is to supplement the current techniques of gearbox fault diagnosis based on using the raw vibration and ordered signals. The test stand is equipped with three dynamometers; the input dynamometer serves as internal combustion engine, the output dynamometers introduce the load on the flanges of output joint shafts.
10:40 Hybrid Decision and Data Adaptive Antenna Array Processing for Collision Avoidance Radar
Nikola S Subotic (MTRI, USA); Liping Li and Paul Schmalenberg (Toyota Technical Center, USA); Jae Seung Lee (Toyota Research Institute of North America, USA); Koji Shiozaki (Toyota Technical Center, USA)
In this paper we describe a hybrid data and decision adaptive beam forming and processing strategy using a novel W band phased array architecture for automotive collision avoidance radars. We use the term 'decision adaptive' to denote the situation where the output of a tracking algorithm initializes the weight vector of the antenna array such that the main formed beam can be coarsely steered toward a desired, conjectured target location and clutter can be nulled. We use 'data adaptive' in the classic sense where the structure of the data provides fine angular resolution target angle estimates. This is also known as digital beamforming (DBF). This type of approach has three advantages for an automotive radar system: 1) the coarse direction beam weights are stored a priori and a simple look up table is used which makes real time computation trivial; 2) the DBF algorithm is applied at a lower dimension which alleviates both training and computation burdens; and 3) a simplified antenna array system can be used in which the various antenna channels are weighted and pre-combined into subarrays prior to the receiver electronics. This reduces on-chip real estate burden in manufacturing. We will show via analysis and simulation the performance of such a system.
Presenter bio: Dr. Subotic is a co-director of the Michigan Tech Research Institute. Formerly, he was a Senior Scientist and Department Head in the Advanced Information Systems Group at Veridian ERIM International, Inc. His technical areas of specialization are: Synthetic Aperture imaging processing and exploitation; estimation and detection theory, time-frequency analysis and the theory of partial coherence. The practical applications of his work include penetrating RADAR, passive imaging and GMTI, automatic target recognition and measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT). He is also contributing to real-time hybrid optical processing systems, detection theoretic algorithm development, computational electro-magnetics, and the application of time-series models to SAR data for sequential detection and vibration analysis. Dr. Subotic holds 11 patents. Dr. Subotic has been an invited speaker at numerous conferences, Universities and Government Workshops. His publications include contributions to 3 books, over 30 technical papers, and some 30 technical reports. He has also presented some 25 papers at technical society meetings. Dr. Subotic has served on numerous government technology panels. Most recently he has served on DARPA panels to investigate Electronic Counter-Counter Measures in ISR systems, Continuous Birth-to-Death tracking of targets, and Multi-sensor (MTI track, SIGINT, and image) fusion technologies. Dr. Subotic was a finalist for researcher of the year for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in 2000.
11:00 Measurement and Modeling of Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Noise Generated by Moving Trains in 25 kV AC High-Speed Railway Lines
Giordano Spadacini, Diego Bellan, Flavia Grassi and Sergio A Pignari (Politecnico di Milano, Italy)
This paper deals with measurement and modeling of conducted and radiated emissions (CE and RE) of high-speed trains in the low-frequency range 9-150 kHz, which are mainly generated by power-electronic converters. Firstly, an experimental procedure and a post-processing method, based on the median filter, is proposed to improve procedures foreseen in current Standard IEC 62236-2. Specifically, magnetic-field RE are characterized by a time-frequency representation, and stationary emissions are separated from transient events. Finally, a simplified model for the prediction of CE and RE is presented and compared versus a previously developed multiconductor-transmission-line approach. It is shown that the proposed simplified model provides useful results, as long as the spatial distribution of the radiated field (and not the estimation of emission levels) is of interest.
Presenter bio: GIORDANO SPADACINI is an Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering with Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy. His research interests are in the field of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), where he works on the characterization of interference effects, statistical techniques, experimental procedures and setups for EMC testing in aerospace, automotive and railway systems.
11:20 On the use of bulk current injection for testing the immunity of CAN-Bus lines
Flavia Grassi, Giordano Spadacini and Sergio A Pignari (Politecnico di Milano, Italy); Cyrous Rostamzadeh (BOSCH Robert Bosch LLC, USA)
In this work, an immunity test based on the Bulk Current Injection (BCI) test procedure is simulated, with the objective to predict the radio-frequency (RF) noise currents injected into the terminations of a CAN-bus line. To this end, an accurate model of the injection probe is combined with typical injection profiles recommended by automotive Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Standards, and with a distributed-parameter representation of the wiring harness. The model also includes possible imbalance affecting the bus terminal sections, whose non-ideal behavior is recognized to be at the basis of bus susceptibility to electromagnetic interference. As a matter of fact, the obtained predictions prove the great sensitivity of the injected current to the degree of imbalance of the terminal sections, and indicate that, in order to derive from the test consistent information to fix possible susceptibility problems, statistical models accounting for the uncertainty associated with the involved circuit components are preferable, unless accurate characterization of the terminal sections were available.
Presenter bio: GIORDANO SPADACINI is an Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering with Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy. His research interests are in the field of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), where he works on the characterization of interference effects, statistical techniques, experimental procedures and setups for EMC testing in aerospace, automotive and railway systems.
11:40 Modeling conducted noise propagation along high-voltage dc power buses for electric vehicle applications
A multiconductor-transmission-line (MTL) model of the high-voltage dc power bus of electric vehicles (composed of two shielded cables running above a metallic ground) is proposed for the prediction of the propagation of conducted electromagnetic noise up to 100 MHz. Model parameters are computed by knowing the geometry of the system and the permittivity of dielectric materials. The proposed model is validated versus measurements. Finally, an approximate lumped-parameter circuit representation is also derived from the general MTL formulation, which is specifically useful for the implementation of the model in a SPICE circuit solver.
Presenter bio: GIORDANO SPADACINI is an Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering with Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy. His research interests are in the field of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), where he works on the characterization of interference effects, statistical techniques, experimental procedures and setups for EMC testing in aerospace, automotive and railway systems.
12:00 Ethernet Video Analyzer for Vehicles
Hela Lajmi (Research Group on Intelligent Machines in ENIS sfax, Tunisia); Habib M. Kammoun (University of Sfax & REGIM-Lab., Tunisia); Adel M. Alimi (REGIM, University of Sfax, National School of Engineers, Tunisia)
The great raise in the number of Electronic Control Units (ECUs) transmitting video flows (cameras) and networking vehicular technologies has caused a raised amount of exchanged video data on in-car network. Besides, the real-time audio and video based driver assistance systems have increased swiftly. These developments have imposed new requisites in terms of data rates, efficiency, performance, capacity, etc. To date, the interconnection of in-car stream oriented tools has been accomplished by several automotive networks with restricted transmission capacities. Since IP over Ethernet affords fine conditions for video streaming by recommending high transmission capacities, modern BMW cars exploit Ethernet BroadR-Reach for connecting automotive cameras. In this paper, we will present the Ethernet video analyzer tool that record, store, decode and display the video flow for further tasks such as statistics and camera performance evaluation.
Presenter bio: Hela Lajmi was born in Sfax, Tunisia, in 1985. She received the Graduate degree in computer science,the Masters degree in new technologies of dedicated computing systems and the doctorate in computing Systems' Engineering from the National Engineering School of Sfax, University of Sfax, Sfax, in 2008, 2010, 2014 respectively. She has been pursuing the Ph.D. degree in computer systems engineering with the Research Group on Intelligent Machines, University of Sfax, since 2011.

#### TS6-01: Electric Vehicle and Transportation Electrification

Room: Schubert 2, First Floor
Chair: Tek Tjing Lie (Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand)
10:20 Monte Carlo Modelling for Domestic Car Use Patterns in United Kingdom
Sikai Huang and David Infield (University of Strathclyde, United Kingdom (Great Britain))
For the purposes of quantifying the potential impact of widespread electric vehicles (EV) charging on the UK's power distribution system, it is essential to obtain relevant statistical data on domestic vehicle usage. Since electric vehicle ownership is presently very limited, these data will inevitably be for conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, and in particular privately owned vehicles. This should not be an issue since the limited journey distances that will dealt with in this work could as easily be undertaken by an electric vehicle as a conventional vehicle. Particular attention is paid to the United Kingdom 2000 Time Use Survey (TUS) as contains detailed and valuable statistical information about household car use. This database has been analysis to obtain detailed car use statistics, such as departure and arrival time, individual journey time, etc. This statistical information is then used to build up two Monte Carlo (MC) simulation models in order to reproduce weekday car driving patterns based on these probability distributions The Monte Carlo methodology is a well-known technique for solving uncertainty problems. In this paper, key statistics of domestic car use is shown in details and two different Monte Carlo simulation approaches are presented and the simulation results have been analyzed to verify the results are as expected and are consistent with the statistics extracted from the TUS data.
Presenter bio: Sikai Huang is a research assistant in the Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering at the University of Strathclyde, where he completed his BEng Honor degree of Electronic and Electrical Engineering in 2008. He has recently been awarded his PhD degree of Electronic and Electrical Engineering at University of Strathclyde. His research interests include distributed generation and energy storage device technology and application, especially for electric vehicles and wind generation. Associated with this central challenge he also takes interests in demand side management/responsive demand.
10:40 Assessment of Electric Vehicle Charging Load and its Impact on Electricity Market Price
Prateek Jain (Indian Institute of Technology Indore, India); Trapti Jain (Indian Institute of Technology, Indore, India)
State of the art electric drive vehicles are one of the most encouraging automobile technologies to reduce our dependence on expensive, polluting fossil fuel based conventional vehicles. However, arises a new fear: the grid anxiety - whether the existing power grid, as it stands right now, will be able to handle the additional load put up by these vehicles. In this work, actual transportation statistics, together with two possible charging schemes - constant time and constant power for two charging levels of 3.3 and 6.6 kW, have been used to obtain the load profile of electric vehicles. The augmented charging load of electric vehicles may also affect the behavior of electricity market due to increase in total load. This paper analyzes the impact of vehicle's load on electricity market price in a day ahead market model. The constant time charging along with low charging power comes out to be an optimal scenario, when tested on a modified IEEE 30-Bus system.
Presenter bio: Prateek Jain was born in Sagar, India. He received the B. E. degree in Electrical Engineering from Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, India in 2008 and the M. Tech. degree in Electrical Engineering with specialization in Power Systems from Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI) Mumbai, Mumbai, India in 2010. In Aug. 2010, he joined the Department of Electrical Engineering, VJTI Mumbai, as a Lecturer and worked till Dec. 2012. Since 2013, he has been with the School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore, India, where he is currently pursuing the Ph. D. Degree in Electrical Engineering. His main research interests include power engineering, covering smart grid, interaction between electric vehicles and power system, deregulated power system, and power system protection and security. He is a Student Member of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
11:00 Electrical Drivetrains for Recumbent Tricycles
Theodoros I. Kosmanis (Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Greece); Traianos Yioultsis (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece)
The drivetrain characteristics of electrically assisted, tricycle human powered vehicles are the subject of this paper. The two configurations of the vehicle that appear commercially, delta and tad-pole, are studied regarding to the impact of the electrical drivetrain to their steering behavior. For this purpose, two corresponding tricycles, constructed at the premises of the Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki are utilized. The electronic differential system implemented in the delta human powered vehicle is theoretically analyzed. Measurements on the system during specific vehicle routes and discussion on its connection to the vehicle's steering behavior validate the system's efficiency.
Presenter bio: Traianos V. Yioultsis is Associate Professor, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. - Ph.D. degree in electrical and computer engineering: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 1998. - Postdoctoral Research Associate, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (2001-2002) - Current interests: the analysis and design of microwave/photonic circuits and antennas with fast computational techniques and the modeling of complex wave propagation problems.
11:20 Recommendations for Mitigating Low Frequency Magnetic Field Exposure in Hybrid/Electric Vehicles
Alastair R. Ruddle (HORIBA MIRA Ltd, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Lester Low (Bentley Motors, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Rob Armstrong, Linda Dawson and Andrew Rowell (York EMC Services Limited, United Kingdom (Great Britain))
The need to assess the possible exposure of vehicle occupants to low frequency magnetic fields is an emerging vehicle design requirement that is of particular significance for hybrid and electric vehicles. This paper outlines the nature of the potential threats, methods for their evaluation and practical mitigation measures that could be adopted to limit magnetic field levels within the passenger compartment.
Presenter bio: ALASTAIR RUDDLE is with HORIBA MIRA Ltd (Nuneaton, UK), where much of his work is concerned with the use of numerical modeling methods to investigate electromagnetic issues, primarily for automotive applications. Specific areas of interest include EMC, installed performance of antennas, human exposure to electromagnetic fields, and associated test and measurement methods.
11:40 Modeling Spare Capacity Reuse in EV Charging Stations based on the Li-ion Battery Profile
Fabio Pinto (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); Luis Henrique M. K. Costa (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); Marcelo Dias de Amorim (UPMC Sorbonne Universités, France)
Li-ion batteries, widely used in electric vehicles (EVs), have a specific charging profile where the power consumed varies over time and defines the amount of power the charging station needs to deliver. Achieving a proper tradeoff between charging levels, number of vehicles, and electric capacity of the plant is challenging. In order to give a solid basis for the deployment of efficient charging systems, we propose a bi-dimensional Markov chain model that considers the practical characteristics of Li-ion charging profiles. To this end, we build two scenarios that differ in their capacity to handle idle slots. We show through extensive numerical analysis that the use of spare sockets in different sizes of charging stations contributes to better energy utilization. Moreover, we apply the proposed model to the case of the city of Rio de Janeiro and show that, in a foreseeable future, if all ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) vehicles were replaced by EVs, the adoption of charging station with spare sockets will produce significantly better results in terms of availability of the station, number of admitted vehicles, and energy utilization.
12:00 First approach of profiling users of Electric Vehicles in Colombia
Laura Hinestroza (Universidad de la Costa, Colombia)
Due to climate change and reduction of fossil fuel reserves, such as oil, the introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) to market is presented as an increasingly necessary option. Not only it promotes a more efficient vehicle fleet, but results in a friendly solution with the environment. The mass adoption of EVs can be guaranteed if the potential user is identified; it implies the analysis of the requirements and constraints for the user who wants to acquire an EV. This will define the trend of the EVs technology that suits better the driver's mobility patterns. This paper evaluates the user's perception of EVs in Bogota and identifies the profile of the potential users, their needs, requirements and constraints when purchasing an EV.

#### TS1-01: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking

Room: Schubert 4, First Floor
Chairs: Mohammad A Matin (North South University, Bangladesh), Zhongjiang Yan (Northwestern Ploytechnical University, P.R. China)
10:20 Measurement and Evaluation of Communication parameters on a Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Communication Test Site
Tobias Frankiewicz (German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany); Meike Möckel (German Aerospace Center & Germany, Germany); Frank Köster (German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany)
The German Aerospace Center (DLR) currently builds up and begins to operate a test field for cooperative ITS systems using Vehicle-to-X communication. Since a longterm operation is planned several periodic measurements and test drives have to be taken and the measurement data has to be evaluated. A measurement platform for automated data acquisition and software for automatically generating evaluations is introduced here. Exemplary measurement data was captured. The evaluation results are presented and briefly discussed.
Presenter bio: Tobias Frankiewicz studied Computer and Communications Systems Engineering at Technische Universität Braunschweig and graduated in 2009. Since then, he is a research fellow at the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt), Institute of Transportation Systems in Braunschweig. Between 2011 and 2014 he lead the setup of the V2X test site in Braunschweig and now he is in charge with its operation. Since 2015 Tobias Frankiewicz is the team leader for connected vehicle infrastructure systems. His research topics are Measurement and Evaluation of communication parameters and the setup and operation of test sites for C-ITS.
10:40 Secure Pairwise Key Establishment in Vehicular Networks
Sarah Al-Shareeda and Fusun Ozguner (The Ohio State University, USA)
In vehicular networks, automobiles assist each other in accident avoidance and information sharing. However, securing the On Board Unit (OBU)'s stored and communicated data is not an easy task. In this paper, we suggest a tactic, which combines an elegant key pre-distribution scheme [16] with a somewhat homomorphic encrypting system (Boneh-Goh-Nissim) [17] to provide muddled secure session keys that can be used for encrypting transferred data in case of sudden disappearance of the vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) service. To investigate the appropriateness of the suggested model, in-depth analysis in terms of OBU storage and time overhead has been conducted and the analytical results show that our scenario is practical and fast only when some idealistic assumptions are made for small network sizes and compromisation rates.
Presenter bio: Sarah Al-Shareeda is a recent PhD graduate from the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University and a Fulbright Science and Technology Award's fellow. Her research interest is in security and privacy, cryptography, vehicular networks, smart transportation systems, wireless sensor networks, and cyber physical systems.
11:00 A Demand-Aware Location Privacy Protection Scheme in Continuous Location-based Services
Xinghua Li and Lingjuan Deng (Xidian University, P.R. China); Sheng Gao (Central University of Finance and Economics, P.R. China); Jianfeng Ma and Qingsong Yao (Xidian University, P.R. China)
Location-based Services (LBSs) via mobile handled devices have been subject to major privacy concerns for users. Currently, most of the existing works concerning the continuous LBS queries mainly focus on users' privacy demands with little consideration of the service of quality (QoS). In this paper, we propose a Demand-Aware Location Protection scheme DALP for continuous LBS requests, allowing a user to customize not only location privacy but also QoS requirement. While, this results that in considerable query points the privacy and QoS requirement cannot be met together and the location privacy protection cannot be provided for the continuous LBS query. We point out its underlying reason is that in few LBS query regions the footprints are sparse or the privacy requirements are set unreasonably high. Therefore, a maximum Demands-Aware Query Sequence algorithm MaxDAQS is proposed in the scheme. Through identifying and restraining the queries in those regions, most of LBS queries are satisfied, thus, the longest LBS query sequence is obtained which can satisfy a user's specific privacy and QoS requirements simultaneously. The extensive simulations on a large dataset prove the effectiveness of our approach under various location privacy and QoS demands.
Presenter bio: Xinghua Li received the ME and PhD degrees in computer science from Xidian University, in 2004 and 2007, respectively. He joined the School of Computer Science and Technology, Xidian University, in 2007, where he is currently a professor. His research interests include wireless networks security, privacy protection, cloud computing, and security protocol formal methodology. He is a member of the IEEE.
11:20 Evaluation Criterias for Trust Management in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs)
Qasim Alriyami (University of Derby, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Asma Adnane (Loughborough University, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Anthony Smith (University of Derby, United Kingdom (Great Britain))
Vehicular Ad-hoc networks (VANETs) have been around for some time and are still attracting research. VANETs are one of the ad hoc networks real-life applications, where vehicles communicate which each other and with fixed components known as roadside units. VANETs have unique characteristics and requirements which differ from those in standard ad-hoc networks, but the security remains a major challenge because of the very dynamic topology and the lack of infrastructure. In this autonomous and auto-organized environment, the question of whom to trust and for what becomes very important and difficult to answer. This paper addresses the issues associated with establishing trust between peers in VANET. It defines, discusses and evaluates various trust management approaches and how well they address VANET requirements. The paper also proposes criteria for assessing the effectiveness of trust management models with regards to challenges specific to VANETs
Presenter bio: Asma Adnane obtained her PhD degree in 2008 at the University of Rennes in France. Currently, she is a lecturer at Loughborough University in the department of computer science, And a member of the NetSys research theme (Network and Systems). Her research interest is ad hoc networks security, trust management, routing protocols in ad hoc network and security in vehicular networks.
11:40 A Secure QoS Proposal for Vehicular Networks
Nuno Vasco Lopes and Henrique Silva (University of Minho, Portugal); Alexandre Santos (University of Minho & Centro Algoritmi, Portugal)
Currently, VANETs (Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks) are attracting a lot of interest by the scientific community because of their usefulness in the deployment of more Intelligent Transportation Systems. However, due to the high mobility of vehicles the handover process in this sort of networks represents a serious problem, particularly when vehicles are running real-time applications such as VoIP. The goal of this work is to enhance the handover management in vehicular networks. To accomplish this goal we propose a solution, which underlies on a pre-registration phase, which will be used to exchange security and QoS (Quality of Service) parameters before the occurrence of the one handover. The proposed solution allows having secure handovers and supports Quality of Service (QoS) for applications with different requirements in VANETs. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed solution can substantially reduce the number of handovers, improving this way the quality of the service in a VoIP application.
Presenter bio: Nuno Vasco Lopes graduated in Electrical Engineering by UTAD Portugal, in 1998, and obtained a MSc Degree in Telematics at the University of Vigo, Spain, in 2003 and a Phd Degree in Computer Science at the University of Minho in 2011, and made a Post-Doc at the University of Coimbra in 2013. He is a professor at public and private Universities since 1998. Currently he is working at University of Minho as assistant professor. His current research interests are in Mobile Networks, Quality of Service, Real-Time Services, Vehicular Networks, Nano-Communication and Internet of Things. He is IEEE  Member within IEEE Computer Society and IEEE Communications Society and  Editor-in-Chief of the ACEEE (Ass. Computer Electronics and Electrical Engineers) International Journal on Communication. Guest Editor in a Special Issue about Cloud Computing and Internet of Things in the Cluster Computing Journal, the Journal of Networks, Software Tools and Applications. Most relevant project: Intelligent Computing in the Internet of Services (iCIS) (QREN national project) (http://icis.uc.pt/), in particular the task on Internet-of-Things. Organiser and chair of the 1st IoT workshop in CISTI’2014 conference (http://www.aisti.eu/cisti2014/index.php/en/workshops/iot).
12:00 A Study on Improving Performance of Communication and Ranging in Cooperative UWB Radar and IVC System
Hiroki Takahara, Sou Kurosu and Akira Nakamura (Tokyo University of Science, Japan); Kohei Ohno (Meiji University, Japan); Makoto Itami (Tokyo University of Science, Japan)
In previous study, the IVC(Inter Vehicle Communication) system using the UWB(Ultra Wideband) radar was proposed. Proposed system able to simultaneously perform ranging and communication in same packet structure and transceiver. However, vehicle information to be transmitted is not determined, ranging accuracy of radar system and communication system have not been evaluated. In this paper, transmitted data is vehicle ID and transmission time of signal, ranging accuracy of radar system and communication system are evaluated.
Presenter bio: Dr Makoto Itami is a professor of Tokyo University of Science. His primary research topics are wireless communication, signal processing and intelligent transport systems.

#### TS2-01: Mobile Internet, Mobility Internet and Internet of Things

Room: Schubert 5, First Floor
Chairs: Nuno Vasco Lopes (University of Minho, Portugal), Ozgur Karaduman (Firat University, Turkey)
10:20 Location-Based On-Board System for e-Tourism
Alexander Smirnov (SPIIRAS, Russia); Alexey Kashevnik (SPIIRAS & ITMO University, Russia); Andrew Ponomarev and Nikolay Shilov (SPIIRAS, Russia)
Nowadays location-based services become more and more popular. People travel from one location to another and usually would like to know information about places of interests around. Integration of location-based services with vehicles on-board systems opens new possibilities for delivering useful information about places of interests around using the vehicle multimedia system and voice control possibilities. The paper presents location-based on-board system for e-tourism and its implementation for Ford SYNC. The system consists of several services that find, extract and process potentially useful for the tourist information about places of interests around and provide it through user-friendly vehicle interface.
Presenter bio: Head of laboratory "computer aided integrated systems" of St.Petersburg intitute for informatics and automation of Russian Academy of Science and internation laboratory "intelligent technologies for socio-ciberphisical systems" of ITMO University. Graduated Leningrad state polytechnical university in 1979. Doctor of technical science, professor, honored scientist of Russian Federation. Author of more than 300 scientific publications. Research interests covers knowledge management, web services, group decicion support systems, virtual enterprises, supply chain management.
10:40 Parked cars as a service delivery platform
Robert Shorten (IBM Research); Wynita Griggs and Rodrigo H. Ordonez-Hurtado (University College Dublin, Ireland); Fabian Wirth (University of Passau, Germany); Martin Rufli (IBM Research - Zurich, Switzerland); Sergiy Zhuk (IBM Research, Ireland); Olivier Gallay (IBM Research, Switzerland); Rudi Verago (IBM Research Dublin, Ireland); Zubair Nabi, Chungmok Lee, Randy Cogill and Tigran Tchrakian (IBM Research, Ireland)
We introduce a new view of parked cars as a massive, flexible resource that is currently wasted. Given the power supply in batteries as well as computing, communication, and sensing facilities in cars in conjunction with the precise localization they can provide, parked cars have the potential to serve as a service delivery platform with a wide range of possibilities. We describe diverse applications that can be implemented using parked cars to show the flexibility of the infrastructure. Potential user groups and service providers are discussed. As an illustrative example, a simulation study of the use case of localizing persons in need of assistance is presented. Finally, the need for new algorithms and their analysis adapted to the specifics of parked cars is also highlighted.
11:00 Service-Based IoT Architecture For VANETs
Kevser Ovaz Akpinar and Ibrahim Ozcelik (Sakarya University, Turkey)
The Internet of Things (IoT) which provides integration of various objects over the Internet, has been widespreadly accepted as a new key technology for the Future Internet. The ability of creating intelligent IoT ecosystems by communicating devices with different networking standards has challenged researchers to apply IoT in different domains such as e-health, military, cities management, logistics, and Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Internet of Things based ITS implementations, specifically for Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANETs), essentially focus on seamlessly and transparently incorporating a numerous in-vehicle and out-of-vehicle smart devices which run on heterogeneous protocols, supporting car-to-car communication with allowing data dissemination between them, and providing effective management and optimization on services and underlying algorithms within the vehicular network. As future VANET technology direction is integration of adequate information transfer, reliable and comfortable transportation and energy oriented services, VANETs are considered within the IoT scope. However, taking over control during the communication and computation process is not an easy task. This paper, proposes a service-based IoT architecture in particular for VANETs to precisely ensure both the transparency of the IoT and impact of the Internet as part of the vehicular network architecture. The main conclusion of the research confirms the introduced structure is suitable and successfully applicable for practical scenarios.
11:20 ParkinGain: Toward a Smart Parking Application with Value-Added Services Integration
Pablo Sauras-Perez (Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research, USA); Andrea Gil and Joachim Taiber (Clemson University, USA)
Drivers cruising for parking are an important cause of traffic congestion in cities. Smart parking applications that make easier the parking search task can help to reduce this traffic and its associated environmental burden. This paper presents the conceptual modeling phase of ParkinGain, a smart parking application that helps drivers to find and reserve parking spots based on their current needs, using their car HMI system or their smartphone. In addition, the application allows the driver to extend the parking time if needed. Since the cost of deploying smart parking technologies is not negligible, the integration of other value-added services such as digital coupons of nearby merchants can help to subsidize the associated costs related to the adoption of these technologies in parking facilities. Our application is designed to integrate these services, allowing to create a smart parking ecosystem that can also be beneficial to other 'non-parking' related parties such as the aforementioned merchants.
Presenter bio: Dr. Joachim G. Taiber joined Clemson University in 2010 as a research professor member of the faculty of Automotive Engineering located at the Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR) in Greenville, South Carolina, USA. Since 2011 he is also institute director. The research focus of his institute is Sustainable Mobility and Connected Vehicle Technology where he studies in particular the interaction between vehicle and infrastructure systems. He is leading a joint economic development initiative between CU-ICAR and SC-TAC (South Carolina Technology Aviation Center) with the purpose to redevelop a significant part of an airport/business park property into a unique test bed for public and private stakeholders to develop and validate innovative vehicle-infrastructure solutions. Prior to his engagement at Clemson University, Dr. Taiber was leading the Information Technology Research Office of the BMW Group Information Technology Research Center (ITRC), the first facility created at the CU-ICAR campus. He joined BMW in Germany in 1997 as an in-house consultant for business process re-engineering in product development with a focus on functional integration and vehicle systems integration. Since 1999 he worked in different leadership positions in the BMW Group Enterprise IT organization in the areas of IT strategy, IT program management, IT innovation management and IT benchmarking. In 2005 he came to the US to implement collaborative IT innovation projects for the BMW Group in the ITRC which included topics in the domain of the “networked vehicle”. Dr. Taiber started his career as assistant to the CTO of a Swiss start-up company in the area of CAD/CAM/PDM systems where he was responsible for product strategy and university research collaboration. He holds a Master Degree in Mechanical Engineering and a PhD Degree in Technical Sciences from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETHZ). He has been instrumental to develop the IEEE Transportation Electrification Initiative and chairs a new IEEE pre-standardization working group in dynamic wireless charging.

### Tuesday, November 4 13:30 - 15:30

#### TS4-02: Automotive Electronics and Automatic Control

Room: Schubert 1, First Floor
Chair: Mohammad Naserian (Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center, USA)
13:30 Beyond mileage - Towards more secure techniques to assess the fitness-levels of smart cars
Robert Altschaffel (OVGU Magdeburg, Germany); Jana Dittman (Otto-von-Guericke-University, Germany); Tobias Hoppe and Sven Kuhlmann (OVGU Magdeburg, Germany)
Today, mainly the (mile)age is used to assess the value and/or condition of a car. This is a bad/unreliable concept, because the mileage alone is no representative indicator for a car's condition (which truly depends on much more factors) and constitutes a focus point of (frequently successful) attacks. In this paper we propose a new approach of determining a more reliable "fitness level" that extends these basic criteria and illustrate advantages such a fitness level estimation would yield for different use cases and also with regard to security issues like attack resistance. The vision of this concept is to realize this using multimodal, complementary sensor information already present in modern cars. To open the discussion with the community, we discuss the potential of a first set of 18 proposed properties, ranging from 9 physical via 4 digital to 5 behavior-based ones which are open for further future extensions and improvements. As a further contribution this paper proposes a first concept to weight the identified properties by discussing the impact of differences among them in terms of their explanatory power, freshness, security and available options to verify their plausibility. To a basic extend, this concept could even be applied to existing cars which is finally illustrated based on practical analyses using a laboratory setup of a 2008 SUV vehicle and a real 2006 limousine car.
Presenter bio: PHD Candidate at the OVGU Magdeburg, Advanced Multimedia and Security Lab under Prof. Dr. Jana Dittmann, graduated computer scientist. Fields of Interest: Digital(ized) Forensics, Protocol Analysis
13:50 Network-Based Safety-Related Vibration and Position Analysis for Railway Vehicles
Ali Hayek, Samer Telawi, Josef Boercsoek and Bashier Machmur (University of Kassel, Germany)
Nowadays many considerable efforts are being focused on the development of efficient and effective systems that increase the productivity of vehicles by controlling and manipulating the extraordinary states during the operational time. Extraordinary states ,such as sliding and spinning, play a central role in the performance of the vehicles described as interaction among different mechanical parts regarding their life-time, their wear and tear, as well as the maintenance costs. In addition, these states ultimately affect the safety of target system and their environment. Therefore, the necessity of avoiding, controlling, or manipulating these states to lower their effects into a tolerable level has become the major driver for conducting the current research work. In this paper, a prototype for safety-related platform for detecting and controlling railway vehicles, states by means of vibration capture is presented. Additionally, test procedures in order to collect the vibration data related to each state are presented; these tests were performed under the supervision of an industrial partner. Moreover, the recognized initial patterns of the vibration signals related to the studied states are also introduced.
Presenter bio: Research Assistant in the Institute of Computer Architecture and System Programming at University of Kassel.
14:10 RCM Scheduling Optimization for Circuit Breakers Based on LS-SVM
Kai Yuan and Jian Liu (Wuhan University, P.R. China)
Optimization of circuit breakers (CBs) maintenance schedule based on RCM can enhance substation reliability and lower maintenance cost. In this paper, a RCM approach based on Least Squares Support Vector Machines (LS-SVM) is proposed. Historical operation data are utilized to build a defects tree. A bi-level optimization algorithm is used to choose LS-SVM parameters. The LS-SVM algorithm is used to predict the distribution of defects before and after scheme optimization using aggregated defect data, outage duration, maintenance operation defect detection rate, etc. After the defect loss is quantified based on an expert scoring method and the Gross Domestic Product to power consumption ratio, a cost effect measurement is used to determine the best scheme. The effect of the proposed approach is verified using a numerical simulation of an electric power corporation
Presenter bio: Kai Yuan received Bachelor from Wuhan University (WHU) in electrical engineering and automation. Now, he is studying for PH.D.at Wuhan University (WHU) in Power System and Automation.
14:30 Role of Consumer Electronics platform in vehicular Architecture
Faisal Parambath (TataElxsi Limited & Trivandrum Research Centre, United Kingdom (Great Britain))
As more features have been added to vehicles, the electrical architecture of the vehicle has transformed a lot. The growth has resulted in a greater degree of complexity in electrical network designs, more ECU's in the vehicle and an increase in the wiring required in supporting these ECUs. The aim of this paper was to analyse technical feasibility and challenges in introducing CE device in to vehicular Architecture and to create an interface between the vehicle and a Consumer Electronics (CE) Device, such that the logic processing for the feature (or as much as possible) was contained within the CE Device and for the feature itself to be controlled by the user via the CE Device. In off-boarding the logic progressing from the vehicle to the CE Device, the intention was to understand whether it is possible to reduce the processing, which each ECU is supposed to do, thereby ideally reducing the ECU count, and hence weight, complexity and power consumption of the vehicle's electrical system. Preferably the vehicle would be left with an IO gateway ECU with minimal logic to interface between sensor actuators and remote CE device where in vehicle features shall be hosted. How this interface is achieved was part of the scope of this technical paper. The proposed paper shall explain the below points on the basis of experimental results, • Understand how a CE device can be used to carry out logic and processing algorithms from an existing ECU. • Understand any issues for the real time control of motor, sensors, actuator etc. from a CE device connected over a Wi-Fi link • Identify any underlying issues with development of vehicle feature on the CE Device platform • Provide feedback into re-defining vehicular architecture with support of CE device platform
14:50 Commutation Strategies of Double Sided Linear DC Motor
Recep Demirci (Gazi University & Technology Faculty, Turkey); Mehmet Tuncay (Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi, Turkey)
Requirement of linear motion in automation systems is an indispensable reality. Linear motion is commonly obtained from rotary motion via gear or belt mechanisms with additional equipment since linear motors have been less preferred than its rotary counter parts because of their problems to be solved. The most significant difficulties with DC linear motors are short stroke, low static thrust-current ratio and necessity of complex power electronic circuit for driving. In this study, commutation strategies of novel double sided PM DC linear motor which was developed has been investigated. The PM DC linear motor devised has no stroke limitations as its stroke could be extended in modular approach. It has a high static thrust-current ratio and does not require any power electronic circuit to drive although it has flexibility to be commutated with electronic circuits. Experimental results of the prototype with different commutation strategies have been presented.
15:10 Enabling rapid first-aid alert via smartphones' inertial sensors: the case of two-wheeled vehicles
Alberto Lucchetti, Mara Tanelli and Sergio Savaresi (Politecnico di Milano, Italy); Mario Santucci (Piaggio &C. S.p.A., Italy)
Road accidents involving two-wheeled vehicles are numerous indeed, and quite often cause the riders severe injuries. Therefore, developing automatic features that are able to detect the fall of the vehicle and autonomously issue first-aid calls is of particular interest for this type of vehicles. Such systems constitute a very interesting additional feature to be installed on new vehicles, even though vehicle-based solutions could hardly be cost-effective, as they would require additional sensors. To solve the problem in a low-cost and portable way, this paper proposes to use the GPS and the acceleration sensors that are on board of any modern smartphone. By properly processing these signals it is possible to detect whether the vehicle and/or the rider is lying on the ground and to issue an emergency call. The results are based on the analysis of experimental data measured on both an electric and a traditional two wheeled vehicle.

#### TS6-02: Electric Vehicle and Transportation Electrification

Room: Schubert 2, First Floor
Chairs: Hela Lajmi (Research Group on Intelligent Machines in ENIS sfax, Tunisia), Mario A Alvarado-Ruiz (Telecom ParisTech, France)
13:30 Thermal management consumption and its effect on remaining range estimation of electric vehicles
Achim Enthaler (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology & AUDI AG, Germany); Thomas Weustenfeld (Braunschweig University of Technology, Germany); Frank Gauterin (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany); Juergen Koehler (Braunschweig University of Technology, Germany)
This paper investigates the significance of thermal management energy consumption on the range of electric vehicles. It is necessary to combine consumption models of powertrain components such as the electric machine, power electronics and high voltage battery that take into account trip-based information containing a predicted speed profile and elevation data with a thermal management system that has the ability to incorporate predicted thermal losses of the powertrain. The thermal management system refers to the sum of all components within the refrigeration cycle of the vehicle as well as the associated control strategy. Based on the results of a real world drive study in an electric vehicle, it is demonstrated, that the range uncertainties introduced by the consumption of the thermal management are significant and should be considered when developing predictive range estimation algorithms. These uncertainties are further investigated by an energy flow based thermal system model. In order to minimize range uncertainties, a system architecture for the prediction of thermal management consumption is proposed.
Presenter bio: Achim Enthaler is a predevelopment engineer at AUDI AG, Germany and a doctoral candidate at the Institute of Vehicle System Technology at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. The main topic of his research is range estimation of eletrics vehicles. Mr. Enthaler received his degree in Mechatronics from the University of Linz in 2011. He is supervised by Professor Frank Gauterin, the head of the Institute of Vehicle System Technology at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
Presenter bio: Thomas A. Weustenfeld is last year Ph.D. Student at the Department of Thermal Management Electrified Vehicles at AUDI AG, Germany. He is currently working within the advance development project Central Thermal Management focused on control engineering and operational strategies. Mr. Weustenfeld received his degree in electrical engineering from the University of Dortmund in 2012. He is now supervised by Professor Jürgen Köhler, who is head of the Institute of Thermodynamics at University of Braunschweig.
13:50 Vehicle to vehicle energy exchange in smart grid applications
Jesús Fraile-Ardanuy (ETSI Telecomunicación. & Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain); Roberto Alvaro Hermana and Jairo Gonzalez Perdomo (ETSI Telecomunicacion. Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Spain); Carlos Gamallo (Technical University of Madrid, Italy); Davy Janssens and Luk Knapen (Universiteit Hasselt, Belgium)
This paper presents a novel vehicle to vehicle energy exchange market (V2VEE) between electric vehicles (EVs) for decreasing the energy cost to be paid by some users whose EVs must be recharged during the day to fulfil their daily scheduled trips and also reducing the impact of charging on the electric grid. EVs with excess of energy in their batteries can transfer this energy among other EVs which need charge during their daily trips. These second type of owners can buy the energy directly to the electric grid or they can buy the energy from other EV at lower price. An aggregator is responsible for collecting all information among vehicles located in the same area at the same time and make possible this energy transfer
Presenter bio: Jesús Fraile-Ardanuy is Associate Professor of Power Systems in Technical University of Madrid (ETSIT-UPM). He is Senior Member of the IEEE and he is the Treasure-in-charge of the Spanish IEEE Section. He is belongs to Dynamic Systems, Learning and Control Group (SISDAC) in the UPM, where he has been involved in different research projects financing by European Commission (DATASIM project), National Spanish Ministries and several private institutions. His research interests focus on modeling and control of renewable energies (hydro power plants and wind farms) using advanced control systems, fault diagnosis applied to dams, and advanced charging management of plug in and electric vehicles.
14:10 An integrated approach for simulating EVs in Transport and Electric Power Networks
Charalampos Marmaras, Erotokritos Xydas, Liana Cipcigan and Omer Rana (Cardiff University, United Kingdom (Great Britain))
Electric Vehicle market penetration is expected to increase in the next years. Transport electrification will affect both the road transport and the electric power network. The Electric Vehicle (EV) is the link between these two systems, and their interdependencies are important. The main aim of the paper is to present a system that simulates Electric Vehicles in both networks. Algorithms were developed, for the routing and charging procedures of the EV respectively. By modelling each system's main components in a Multi-Agent simulation platform, the interactions were studied to understand their interdependencies.
14:30 A Rapid Concept Development Technique for Electric Vehicle Powertrains
Khoa Hoang (The University of Sheffield & Romax Technology, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Kais Atallah (University of Sheffield, United Kingdom (Great Britain))
This paper proposes a rapid concept development tool for electric vehicle (EVs) powertrains. The proposed method takes into consideration all the powertrain components (battery pack, DC/DC converter, DC/AC converter, electrical machine) together with optimum operation of the traction machine. The method mainly employs manufacturers' data-sheets for the component parameters, and therefore exhibits high flexibility at the preliminary design stage of an EV drivetrain. It is shown that with limited computing resources, efficiency maps for the components of the Toyota Prius 2004 powertrain over the New European driving Cycle (NEDC) can be produced within several seconds.
Presenter bio: Kais Atallah is currently a Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Sheffield. From 1993 to 2000 he was a Postdoctoral Research Associate in the Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering at the University of Sheffield. His research interests embrace fault-tolerant permanent magnet drives for safety-critical applications, magnetic gearing and ‘pseudo’ direct drive electrical machines, and drive-trains for wind/tidal turbines and electric/hybrid vehicles.
14:50 Driving Without Anxiety: a Route Planner Service with Range Prediction for the Electric Vehicles
In modern smart cities, mobility based on Electric Vehicles (EVs) is considered a key factor to reduce carbon emissions and pollution. However, despite the global interest and the investments worldwide, the user acceptance level is still low, mainly due to the lack of charging services support. This is one of the main causes for the so called "EV driver's anxiety", and has led people to consider EV mobility suitable only for short routes. To contrast this issue, we propose here a route planner application supporting EV mobility also on medium and long routes, through prediction of range and charging stops. Our application estimates the minimal energy consumption path, by also considering the overhead to reach the charging stations along the way towards the destination. We demonstrate the optimality of the algorithm and we describe its implementation within a Web-application which connects to charging providers' services (to retrieve the locations of charging spots) and to Google services (for routing directions and real-time traffic data). Finally, we evaluate the scalability of our application, and we study its effectiveness in supporting EV routes on large-scale scenarios (e.g. the Emila-Romagna region in Italy) through immersive simulation techniques.
Presenter bio: Marco Di Felice received a Master and Ph.D degree in Computer Science in 2004 and 2008, both from the University of Bologna, Italy. In 2009 and 2010, he has been a visiting researcher at the Georgia Institute of Technology (Atlanta) and at the Northeastern University (Boston). Since April 2012, he is an assistant professor in Computer Science at the University of Bologna. He authored more than 60 papers on the topic of mobile and wireless systems, and he served as program co-chairs of IEEE CORAL 2012, IEEE CORAL 2013 and IEEE SWANSITY 2014, and as program committee member of more than 30 international workshops/conferences. He is associate editor of the Ad Hoc Network journal (Elsevier). His research topics include: cognitive radio systems, vehicular networks, modeling and simulation.
15:10 A Cost-Effective Electric Vehicle Charging Method Designed For Residential With Photovoltaic Panels
Xiuli Liang and Tek Tjing Lie (Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand); Mohammed Haque (University of South Australia, Australia)
In order to reduce the pressure on grid and taking benefits of off peak charging, this paper presents a smart and cost effective EV charging methodology for homes combining with renewable energy such as Photovoltaic (PV) with respect to battery degradation and preventing the battery from being overcharge. From the simulation study results, the algorithm is shown to be effective and feasible which minimizes not only the charging cost but also can shift the charging time from peak value to off-peak time.

#### TS1-02: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking

Room: Schubert 4, First Floor
13:30 V2V Communication Quality with Multi-Antnna in Field Assessment and Simulations
Kenta Wako (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan); Hirofumi Onishi (Alpine Electronics Research of America, USA); Fumio Watanabe (Alps Electric North America, Inc., USA); Fanny Mlinarsky (octoScope, USA); Tutomu Murase (Nagoya University, Japan); Sasajima Kazuyuki (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan)
In automotive and ITS industries, quality of wireless communication technologies become a hot research topic, as wireless technologies have been applied not only to entertainment or information applications, but also to mission critical safety applications. These applications have challenges, such as, large speed of wireless transmitter/receiver in a vehicle, critical radio environment for example building canyons and tunnels. Moreover, in crash warning applications by using peer-to-peer (vehicle-to-vehicle) communications, vehicles have to exchange their locations, speeds and directions between neighboring vehicles, within a few seconds prior to potential vehicle crashes, even in freeway intersections crowded with over 100 vehicles. In this paper, we will first introduce crash warning applications with vehicle-to-vehicle communication and its preliminary field assessment. Then we will introduce our simulation results of vehicle-to-vehicle communication quality for crash warning applications with considering radio interference from neighboring vehicles. Then we will introduce various multi-antenna solutions, including MIMO (Multi Input Multi Output) that improve the vehicle-to-vehicle communication quality to help more vehicles exchange data within shorter time even in areas crowded with many vehicles, including their advantages and challenges for automotive and ITS applications.
Presenter bio: Hiro Onishi is specialist at Alpine Electronics Research of America, Inc., and he is researching ITS (Intelligent Transportation System) and Intelligent vehicle technologies, more than 25 years. Now he is a member of SAE(Society of Automotive Engineers)–Vehicle Electrical System Security Committee, TRB(Transportation Research Board)–Cyber Security sub-committee, SAE–Safety & Human Factor committee and DSRC committee and other public committees. He holds a Master degree of Electronics Engineering at Nagoya University (Nagoya, Japan).
Presenter bio: Kenta Wako graduated from Tokyo Institute of Technology, Contorol and Sytems Engineering in 2013. He is a master course student of Graduate School of Mechanical and Environmental Informatics, Tokyo Institute of Technology. He has been engaged in research on V2V communication and its simulation based evaluation.
13:50 Assessment of Design Methodologies for Vehicular 802.11p Antenna Systems
Levent Ekiz (BMW Group Research and Technology, Germany); Adrian Posselt (BMW Group, Germany); Oliver Klemp (BMW Group Research and Technology, Germany); Christoph F Mecklenbräuker (Vienna University of Technology, Austria)
In this contribution, we propose and analyze performance metrics for vehicular antenna systems. Considered metrics are the following: Delta(D, RSS) giving the difference in received signal strength (RSS) of the antennas, thus illustrating their supported diversity efficiency. The antenna gain outage rate Rho(G) and the probability of antenna gain differences Rho(D). Further, the proposed performance metrics are evaluated for three prototypical vehicular antenna systems to assess their suitability for supporting IEEE 802.11p. The considered vehicular antenna prototypes employ different design methodologies to limit the interaction between their 802.11p and cellular antennas. By comparing the prototype systems based on mismatch, antenna isolation and metrics for the antenna radiation pattern, we assess their performance. We apply our benchmark results to measurements performed in a 802.11p testbed. Each prototype antenna system is evaluated according to the offered diversity efficiency, which we assess according to the RSS measured with both 802.11p antennas.
14:10 System-Level Assessment of Volumetric 3D Vehicular MIMO Antenna Based on Measurement
Adrian Posselt (BMW Group, Germany); Aline Friedrich (Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany); Levent Ekiz and Oliver Klemp (BMW Group Research and Technology, Germany); Bernd Geck (Leibniz Universität Hannover & Institute of Microwave and Wireless Systems, Germany)
This paper presents the evaluation of a volumetric 3D multi-element antenna for vehicular connectivity based on a system-level approach. First, the antenna design to be use in Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks and its realization based on molded interconnect device (MID) technology are shown. During the antenna evaluation, system-level key performance indicators like condition number and channel capacity are investigated in parallel to indicators like return loss, inter-element coupling and radiation characteristics to include effects due to vehicular antenna integration or channel conditions, which have an impact on the overall system performance. A suitable reference antenna arrangement is developed to evaluate the performance gain of the volumetric antenna design approach towards a conventional 2D setup during test drives in a live LTE network.
Presenter bio: Adrian Posselt received his Dipl.-Ing. degree in 2012 in Electrical Engineering from Leibniz University of Hannover. He then joined BMW Group Research and Technology in the area of vehicular-centric communications and is working towards his PhD degree. His principal research interests include future trends in vehicular connectivity with focus on reconfigurable antenna systems and electronics for telematics and broadcasting, MIMO antenna systems and RF signal processing in mixed signal systems.
14:30 Bigger is Better - Combining Contention Window Adaptation with Geo-based Backoff Generation in DSRC Networks
Bernhard Kloiber (German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany); Jérôme Härri (EURECOM, France); Thomas Strang (German Aerospace Center (DLR) & University of Innsbruck, Intelligence on Wheels, Germany); Stephan Sand (German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany)
The vision of safer transportation is strongly driven by the introduction of Vehicular Safety Communications (VSC) to enable new cooperative safety applications. In highly dense traffic scenarios, however, the current Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) technology is expected to face serious performance problems due to simultaneous transmissions making packets to collide with each other. In this paper, we first analyze the sources of packet collisions. The analysis reveals a significant amount of simultaneous transmissions as vehicles have chosen the same backoff counter, especially in the close vicinity, which is the most critical area with respect to safety. Based on these observations, we then introduce a new concept for DSRC backoff generation called geo-backoff. It implements two countermeasures: First, we increase the Contention Window (CW) to reduce the probability of simultaneous transmissions in general. Second, we exploit geographical information for generating the current backoff counter to further reduce the probability of packet collisions at short (critical) ranges. We analyze our concept from a traditional TX-RX perspective (latency) as well as an RX-centric perspective (update delay). The simulation results indeed have shown that geo-backoff is able to improve the communication performance, but the improvement is mainly dominated by just increasing the CW.
14:50 Virtual Road Side Units for Geo-Routing in VANETs
Alessandro Bazzi (CNR, Italy); Barbara M Masini (CNR - IEIIT & University of Bologna, Italy); Alberto Zanella (Istituto di Elettronica e di Ingegneria dell’Inform. e delle Telecomunicazioni, Italy); Gianni Pasolini (University of Bologna, Italy)
Vehicular networking is the new key context to offload the cellular network of the great amount of contents produced on the move. In this paper, we focus on the exploitation of vehicle-to-vehicle communications to deliver part of the data produced on board to the road side units (RSUs) deployed in the scenario, avoiding, as much as possible, the adoption of the cellular network. Specifically, we propose a novel routing algorithm that is based on the greedy forwarding approach and uses virtual RSUs to overcome the problem of the local minima. Through the exploitation of the proposed algorithm, data can be redirected through optimized directions with limited amount of added information. In addition, system optimization can be performed via software and the choice of the RSU positions becomes less critical. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through simulations performed using realistic vehicular traces in two European cities, showing that the proposed solution increases the amount of data transmitted through the vehicular networks.
Presenter bio: Alessandro Bazzi is a researcher of the National Research Council of Italy and he acts as Adjunct Professor at the University of Bologna for courses in the field of wireless communications. His work mainly focuses on connected vehicles. (Further information at www.alessandrobazzi.com)
15:10 Markov-Population Vehicular Networks
Dung Phuong Trinh, Youngmin Jeong and Hyundong Shin (Kyung Hee University, Korea)
In this paper, we investigate the statistical properties of a network size in vehicular ad-hoc networks. The vehicles arrive or depart at the highway through one of the traffic entry points according to a Markov population process. Using the general immigration-death process—coined as general arrival rate and general departure rate, we derive the probability distribution of the network size, i.e., the number of vehicles in a segment.
Presenter bio: Dung Phuong Trinh(S'14) received the B.S. degree in Electronics and Telecommunications from Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Vietnam, in 2012 and M.E. degree in Electronics and Radio Engineering at Kyung Hee University, Korea, in 2014. She is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree in Electronic Engineering at Kyung Hee University, Korea. She was a visiting student with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA, from 2016 to 2017. Her current research interests include wireless communications and information theory with current emphasis on MIMO systems, vehicular communication networks, and molecular communications.

#### TS3-01: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles

Room: Schubert 5, First Floor
Chair: Issam Kouatli (Lebanese American University, Lebanon)
13:30 Adaptive Cooperative Maneuver Planning Algorithm for Conflict Resolution in Diverse Traffic Situations
Michael Düring, Reza Balaghiasefi and Markus Belkner (Volkswagen AG, Germany); Kai Franke (Volkswagen AG & Group Research, Germany); Mark Gonter (Volkswagen AG, Germany); Karsten Lemmer (German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany)
Growing interest in Cooperative Driving within the field of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) put forth novel concepts for both enhanced sensing and advanced solution making. Although various approaches deal with advanced solution making, none of the concepts consider the conflict situation as an integrated conflict comprising defined end states and trajectories towards them. We propose a novel algorithm for cooperative maneuver planning that is not meant to optimize a high level strategy but shall solve a conflict in the following five steps: target point generation, risk assessment, trajectory generation, combination including assessment, and execution of the maneuvers. The proposed cooperative maneuver planning algorithm is applicable to all kinds of road users' interferences (safety, comfort, time efficiency, and consumption efficiency), highly adaptive in terms of complexity and scalability, individually parameterizable, and applicable in diverse and mixed traffic situations. Simulations indicate the wide usability and performance of this approach in two different scenarios. The algorithm solves a critical overtaking maneuver on a country road and a merging maneuver onto a highway. Modifications of the initial situation lead to different solutions and thus show the adaptive nature of the algorithm.
Presenter bio: Michael Düring was born in Germany in 1986. From 2006 until 2010, he studied in an integrated degree program receiving a bachelor's degree in engineering. He obtained his master's degree in automotive engineering in 2012 from TU Braunschweig, Germany. Since 2013, he is a doctoral candidate working for Volkswagen, Germany. He is currently working at Volkswagen Group Research in Wolfsburg. His research focuses on a cooperative driver assistance and safety system based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication for conflict resolution among road users in diverse and mixed traffic situations.
13:50 Analysis and Design of ElectromagneticVehicles Climbing on Steel Plates
Tiejun Wang, Bing Li and Fang Fang (Naval University of Engineering, P.R. China)
For facilitating inspection and maintenance, robots that can wander on walls made of steel are much in demand, Especially in situation like ship hulls and surfaces of large oil tank. So a strategy for such vehicles that carry such robots is presented in this paper based on the theory of electromagnetism. Differing from the former strategies, the proposed one makes use of the steel plate as partial magnetic circuit, which can provide thrust and attractive force simultaneously, so that the vehicle structure is simplified. A prototype was designed and manufactured. Simulating and experimental results show that the proposed strategy is valid.
14:10 Gamified Training for Vehicular User Interfaces - Effects on Drivers' Behavior
Stefan Diewald (Technische Universität München, Germany); Patrick Lindemann (University of Passau, Germany); Andreas Möller (Technische Universität München, Germany); Tobias Seitz (University of Munich, Germany); Marion Koelle and Matthias Kranz (University of Passau, Germany)
In densely populated areas, we currently see a paradigm shift in personal mobility. For the younger generation, car usership is gradually replacing the need of car ownership. However, for example, when relying on car sharing solutions, users often spontaneously drive cars they are not used to. Results are increased stress and a higher risk of accidents. For that reason, we present a mobile application-based training solution for vehicular user interfaces. The evaluation of the training application has shown that a short training cannot counteract the negative influence of operating comfort car functions while driving. The use of game design elements in the application increased the training motivation, but also lowered the information reception.
Presenter bio: Stefan Diewald studied Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, majoring in Communication and Information Technology, at the Technische Universität München (Germany). He received his Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degree in September 2010 and his Diplom-Ingenieur (Univ.) degree in May 2011. In June 2011, he joined the Institute for Media Technology at the Technische Universität München as Ph.D. candidate where he is working as a member of the research and teaching staff in the Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group. Since March 2013, he is also part of the Embedded Systems Group of the Embedded Interactive Systems Laboratory (EISLab) at the University of Passau. His research interests are in the fields of automotive user interfaces, vehicle-to-x communication and mobile applications for enhancing the individual mobility situation.
14:30 Predictive longitudinal vehicle control based on vehicle-to-infrastructure communication
Bernhard Knauder (Virtual Vehicle Research Center, Austria); Michael Karner (Virtual Vehicle Research Center); Markus Schratter (Virtual Vehicle Research Center, Austria)
Governments, industries and last but not least customer's demand for low-pollutant, efficient and comfortable vehicles has extended the system development scope towards the combination of in-vehicle systems and environment. Whereas the information from the on-board systems is available for several functions per se the environmental information has to be grabbed using sensors and/or communication devices. Optimizing fuel efficiency whilst offering a high driving comfort is the goal of the predictive cruise control functionality. An assistance function for intersections is presented within this paper. Traffic signal data is used to automatically adjust the optimal vehicle velocity during urban drive cycles through passages with intersections. The target is to avoid unnecessary acceleration and braking maneuvers which results in reduced fuel consumption. In combination with the adaptive cruise control function a full takeover of the longitudinal vehicle control is realized. Communication between vehicle and traffic lights is done using a wireless vehicle-to-infrastructure communication technique. The presented work describes the developed algorithm 'Predictive Cruise Control - Intersection Assist' such as the coupled simulation environment for the examination of the function performance. The later one involves vehicle, driver, traffic lights and wireless transmission. The effect of varying communication ranges is considered using a probability distribution function. Within the study several scenarios with and without traffic were analysed and evaluated. As a result the fuel efficiency of the implemented assistance function is confirmed. Furthermore a trip time reduction could be achieved in most of the scenarios.
Presenter bio: Dr. Michael Karner is Lead Researcher at Virtual Vehicle Research Center, Austria. He is the Project Manager for the ARTEMIS Project DEWI (Dependable Embedded Wireless Infrastructure), consisting of 58 partners from all over Europe. The project focuses on the development of wireless sensor networks, communication and applications. Additionally he is working in several national and international research projects, involving a large spectrum of cooperation partners from research institutes and SMEs up to OEMs; Topics include various research in the area of co-simulation as well as active and integrated vehicular safety systems.
14:50 Dynamic Curvature Path Tracking Control for Autonomous Vehicle: Experimental Results
Muhammad Aizzat Zakaria (Universiti Malaysia Pahang & Fakulti Kejuruteraan Pembuatan, Malaysia); Hairi Zamzuri (Malaysia-Japan Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia); Rosbi Mamat (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Skudai, Johor, Malaysia); Saiful Amri Mazlan (Universiti Teknologcy Malaysia, Malaysia); Mohd Azizi Abdul Rahman (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia & Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology, Malaysia); Abdul Hadi Abd Rahman (UKM, Malaysia)
This paper discusses a new path tracking controller strategy for autonomous vehicle. Preliminary works done by researchers shows that most of the controller performs well in a straight path and normal curve. However, the problem arises in tight curve or discontinuous path. Therefore, this work aims to reduce the gap on the tight corner problem. The controller is designed based on the dynamic curvature estimation to predict the path condition and modify the wheel speed and steering wheel angle accordingly. In this technique, the curvature estimation algorithm is presented as a required input to the controller. The curvature estimation allows the vehicle to react based on the curvature profile and threshold region detection. The comparison is made based on three different path types. The experimental results on the autonomous prototype platform are discussed to show the effectiveness of the controller.
15:10 Vehicle Speed Control Algorithms for Data Delivery and Eco-Driving
Sanjiban Kundu (State University of New York at Buffalo, USA); Amit Singh (University at Buffalo, USA); Sandipan Kundu (SUNY at Buffalo, USA); Chunming Qiao (University at Buffalo, USA); Yunfei Hou (California State University, San Bernardino, USA)
Recently, V2V/V2I and connected vehicle (CV) technologies have received considerable research interest due to its potential breakthrough applications in eco-driving, road safety, surveillance, infotainment, and many more. In this paper, for the first time in literature, we address the problem of data-aware eco-driving. Specifically, we harnessed the latest V2V/V2I technologies to propose vehicle speed advisory system based on microscopic fuel model to simultaneously minimize fuel consumption and maximize probability of data delivery, thereby making the system flexible in handling sustainability and data dependent applications. Preliminary numerical studies are carried out demonstrating significance of the problem and the proposed algorithms in terms of fuel and data downloading efficiencies.

### Tuesday, November 4 15:50 - 17:50

#### TS5-01: Transportation and Connected Vehicles

Room: Schubert 1, First Floor
Chair: Aleksandar Kostikj (Ss Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of)
15:50 Energy Saving Strategies in Mass Rapid Transit Systems
Bo-chih Peng (National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan); Nanming Chen (National Taiwan University of Science and Technology & National United University, Taiwan)
The energy cost accounts of Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) systems for a very high proportion of the operating cost and energy prices continue to rise. Therefore, the energy cost of Mass Rapid Transit systems will continue to increase. If some energy saving strategies are implemented, operating cost and energy consumption of MRT systems can be greatly reduced. This study are analyzes the optimal schedule, regenerative taper voltage adjustment and no-load voltage adjustment of traction substations to determine energy saving strategies. A case study of a Taipei MRT line, under different operating conditions is analyzed. This research adapts a commercial railway systems software to simulate the operations of Taipei MRT line. Regenerative braking energy and some other conditions for energy saving strategies are simulated. Energy saving effects are estimated to show the achievement of operational cost savings.
Presenter bio: Nanming Chen was born in Tainan, Taiwan, 1951. He graduated from National Taiwan University with BS degree 1973, obtained MS degree from Virginia Polytechnic Institute 1977, and Ph.D. from Purdue University 1980, all in electrical engineering. Dr. Chen has been a professor of National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (NTUST) since 1989. He served as the Dean of Research and Development of NTUST from 2000/12 to 2005/1. He also served as the director of the Advisory Office of the Ministry of Education, Taiwan and was also appointed as a director of the Board of Directors, Taiwan Power Company. He was also appointed as a commissioning member of several lines of Taipei Rapid Transit System. His research interest is in power systems, control systems, and railway electromechnical systems. Another administrative specialty is on the vocational and technological education.
16:10 Benefits of Inerters for Multi-Car Trains
Hsueh-Ju Chen (The University of Manchester, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Fu-Cheng Wang (National Taiwan University, Taiwan)
This paper applies the inerter to multi-car trains, and discusses its benefits in improving system stability and performance. An inerter is a genuine two-terminal passive mechanical element, whose reacting force is proportional to the relative acceleration of its terminals. In this paper, we build the model of multi-car trains, and discuss the advantages of applying inerters in the suspensions. The study is carried out by three steps. First, we construct a thirty-one degree-of-freedom full-train model. Second, we show that inerters can significantly improve the system's stability and performance. Last, we link multi cars, and discuss the impacts of connecting cars on system stability and performance. Based on the results, the inerters are deemed effective in improving the performance and stability of multi-car trains. Furthermore, connecting cars tends to decrease the critical speed and increase the settling time, but has no influence on the passenger comfort.
Presenter bio: Fu-Cheng Wang was born in Taipei, Taiwan, in 1968. He received the B.S. and M.Sc. degrees in mechanical engineering from National Taiwan University in 1990 and 1992, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in control engineering from Cambridge University in 2002. From 2001 to 2003 he worked as a Research Associate in the Control Group at University of Cambridge, U.K. Since 2003 he has been with the Control Group of Mechanical Engineering Department at National Taiwan University. His research interests include inerter research, vehicle suspensions, robust control, vibration control, fuel cell systems, medical engineering, and embedded systems.
16:30 Generalized Ride-Sharing: An Enhanced Model and New Results
The design of more sustainable transportation systems is an achievement that modern societies are aiming to reach. In effect, the realization of transportation supply systems and services that can help reducing the number of private vehicles is a challenge that have attracted the attention not only of researchers, but also of administrations. In this framework, particular attention is devoted to the design and the management of cheap and flexible transportation modes that can significantly boost the modal shift towards more sustainable modes. The model proposed in this paper represents an improvement of the Generalize Ride Sharing (GRS) system introduced in ICCVE2013 by means of the statement of a new optimization problem for determining the optimal departure and arrival times of users in addition to the optimal user/mode matches. Additional aims of this work are the completion of the dynamic models of the considered transportation modes and the discussion of new simulation results.
Presenter bio: Edoardo Cangialosi, Ph.D. student at Dept. of Mechanical,Energy, Management and Transportation Engineering - Polytechnic School, University of Genoa. His research interests fall back within the general framework of promoting alternative modes and intelligent use of private vehicles to face traffic problems and to organize and develop sustainable mobility. In particular, the main purposes of his studies are the definition, design and optimization of a Generalized Ride Sharing (GRS) system where not only the traditional car-owners propose trips to the so-called riders, but also buses, taxies and even car-sharing vehicles can be thought of as drivers.
16:50 Mental Workload of Young Drivers during Curve Negotiation
Cheng-Xi Li, Li, Yan Yang, Xiao-Yu Chen, Jin-Dan Xu, Shan Song, Dong-Chen Fan and Fei Chen (Southeast University, P.R. China)
An experiment was conducted in a fixed-base driving simulator to observe young drivers' performance and their physiology changes under high mental workload, while responding to two sets of mental tasks: n-back and sound counting. 20 drivers (9 of them younger than 25 (range 21-24) and 11 older than 25 (range 29-33) were instructed to drive along two sections on a highway at a constant speed. NASA-TLX scores for workload suggest an overall higher level of workload for the young drivers. For all participants, there were significant changes in heart rate when driving under high workload, compared to the single task of driving. Especially, it is significantly higher during curve negotiation. This effect was again more significant for young driver.

#### TS6-03: Electric Vehicle and Transportation Electrification

Room: Schubert 2, First Floor
Chairs: Tek Tjing Lie (Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand), Prateek Jain (Indian Institute of Technology Indore, India)
15:50 Intelligent Energy Consumption Estimation for Electric Vehicles-Business Processes and Services
Vasileios Asthenopoulos (Institute of Communication and Computer Systems, Greece); Pavlos Kosmides (National Technical University of Athens, Greece & Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus); Evgenia Adamopoulou and Konstantinos Demestichas (Institute of Communication and Computer Systems, Greece)
Nowadays, Fully Electric Vehicles are in the spotlight of energy-efficient and sustainable mobility. Their overall efficiency however, as well as their commercial viability depend strongly on the degree of confidence they offer to the driver in terms of energy savings and range characteristics. To this end, advanced consumption prediction mechanisms must be implemented in order to enable the provision of energy-based routing functionalities. In this context, this paper presents an innovative energy consumption estimation service that relies on the vehicles' travelling history and experience and deploys machine learning mechanisms in order to obtain accurate, robust and cost-efficient estimations.
Presenter bio: Mr. Vasilis Asthenopoulos received his MSc degree from the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (SECE) of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) in 2011. Since 2012 he has been working as an R&D Engineer for the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems (ICCS) in Athens, Greece, in the field of Intelligent Transport Systems. At the same time, he is pursuing his PhD degree with the Computer Networks Lab of the SECE at NTUA.
16:10 Assessing the Effect of Introducing Adaptive Charging Stations in Public EV Charging Infrastructures
Molka Gharbaoui (Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Italy); Raffaele Bruno (IIT-CNR, Italy); Barbara Martini (CNIT, Italy); Luca Valcarenghi (Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Italy); Marco Conti (IIT-CNR, Italy); Piero Castoldi (Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Italy)
The availability of publicly accessible charging stations in urban areas can foster the widespread adoption of Electric Vehicles (EVs). However, the introduction of public charging infrastructures will put an additional strain on the power grid due to the possible occurrence of peak demands. This study is a first attempt to quantitatively assess the potential benefits of introducing in a public charging infrastructure smart charging stations that are capable of modulating the current supplied to the EVs. Specifically, we assume that each charging station has limited power resources that must be shared among the EVs attached to its charging sockets according to a given scheduling strategy. To evaluate the performance of such system we utilise SUMO, an open-source and widely used vehicular traffic simulator, along with a highly realistic mobility trace for the metropolitan area of Luxembourg City. Simulation results indicate that the use of simple charging strategies that take advantage of the modulation capabilities of smart charging stations (e.g., fair-sharing or token-based scheduling approaches) can effectively mitigate the impact of EV charging demands on the power grid with a limited degradation of charging performance. However, our results also confirm that a significant investment on charging infrastructure might be necessary to guarantee a non-blocking charging service.
Presenter bio: Raffaele Bruno is a researcher at IIT, an institute of the Italian National Research Council (CNR). He received a PhD in information engineering and the Master degree in telecommunication engineering, both from the University of Pisa, Italy. His main research interests are in the areas of cyber-physical systems, sustainable mobility, and smart grid communications.
16:30 A framework for electric vehicle charging strategy optimization tested for travel demand generated by an activity-based model
This paper presents the cost optimization model which plans a charging strategy for an electric vehicle. In case of time dependent electric prices an intelligent planner is required which plans the charging strategy only at cheaper moments and places to keep the vehicle charged enough to complete its scheduled travels. This model estimates the required charging energy to travel by the electric vehicle. Then using the time dependent electric prices and available power at each period of the time suggests a charging pattern for the electric vehicle which ensures the cheapest charging cost and fulfills the constraints of battery state of the charge. According to the current market share of electric vehicles, a fraction of daily agendas created by the large scale activity-based model are used to test the proposed framework. A central power tracker is introduced which keeps track of available and required power at each period of the day. It also manages the charging requests from electric vehicles. Moreover, an experiment has been set up, it makes use of wind and solar energy production data. Price signal is derived from available power as an indicator of relative cost.
Presenter bio: Muhammad Usman is a PhD student working at Transportation Research Institute, University Hasselt. He is currently working on impact of electric vehicles electric demand on electric grid and mobility. He finished his Master in computer Science from Linkoping University, Sweden.
16:50 Lifetime Simulation of Different Lithium-Ion Batteries for Vehicle-to-Grid Application
Hartmut Popp, Dominik Dvorak and Christian Niklas (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria)
This work presents an electrical equivalent circuit model for plug-in (hybrid) electric vehicles. The model features ageing dependent parameter adoption to facilitate the simulation of ageing influences on batteries. An ageing approach based on Arrhenius' law for the standstill time and a cubic equation for transferred charge was used making the model capable of vehicle simulations with high percentages of idle phases during their long lifetime. In this case, the additional ageing through vehicle to grid use of the battery is investigated. Therefore, the model was parametrized with the data from two off-the-shelf large scale automotive cells and one generic value cell based on warranty data of commercial vehicles for comparison. Five different energy-intensive user scenarios are simulated giving lifetime values for applications with and without three different vehicle to grid modes. The cost resulting through the reduced lifetime is calculated and the first cost for the regulating energy is derived from these values.
Presenter bio: Hartmut Popp, (male) holds a BSc and a MSc degree in Industrial Electronics from the University of Applied Sciences Technikum Vienna and a Dipl.-Ing. degree (MSc equivalent) in Environment and Bio-Resources Management from the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna. From 2008 to 2009 he was a design engineer for industrial power supplies at Siemens AG Vienna. Since 2009 he works at AIT Austrian Institute of Technology on testing and modelling of Lithium Ion batteries and issued several patents and publications in modelling and diagnostics. He was involved in and/or leading numerous cofounded and industrial projects in this sector. Mr. Popp is a young engineer member of the OVE Austrian Electrotechnical Association, member in the Austrian Standards TC21 working group and a guest lecturer on electro mobility at the University of Applied Sciences Technikum Vienna.
17:10 Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Siting with Consideration of Feeder Bus Voltage Quality
Hung-Ju Liu (Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taiwan); Jen-Hao Teng and Chan-Nan Lu (National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan)
A maximal covering modelling method considering distribution feeder operation security for electric vehicle (EV) charging station siting is presented in this paper. The proposed method can be used to mitigate the charging impacts to the existing distribution network when accommodating power demands for electrified transportation.
17:30 A Publish/Subscribe Communication Framework For Managing Electric Vehicle Charging
Yue Cao (Northumbria University, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Ning Wang and George Kamel (University of Surrey, United Kingdom (Great Britain))
Electric Vehicle (EV) based applications have recently received wide interests from both commercial and research communities, thanks to the avoidance of CO2 pollution by using electric energy instead of traditional fuel energy. With the deployment of public Charging Stations (CSs), the travelling distance of EVs could be substantially increased by recharging their electric energy during journeys. Different from the existing research on decision making to improve charging performance, in this paper we focus on how necessary dynamic information in relation to the charging service can be efficiently disseminated to on-the-move EVs which potentially require charging at CSs. We propose an efficient communication framework based on Publish/Subscribe (P/S) mechanism to disseminate necessary information of CSs to EVs. Those EVs subscribing to such information could then make their individual decisions to select a desired CS for charging, according to received information such as expected waiting time. A core part of communication framework is the utilization of Road Side Units (RSUs) to bridge the information flow from CSs to EVs, which has been regarded as a type of cost-efficient communication infrastructure. In this context, we introduce two complementary communication modes, namely Push and Pull Modes, in order to enable the required information dissemination operation. Both options are evaluated based on realistic simulation models, in particular on how information freshness can influence the overall charging performance based on a common CS selection strategy.
Presenter bio: Yue Cao received the PhD degree from the Institute for Communication Systems (ICS), at University of Surrey, Guildford, UK in 2013. He was a Research Fellow at the ICS until September 2016, and Lecturer in Department of Computer and Information Sciences, at Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK until July 2017, and the Senior Lecturer since August 2017. His research interests focus on DTNs, E-Mobility, QoS/QoE in 5G.

#### TS1-03: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking

Room: Schubert 4, First Floor
15:50 Traffic Generator for HSDPA Network Simulations
Lutz Kelch (Technische Universität Braunschweig & c4c Engineering GmbH, Germany); Tobias Pögel and Lars C Wolf (Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany); Andreas Sasse (Volkswagen Group, Germany)
In the last few years numerous connected vehicular applications and services have been developed. Most of them reside in the infotainment domain, but safety-critical use cases are within the scope of current realizations. As the performance of the wireless link has a major influence on the applications' reliability and functionality, it is important to consider its characteristics as early as possible during the development process. In the prototyping stage network simulators are powerful tools. Dedicated scenarios can be arranged and repeated as often as needed in a reproducible way. To improve the validity of the simulation results, the wireless link has to be modeled as realistically as possible, considering in particular the data traffic of concurrently active users. By focusing on High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) we present a novel traffic generator, which is realized in the NodeB's scheduler. The traffic generator places additional User Equipments (UE) inside the scheduling process, which produce the desired network load. The number of additional UEs is derived from large sets of in-field client-side throughput measurements producing simulation results, which are very close to reality. The new approach is presented spanning from the modeling of traffic to the final implementation and validation using the network simulator ns-2.
Presenter bio: - studied electrical engineering from 1991 until 1997 at the Technische Universität Braunschweig - worked as software engineer and software architect in projects focussing on driver information and driver assistance systems. - since 2010: technical director of the company "c4c Engineering GmbH" in Braunschweig, Germany
16:10 Doppler Domain Localization for Collision Avoidance in VANETs by Using Omnidirectional Antennas
Billy Kihei (ReachRF LLC, USA); John A. Copeland (Georgia Institute of Technology, USA); Yusun Chang (Kennesaw State University & The Georgia Institute of Technology, USA)
Vehicle-2-Vehicle safety applications using Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) radios allow automobiles to exchange Basic Safety Messages (BSMs) to avoid automotive collisions. Most of these applications rely on GPS and integrated on-board sensors to obtain the position and motion information that is transmitted in a BSM. In the event that the BSM contents are compromised (i.e. hacking), providing an alternative method to detect impending collisions is critical. This paper proposes a creative architecture that uses omni-directional antennas to achieve 3D localization and employs Doppler domain analysis to determine the threat of collision, without changing any existing DSRC protocols. Through rigorous mathematical modeling and simulations, the feasibility of this architecture can correctly predict a head-on collision with an accuracy up to 60.87% and an optimal false alarm rate as low as of 41.70%.
Presenter bio: Billy Kihei, Ph.D. is an active researcher in the connected vehicle industry. His doctorate work discovered new characteristics about the Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) wireless channel and the V2V physical layer, which he applies in ReachRF consulting services. He is a member of the IEEE, SAE, NSF Awardee, international speaker, and published author in prestigious wireless communication technical venues.
16:30 Joint Relay Selection and Power Allocation for Pairwise Multi-Way Relay Networks
Thinh Phu Do (University of Waterloo & BBCR Group, Canada); Yun Hee Kim (Kyung Hee University, Korea); Seong Ro Lee and Min-A Jung (Mokpo National University, Korea)
We consider a multi-way relay network in which all source nodes share their data by the help of multiple singleantenna relay nodes. To mitigate a loss in the spectral efficiency, the network employs a pairwise digital network coding (DNC) which pairs the source nodes for simultaneous transmission so that the relay forwards the DNC bits of the pairs. For the network, we devise a joint relay selection and power allocation (RS-PA) scheme based on an approximation on the instantaneous symbol error probability incorporating error propagations. Simulation results show that the network with the proposed RS-PA outperforms the conventional network with the RS only with a larger gain with a larger number of relays.
Presenter bio: I received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from the Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, in 2010, and the Ph.D. degree from the Department of Electronics and Radio Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, South Korea, in 2016. Since 2017, he has been a Post-Doctoral Fellow with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo. His research interests include wireless communication theory and network architecture.
16:50 Fault Tolerance Design and Analysis in Automotive Ethernet Topology
Yan-Shing Lin (National Taipei University, Taiwan)
With the advance of automotive development, the requirements of vehicle network like bandwidth, speed and reliability are increasing continually. To find an extendable, reliable and practical vehicle network, people began to survey the automotive Ethernet network. However, distributed intelligent vehicle control system is complex enough. Therefore, we must consider three issues (1.EMI 2.Topology 3. Reliability) when we design. About EMI, we have already known that low-pass filter used at the network transport can successfully reach the vehicle standard of radiative interference, and the Ethernet immunity can be proven by power injection. Next step is to achieve the best balance between network topology and reliability to figure out the known problems of Ethernet like delay and packet loss. We improved the ITU-T G.8032, the Ethernet ring protection mechanism, to fit the automotive Ethernet network. The target is to make the network system enable to tolerate more than one failure (including node failure), and to ensure the correctness of data transmission on each node. Results showed that an effective algorithm considering with some important factors like network availability and fault model actually affects the optimal choice of network structure design. To conclude, this study hopes to lay the foundation for the new generation vehicle network to provide engineers a reference for vehicle network design.
17:10 Toward designing efficient Service Discovery Protocol in Vehicular Networks
Lamya Albraheem (King Saud University, Saudi Arabia); Mznah A. Al-Rodhaan (King Saud University & College of Computer and Information Sciences, Saudi Arabia); Abdullah Al-Dhelaan (King Saud University, Saudi Arabia)
Nowadays, it can be seen that there is an increasing interest in the field of vehicular networks due to its important applications. These applications depend mainly on the service discovery protocols which show the need for giving more work and effort to design an efficient VANET service discovery protocol. In fact, little studies have been conducted in this field. Therefore, this paper attempts to highlight some directions that can be considered for designing service discovery solution for VANETs. To explore these directions, the paper provides a literature review for the earlier studies and presents a qualitative analysis of them in order to provide some recommendations for the best design issues. This is can be considered as a step toward designing efficient protocol and may encourage researchers to contribute more in this field.
17:30 A vision for an V2X service announcement concept
Horst Wieker and Marcos Pillado Quintas (Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft des Saarlandes, Germany); Manuel Fünfrocken (Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft des Saarlandes - University of Applied Sciences & Forschungsgruppe Verkehrstelematik (FGVT), Germany); Jonas Vogt (Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft des Saarlandes, Germany)
In this paper we review the current status of the standardization process for the ITS Service Announcement mechanism. We depict the main differences between ETSI, ISO and IEEE standards, what the shortcomings are and how they could be overcome. The service-oriented architecture established in the ongoing research project COmmunication Network VEhicle Road Global Extension (CONVERGE) pinpoints the need of a new concept for the publication, announcement, discovery and provision of a service. For that purpose, two enhancements compatible with ETSI Service Announcement standard are proposed, will be integrated and assessed in a fully functional system architecture, the C2X Systems Network architecture.
Presenter bio: Prof. Dr.–Ing. Horst Wieker is full-time professor for telecommunications at the University of Applied Sciences (Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft des Saarlandes [HTW]) in Saarbruecken, Germany since 1996. His main research activities deal with switching technologies, intelligent and Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks, there especially concerning MAC- and routing protocols as well as network security. Prof. Wieker is partner in many national and international research projects like Prevent Willwarn, CVIS, DRIVE C2X, AKTIV, simTD, and UR:BAN. In CONVERGE has Prof. Wieker the consortium leadership. Prof. Wieker is development member in the Car to Car Communication Consortiums (C2C CC) and is working in the groups “Phy / Mac”, “Network” and “Applications”. Since October 2007 he is member in the Technical Committee of the C2C CC and was responsible of the Car-to-Car Demo in 2008. In 2000 prof. Wieker established the EUROTEC Solutions as an associate institute at HTW. He is the scientific leader of this institute. Before he became a full time professor Mr Wieker was employed at SIEMENS AG in Munich. There he worked as a senior system engineer in the area of public networks, hard- and software development. Later on he became project leader for narrow-broadband integration and final system test of telecommunication systems. Prof. Wieker obtained his diploma in telecommunications engineering in 1987 from the University of Bremen. While working as a scientific assistant at the department of telecommunications engineering at the University of Bremen he obtained his doctoral degree in telecommunications in 1991.

#### TS3-02: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles

Room: Schubert 5, First Floor
Chair: Mohammad Naserian (Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center, USA)
15:50 Tracking Uncertain Moving Objects using Dynamic Track Management in MHT
Abdul Hadi Abd Rahman (UKM, Malaysia); Hairi Zamzuri (Malaysia-Japan Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia); Saiful Amri Mazlan (Universiti Teknologcy Malaysia, Malaysia); Muhammad Aizzat Zakaria (Universiti Malaysia Pahang & Fakulti Kejuruteraan Pembuatan, Malaysia); Mohd Azizi Abdul Rahman (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia & Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology, Malaysia)
Laser range finder (LRF) has been widely used for detecting and tracking moving objects. In autonomous navigation, LRF provides reliable data of moving objects surrounding the vehicle for obstacle avoidance. Data association is a crucial process for a successful moving objects tracking. In urban area, objects tend to move in various directions, thus increasing the possibility of incorrect data associations. In this paper, a reliable dynamic track management based on Multiple Hypothesis Tracking (MHT) method is proposed. The Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) with Kalman filter provides extra information for track management process which increases the performance of data association. Simulations were conducted to evaluate the proposed track management in various scenarios to deal with the creation of new track, track deletion and detection of cross track. The results suggested that the proposed method produced acceptable results, reflecting the accuracy of object identification for all moving objects in all tested scenarios.
16:10 LESY-ECO: Learning system for eco-driving based on the imitation
Víctor Corcoba Magaña (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain); Mario Muñoz (Carlos III of Madrid University, Spain)
In this paper, we propose a learning method for eco-driving based on imitation. The system uses Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) in order to calculate the driving efficiency from the point of view of the fuel consumption. The input and output parameters have been selected taking into account the Longitudinal Vehicle Dynamics Model. This technique allows us to notify the user about who is the most efficient driver close to him or her and to suggest the imitation of the behavior of such driver. The proposed method promotes learning by observation and imitation of efficient drivers in a practical rather than theoretical way such as attending eco-driving lessons. The DEA algorithm does not depend on the definition of a preconceived form of the data in order to calculate the efficiency. The DEA algorithm estimates the inefficiency of a particular DMU by comparing it to similar DMUs considered as efficient. This is very important due to the dynamic nature of the traffic. A validation experiment has been conducted with 10 participants who made 500 driving tests in Spain. The results show that combining eco-driving lessons with the proposed learning system, drivers achieve a very significant improvement on fuel saving (15.82%).
Presenter bio: Víctor Corcoba got his Computer Engineering degree from the University of Granada in 2009 and and the Ph.D. degree in telematic engineering from the Carlos III University of Madrid, Leganes, Spain, in 2014. He has been with the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Department of University of Granada working in bioinformatics and artificial intelligence until 2009. In 2010, he obtained a Predoctoral Research Grant from Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation. His current work focuses on vehicle fuel saving and ubiquitous computing
16:30 A Reference Architecture for CISS/CDAS within the Field of Cooperative Driving
Kai Franke (Volkswagen AG & Group Research, Germany); Michael Düring, Reza Balaghiasefi and Mark Gonter (Volkswagen AG, Germany); Ferit Küçükay (TU Braunschweig, Germany); Karsten Lemmer (German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany)
The V2V communication is a promising technology aiming at the growing demands on safety, comfort and efficiency. A variety of research projects demonstrate the expandability of the V2V communication across the boundaries of current industry standards. The authors divide the expandability into two key aspects: collective scene description and cooperative maneuvers. This article combines the expandability of the V2V communication with systematically deduced essential automotive requirements and the challenges of a distributed decision making process. That leads to a reference architecture for cooperative driver assistance systems (CDAS) and cooperative integrated safety systems (CISS), uniting the flexibility for several implementations and a defined focus by the help of clear modules and interfaces. This article verifies the reference architecture using a cooperative merging onto a highway with a focus on the diversity of feasible implementation. The reference architecture arranges the field of research in separate problems and stimulate discussions about the proposed interfaces as an important step to future standards. Further research will gradually address the separate modules to establish the performance of CDAS/CISS and evaluate several concept variants.
Presenter bio: -2014-on going engineer Volkswagen group research, development of cooperative safety systems - 2010-2014 Phd-student, technical University Carolo-Wilhelmina of Braunschweig, Titel of Thesis: "Objectdatafusion of environmental sensors and V2V in order to develop intelligent safety systems for front collisions" - 2004-2010 studies in engineering (mechatronics), Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg
16:50 A Probabilistic, Multivariate Approach for Object Recognition in Thermal Infra-Red Images
David Spulak (UAS Technikum Wien, Austria); Richard Otrebski (University of Applied Sciences Technikum Wien, Austria); Wilfried Kubinger (UAS Technikum Wien, Austria)
For any task that autonomous vehicles may encounter in unstructured outdoor environments a reliable vision system is a key point for success. That is especially true with an autonomous convoy, where each vehicle has to track and follow the one in front. When applying a multivariate based approach for object detection, dimensional reduction of processed data is a vital part of any algorithm. Based on probabilistic classification into two classes (positive and negative) three different approaches for dimensional reduction are examined in this paper: The first method transforms new images in two reduced principal component analysis (PCA) spaces, derived from negative and positive training images respectively. The second approach calculates a mutual PCA space from all training images and the third strategy uses linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for data reduction. In these reduced spaces image classification is done with the Gaussian classifier. Through experiments it is shown that classification in the mutual PCA and the LDA space result in fewer errors and a more reliable class assignment. Furthermore, the use of LDA is more robust if confronted with incomplete training data. Finally it is shown that a confidence approximation using Gaussian processes can, if trained, identify positive and negative images and evaluates untrained images with the appropriate uncertainty.
Presenter bio: David Spulak received the degree ‘Bachelor of Science in Engineering’ in 2012. Since October 2013 he is attending the Master’s Degree Program Mechatronic/Robotics at the University of Applied Science Technikum Wien in Vienna and is working at the Department for Advanced Technologies and Mechatronics as a Junior Scientist. His current research interests include Computer Vision, Machine Learning, Evolutionary and Developmental Robotics.
17:10 Cooperative Autonomous Driving using Cooperative Perception and Mirror Neuron Inspired Intention Awareness
Seong-Woo Kim (Seoul National University, Korea)
In this paper, we present the concept of cooperative autonomous driving using cooperative perception. The cooperative perception can provide upcoming traffic situations ahead, even beyond line-of-sight and field-of-view. From a control perspective, a spatial map for navigation planning is extended up to the boundary of connected vehicles in a see-through manner. By leveraging this augmented perception capability, a better driving decision can be accomplished in terms of traffic flow efficiency and safety improvement. For this purpose, we propose a mirror neuron inspired intention awareness algorithm along with planning and control methods using the algorithm. We demonstrate the feasibility of our proposals through simulations and experiments on the road.
Presenter bio: Dr. Seong-Woo Kim is a Research Assistant Professor of Global Education Center for Engineers at Seoul National University. Before returning to SNU in 2014, he was a postdoctoral associate of Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology since Nov. 2011. He received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in electronics engineering from Korea University, Seoul, Korea and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering and computer science from Seoul National University in 2011. His research interests include cooperative perception and autonomous driving.
17:30 Optimal Vehicle Control at Highway Ramps based on Connected Vehicles and Autonomous Driving
Huixing Zhang, Yuanchang Xie and Tugba Arsava (University of Massachusetts Lowell, USA)
This research integrates autonomous driving and connected vehicles technologies for improving freeway ramp operations. Given the precise vehicle speed, location, and acceleration information provided by connected vehicles, this research develops an optimization model to optimally control both freeway and on-ramp vehicles. This control strategy is tested using VISSIM and the C2X module included in it. The results suggest that it can effectively coordinate all vehicles, increase vehicle speeds, and improve safety.

### Wednesday, November 5 10:20 - 12:20

#### TS5-02: Transportation and Connected Vehicles

Room: Schubert 1, First Floor
Chair: Syed Hassan Ahmed (Georgia Southern University, USA)
Markus Dorn (Siemens Convergence Creators GmbH, Austria); Mugdim Bublin (Siemens, Austria); Wilhelm Plotz (Siemens Convergence Creators, Austria); Heinrich Garn (Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria); Martin Litzenberger (Austrian Research Centers GmbH - ARC, Austria)
The paper describes an innovative approach of intelligent sensor system, called Fiber Sensing, which uses existing telecommunication fiber optic infrastructure to continuously monitor a highway of up to 40km Fiber Sensing is a new generation of sensors using standard telecommunication fiber optic infrastructure as microphones along highways. The application of the intelligent system allows highway operators to detect safety relevant incidents using a continuous monitoring.
10:40 Priority-based Intersection Control Framework for Self-Driving Vehicles: Agent-based Model Development and Evaluation
Milos Mladenovic (Aalto University, Finland); Montasir Abbas (Virginia Tech, USA)
Development of in-vehicle computer and sensing technology, along with short-range vehicle-to-vehicle communication has provided technological potential for large-scale deployment of self-driving vehicles. The issue of intersection control for these future self-driving vehicles is one of the emerging research issues. Contrary to some of the previous research approaches, this paper is proposing a paradigm shift based upon cooperative self-organizing control framework with end-user responsibility. Distributed vehicle intelligence has been used to calculate each vehicle's approaching velocity. The control mechanism has been developed in an agent-based environment. Self-organizing agent's trajectory adjustment bases upon a proposed priority principle. Testing of the system has proved its safety, user comfort, and efficiency functional requirements. Several recommendations for further research are presented.
Presenter bio: Milos is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Built Environment, at School of Engineering of Aalto University, Finland. Milos completed his MSc and PhD at Virginia Tech, USA, and his BSc at the University of Belgrade, Serbia. His research interests include analysis and development of sustainable transport systems and technologies.
11:00 A Generic Load Balancing Framework for Cooperative ITS Applications
Stefan Craß (Vienna University of Technology, Austria); Eva Kühn (TU Wien, Austria); Sandford Bessler (Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT) & Vienna University of Technology, Austria); Thomas Paulin (FTW, Austria)
The deployment of cooperative ITS applications is due to start as soon as 2015. Large investments in the roadside unit (RSU) infrastructure will be necessary to create a dense network and accommodate an increasing number of services, leading to a discussion about the trade-off between distributed processing and storage solutions on the RSU nodes and the centralized alternative. A strictly central solution might not be scalable, whereas the decentralized approach faces the problem that load in the form of CPU and memory usage may be unequally distributed among the nodes, causing performance bottlenecks on some of the RSUs. This work presents a solution for this problem, in form of a generic framework that balances the load between the nodes and reduces in this way the RSU costs. The interactions are based on a flexible coordination pattern for load balancing that is realized using customizable containers provided by a distributed systems middleware. This mechanism is applied to a probe data collection scenario in which individual messages are aggregated by RSU nodes, causing both CPU and memory load. Simulation results illustrate the operation in dynamic load situations.
Presenter bio: Stefan Craß is a research assistant at the Institute of Computer Languages of the Vienna University of Technology. He is currently working on his PhD thesis on secure and dependable coordination spaces. Further research interests include modular middleware architectures, space-based collaboration protocols and access control models. He holds a master's degree in Software Engineering and Internet Computing from Vienna University of Technology.
11:20 Empirical Study of Traffic Velocity Distribution and its Effect on VANETs Connectivity
Sherif M Abuelenin (Port-Said University, Egypt); Adel Abul-Magd (Zagazig University, Egypt)
In this article we use real traffic data to confirm that vehicle velocities follow Gaussian distribution in steady state traffic regimes (free-flow, and congestion). We also show that in the transition between free-flow and congestion, the velocity distribution is better modeled by generalized extreme value distribution (GEV). We study the effect of the different models on estimating the probability distribution of connectivity duration between vehicles in vehicular ad-hoc networks.
Presenter bio: Sherif M. Abuelenin (IEEE Member '05) received the B.Sc. degree in electronics and communications from Suez Canal University, Egypt in 1999, the M.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering from Tuskegee University in 2002, and the Ph.D. degree from Auburn University in 2005. He joined Tuskegee University as an assistant professor of Electrical Engineering in 2005. From 2007 to 2011 he served as assistant professor in the faculty of Engineering Sciences, Sinai University, Egypt. In 2011, he joined the faculty of engineering, Port-Said University, where he currently is an Assistant Professor of Electrical engineering. His research interests include fuzzy logic systems, inter-vehicular communications, and signal processing.
11:40 A Platoon Speed-Adjusting Algorithm for Autonomous Vehicles to Ensure Uninterrupted Traffic Flow on Arterials
Tugba Arsava (University of Massachusetts Lowell, USA)
This paper presents the microsimulation results obtained from two scenarios of applying connected vehicles and Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) to intersection control. Different from other studies in the literature, the algorithm developed in this study controls the speeds of vehicle platoons approaching an intersection as opposed to traffic signal timing. The simulation results for both scenarios are promising. Significant reductions in queue length, number of stops and delay were observed. Marginal increase in vehicle platoon speed was also observed.
12:00 Highway Traffic Flow Measurement by Passive Monitoring of Wi-Fi Signals
Paul Fuxjaeger (FTW - Telecommunications Research Center Vienna, Austria); Stefan Ruehrup (FTW, Austria); Hannes Weisgrab (FTW Forschungszentrum Telekommunikation Wien, Austria); Bernd Rainer (ASFINAG, Austria)
Motivated by the fact that a significant number of personal mobile devices are carried into vehicles and that the majority of those devices continuously emit Wi-Fi frames, we investigate the feasibility to use theses transmissions for road traffic analysis. Background transmissions are emitted by the majority of Wi-Fi-enabled devices by means of so called probe requests. We show by a real-world measurement on an Austrian motorway that a sufficient number of probe requests can be received in order to re-identify devices traveling between two locations and to estimate travel times. Our results show that by proper post-processing of measurement data, the number of generated travel time estimations per hour are comparable with conventional traffic detectors. We show how to increase user privacy by pruning parts of the Wi-Fi device identifier. This way we avoid a unique relation between a travel time measurement and a Wi-Fi device, which could potentially be linked to a user. Using such ambiguous identifiers has an impact on travel time measurements. Based on our measurements we show a trade-off between privacy and accuracy of the results.
Presenter bio: Paul Fuxjaeger is a researcher at the Telecommunications Research Center Vienna (FTW) where he works in the field of wireless mesh networks and intelligent transport systems. His main research interest is cross-layer communication using software-radio stacks.
Presenter bio: Stefan Ruehrup is senior researcher at the Telecommunications Research Center Vienna (FTW), where he manages the Communication Networks Area and works in the field of mobile communications and ITS.

#### TS6-04: Electric Vehicle and Transportation Electrification

Room: Schubert 2, First Floor
Chairs: Tek Tjing Lie (Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand), Nanming Chen (National Taiwan University of Science and Technology & National United University, Taiwan)
10:20 Automated Planning of Charge Processes for Privately Owned Electric Vehicles
Tillmann Nett and Jörn Schneider (Trier University of Applied Sciences, Germany)
Following the vision of decentrally generated and locally out-balanced renewable electric energy the research project econnect Germany investigates the end user acceptance of Vehicle2Grid and Grid2Vehicle applications. Clearly, the algorithm used to compute the charging/discharging of individual batteries in electric vehicles (EV) will be an essential factor for end user acceptance. This is because it controls the achievable driving range and the cost savings for the individual user of an electric vehicle. Additionally, the algorithm has to allow for an effective control by the energy provider to compensate for the natural fluctuations of wind and solar energy in the region. Furthermore, as the final authority to decide about charging/discharging needs to be the battery management system of the EV, it is a natural choice to embed the algorithm in an electronic control unit of the car. This paper presents an algorithm designed to meet these requirements and demonstrates that it scales down to the low computing power of embedded automotive systems.
Presenter bio: Tillmann Nett was born in 1981 in Bonn, Germany. He received a Diploma in Computer science from the University of Bonn in 2009. After his studies he worked as a software developer at the Institute for Numerical Simulation of the University of Bonn and as a Junior Software Specialist (C++) at Deutsche Telekom AG. Since 2012 he has been working as a research assistant at Trier University of Applied Sciences for the project eConnect-Trier.
10:40 Improving Energy Distribution for EV Charging Over Public Lighting Systems
Mario A Alvarado-Ruiz (Telecom ParisTech, France); Fadi Abi Abdallah (Telecom ParisTech); Maurice Gagnaire (Telecom Paristech & Institut Telecom, France)
The success of the charging infrastructure deployed for Electric Vehicles (EV) charging should not only rely on the size of the network, but in the proper management of the resources available. When the charging infrastructure is shared in order to provide different services, the constraints imposed by the System Operator (SO) of the electric network must always be respected to guarantee the simultaneous operation of all the services provided. TeleWatt is an innovative EV charging infrastructure which is shared with the electric network deployed for the Public Lighting System (PLS). The first approach of this solution remained quite conservative, as the main scope was to prove that the PLS and the EV charging system could operate simultaneously. The present work proposes adaptation of well-known on-line scheduling policies to the infrastructure of TeleWatt, which is limited by the constraints of the PLS network. This allows to treat the charge of EVs as tasks and manage them according to different priorities. This work demonstrates how the performance of the system could be improved without any physical changes in the infrastructure, but just by the way that the resources are managed.
Presenter bio: Mario Alvarado-Ruiz is a PhD candidate at Telecom ParisTech in France. He works at the Networks, Mobility and Services Group leadered by Maurice Gagnaire. His research is focused on the study and adaptation of charging strategies of electric vehicles in low voltage networks.
11:00 Utilizing Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) in High Power Grid Connected Electric Drive Vehicle (GCEDV) Wireless Charging Applications
Mohammad Naserian (Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center, USA); Allan K Lewis (Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center)
A method of locating a charging target device (vehicle) in a parking lot scenario by the evaluation of Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) of the Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) signal and Global Positioning System (GPS) data is proposed in this paper. As a result of this method, a vehicle will achieve expedited charger to system pairing while in the company of multiple chargers.
Presenter bio: Mohammad Naserian received his Ph.D. from the University of Windsor, Canada in 2008. Since 2011 he has been a lead researcher in Advanced Electronics Development department at Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center, Inc. (HATCI). He leads multiple Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) projects within Hyundai-Kia and represents Hyundai-Kia at Crash Avoidance Metric Partnership (CAMP) consortium. Prior to joining Hyundai-Kia, Dr. Naserian worked at different automotive suppliers in the area of distributed networking, vehicle networks, measurement and calibration. He is a Professional Engineer registered with the province of Ontario.
Presenter bio: Mr. Allan Lewis is a Technical Leader in Advanced Electronics Development department at the Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center, Inc. (HATCI). He received his B.S. in Electrical Engineering and his M.S. in Electrical and Computer Engineering from Lawrence Technological University. He leads multiple wireless charging projects within Hyundai-Kia and represents Hyundai-Kia at the Society of Automotive Engineers. Prior to joining HATCI, Mr. Lewis worked at various automotive suppliers focused on lithium-ion traction batteries, functional safety systems, and chassis controls.
11:20 Two-stage Mechanism Design for Electric Vehicle Charging Involving Renewable Energy
Ran Wang (Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, P.R. China); Ping Wang (York University, Canada); Gaoxi Xiao (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore)
Integrating massive electric vehicles (EVs) into the power grid requires the charging to be coordinated to reduce the energy cost and peak to average ratio (PAR) of the system. The coordination becomes more challenging when the highly fluctuant renewable energies constitute a significant portion of the power resources. To tackle this problem, a novel two-stage EV charging mechanism is designed in this paper, which mainly includes three parts as follows. At the first stage, based on the knowledge of future energy requests and considering the elastic charging property of EVs, an offline optimal energy generation scheduling problem is formulated and solved in a day ahead manner to determine the energy generation in each time slot next day. Then at the second stage, based on the planned energy generation day-ahead, an adaptive real-time charging strategy is developed to determine the charging rate of each vehicle in a dynamic manner. Finally, we develop a charging rate compression (CRC) algorithm which tremendously reduces the complexity of the problem solving. The fast algorithm supports real-time operations and enables the small-step scheduling more efficiently. Simulation results indicate that the proposed scheme can help effectively save the energy cost and reduce the system PAR. Detailed evaluations on the impacts of renewable energy uncertainties show that our proposed mechanism achieves a good performance in enhancing the system fault tolerance against uncertainties and the noises of real-time data.
Presenter bio: Ran Wang currently works as an assistant professor at College of Computer Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics. He received his B.E. in Electronic and Information Engineering from Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT), P.R. China in 2011 and Ph.D. in Computer Engineering from Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore in 2016. His current research interests include intelligent management and control in Smart Grid and evolution of complex networks.
11:40 Statistical Prediction Model for EVs mass adoption in Colombia
Laura Hinestroza (Universidad de la Costa, Colombia); J. Rosero (Universidad Nacional de Colombia & UN, Colombia)
The introduction of EVs raises questions regarding the impacts of these alternative technologies on: the driving patterns of the users, the mobility of cities, energy consumption, environmental impacts, charging times of EVs, comfort conditions and adaptation to new ranges and speeds. Therefore, it is necessary to know the potential of the EV to be adopted by the user given its limitations. This paper describes the application of a statistical prediction model, which determines the EVs technology most likely to be adopted in the city of Bogota, Colombia.
12:00 Development of a test bed for energy management strategies in PHEV
Irwin A Diaz (Institute for Scientific and Technological Research of San Luis Potosi (IPICYT), Mexico)
In this paper a test bed for energy management strategies is presented. The test bed is able to monitoring interest variables such as current, voltage, vehicle speed, motor speed, power consumption, battery and motor temperature and battery state of charge (SoC), among others has been developed. The developed system can be useful in the implementation of energy strategies management, vehicle-to-grid or to-home applications. The distributed topology could effectively improve the speed of data acquisition. The test bed was implemented in a Zilent Courant vehicle.

#### TS1-04: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking

Room: Schubert 4, First Floor
Chairs: Amjad Gawanmeh (Khalifa University, United Arab Emirates), Thomas Zemen (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Austria)
10:20 TCP-like congestion control for broadcast channel access in VANETs
Stefan Ruehrup (FTW, Austria); Paul Fuxjaeger (FTW - Telecommunications Research Center Vienna, Austria); Dieter Smely (Kapsch TrafficCom, Austria)
Broadcasting of position and movement information in vehicular ad hoc networks is essential for achieving an awareness of connected vehicles about their environment. If a vehicle broadcasts its position several times per second, then other vehicles can use this information as input for advanced driver assistance systems. Vehicular communication based on the 802.11p standard in the 5Ghz band provides a channel for dissemination such awareness information. However, the channel access is not coordinated among the participating vehicles and, thus, a congestion of the channel is possible, i.e. a situation where access delays rise and packet reception rates drop. An initial ETSI standard on congestion control tries to solve the problem by assigning transmit rate limits depending on channel load. We investigate here an alternative solution inspired by the congestion control mechanism of TCP. We describe necessary adaptions of the TCP congestion control to a single-hop broadcast communication and evaluate pros and cons in comparison to a fixed-state congestion control by extensive simulations. Our results exemplify typical differences in effective reception ranges and update intervals, and show performance advantages of adaptive DCC algorithms.
Presenter bio: Stefan Ruehrup is senior researcher at the Telecommunications Research Center Vienna (FTW), where he manages the Communication Networks Area and works in the field of mobile communications and ITS.
10:40 Miniaturized Directivity-Adjustable Antennas for Enhanced Vehicular Wireless Communications and EMC-Optimized Automotive Electronics
Nikolaos V. Kantartzis and Traianos Yioultsis (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece); Theodoros I. Kosmanis (Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Greece)
A family of compact-size wideband antennas with controllable traits and directivity is introduced in this paper for efficient wireless communications in the automotive regime. The proposed radiators are optimized in terms of unhindered EMC function, even when other vehicle electronic systems are involved. Moreover, to attain reliable designs, a generalized explicit method of scalable accuracy is developed. The 3-D hybrid schemes blend a stencil-based finite-volume time-domain and a Fourier-Chebyshev pseudo-spectral time-domain algorithm that split the overall space into smaller areas. So, the resulting discretization yields highly precise and computationally affordable simulation models, devoid of mesh errors. Numerical results, compared with reference or measurement data, reveal the benefits of the miniaturized antennas and substantiate their potential applicability.
Presenter bio: Traianos V. Yioultsis is Associate Professor, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. - Ph.D. degree in electrical and computer engineering: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 1998. - Postdoctoral Research Associate, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (2001-2002) - Current interests: the analysis and design of microwave/photonic circuits and antennas with fast computational techniques and the modeling of complex wave propagation problems.
11:00 Analytical model of RTT-aware SCTP
Konstantinos Katsaros (Digital Catapult, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Mehrdad Dianati (University of Warwick, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Rahim Tafazolli (University of Surrey, United Kingdom (Great Britain))
Connected vehicles are promoted with the use of different communication technologies for diverse applications. A host with multiple network devices is referred to as a multi-homed node. Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is an IETF standard which supports multi-homing. However, original SCTP multi-homing functionality is only used when the primary address becomes unavailable. This paper presents an analytical model for a modified SCTP with multi-homed hosts, which selects the primary network address using a utility function based on minimum round trip time.
11:20 A Network Access Control Solution Based on PANA for Intelligent Transportation Systems
Fernando Bernal (University of Murcia, Spain); Fernando Pereñíguez García (University Centre of Defence & Spanish Air Force Academy, Ministry of Defence, Spain); Rafa Marin Lopez and Antonio Fernando Skarmeta Gomez (University of Murcia, Spain)
The growing interest in Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) together with the specification of standards carried out by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to define a common ITS reference communications stack have paved the way to new research lines about vehicular networks. In this sense, the application of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) communication technologies is currently living a strong impulse in order to evaluate the application to well-known Internet technologies to the vehicular environment. Currently, most efforts have focused on the definition and testing of ITS applications operating over IPv6 communication technologies. Unfortunately, little attention has been payed to the security needed in these scenarios to ensure that only authenticated systems are granted access to vehicular services in Vehicular-to-Infrastructure (V2I) infrastructures like, for example, the network access service. This paper addresses this problem by improving the ISO/ETSI ITS communication architecture to support network access control functionality. The proposal is based on standardized technologies like the Protocol for Carrying Authentication for Network Access (PANA), which is the most representative contribution of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to this security problem. Moreover, this proposal has been tested in a real environment in order to validate its performance and suitability for ITS.
Presenter bio: Fernando Bernal received an MSc in Computer Science Engineering and an MSc in Advanced Information and Telematics Technologies in 2008 and 2009, respectively; all of them from University of Murcia, Spain. Currently, he is working as researcher and developer in the Department of Information and Communications Engineering at the same university. His main research interests include authentication and authorization aspects in mobile networks.
11:40 Cellular-based Vehicle to Pedestrian (V2P) Adaptive Communication for Collision Avoidance
Mehrdad Bagheri Majdabadi and Jukka K. Nurminen (Aalto University, Finland); Matti Siekkinen (University of Helsinki, Finland)
Road safety is one of the most important applications of vehicular networks. However, improving pedestrian safety via vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) wireless communication has not been extensively addressed. In this paper, our vision is to propose a method which enables development of V2P road safety applications via wireless communication and only utilizing the existing infrastructure and devices. As pedestrians' smartphones do not support the IEEE 802.11p amendment which is customized for vehicular networking, we have initiated an approach that utilizes cellular technologies. Study shows potential of utilizing 3G and LTE for highly mobile entities of vehicular network applications. In addition, some vehicles are already equipped with cellular connectivity but otherwise the driver's smartphone is used as an alternative. However, smartphone limited battery life is a bottleneck in realization of such pedestrian safety system. To tackle the energy limitation in smartphones, we employ an adaptive multi-level approach which operates in an energy-saving mode in risk-free situations but switches to normal mode as it detects a risky situation. Based on our evaluation and analysis, this adaptive approach considerably saves electrical energy and thus makes the cellular-based road-safety system practical.
Presenter bio: Background and work experience in software engineering, master's degree in embedded and real-time software engineering. Currently working and studying as a doctoral candidate at Aalto University.
12:00 Real Time Traffic Accident Detection System using Wireless Sensor Network
Hosam Mohamed sherif (Future Academy, Egypt)
Automatic vehicle accident detection is a life-saving application that is vital in today's high speed motorways. In case of motorway accidents, notification to the proper authorities must be done efficiently and expediently. The main objective of this paper is to create a Real Time Traffic Accident Detection System (RTTADS) using Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) and Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Technologies. This paper explains the hardware prototype setup for RTTADS, the algorithms used, the advantages and the limitations of the entire system. Also the configuration of the setup and application software is elaborated. Sensors installed in a vehicle detect the accident's location, the vehicle's speed just before the accident and the number of passengers in the vehicle. The sensors then send an alert signal to a monitoring station. The monitoring station, in turn, tracks the location where the accident has occurred and directs casualty alert to the authorities concerned.

#### TS3-03: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles

Room: Schubert 5, First Floor
Chairs: Azim Eskandarian (George Washington University, USA), Asma Adnane (Loughborough University, United Kingdom (Great Britain))
10:20 Development of On-Board Unit in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network for Highways
Qiong Yang (Jinling Institute of Technology, P.R. China); Lin Wang (Southeast University, P.R. China); Weiwei Xia (National Mobile Communications Research Laboratory, Southeast University, P.R. China); Yi Wu (Fujian normal university, P.R. China); Lianfeng Shen (National Mobile Communications Research Laboratory, Southeast University, P.R. China)
This paper proposes a design and implementation of the On-Board Unit (OBU) in the Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) for highways, and realizes vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. The system is divided into four parts including central control module, wireless communication module, GPS module, and human-machine interface module. The hardware platform is consisting of an ARM11-based embedded development platform, DCMA-86P2 module, and a GPS module. The software platform is based on the embedded Linux operating system. The human-machine interface is developed using the Qtopia programming software. Test results show that the OBU implemented can transmit and receive information for safety assistance driving, and the system has realized all the functions required and can work stably.
Presenter bio: Lianfeng SHEN received the B.S. degree in Radio Technology and the M.S. degree in Wireless Communications from Southeast University, Nanjing, China, in 1978 and 1982 respectively. Since 1997, he has been a professor at the National Mobile Communications Research Laboratory of Southeast University and the commissioner of the Radio Standardization Committee of China. Now, he is serving on the member of the Expert Group in Information Science of the National Key Basic Research Development Plan (973 Plan) by the Ministry of Science and Technology, PRC. His research interests include the theories and technologies of information, wireless and mobile communications and so on. Recent years, he has been focusing on the wireless Internet, wireless sensor networks, Internet of things and so on.
10:40 An Autonomous Driving Framework With Self-Configurable Vehicle Clusters
Mukremin Ozkul (Epoka University, Albania); Ilir Capuni (University of New York Tirana, USA)
In this paper we propose a new theoretical - yet applicable - framework to model the vehicular traffic. We model a vehicle as an automaton that has its own propulsion, and can see the state of other automaton in a constant size neighborhood. Its set of rules contains the common traffic rules. By observing the dynamics of such automata, we can devise optimal rules that may relieve the traffic congestion, and increase security. Last but not least, this model is an algorithmic framework to devise novel algorithms that use vehicular network and communication between cars.
11:00 Development of an omni-directional mobile robot with two automated guided driving modules
Xing Wu (Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics, P.R. China)
An omni-directional mobile robot is developed by using two automated guided driving modules in a tandem layout. Each module contains a suspension-like mechanism on the upper layer and a rotatable driving chassis with powered wheels on the lower layer. The suspension layers of two modules are fixed to the robot frame, and each chassis can rotate freely about a vertical axis through its centers by a passive rotation joint. A kinematics model is built for this mobile robot, and a cross coupling control algorithm is developed for its omni-directional movement. An on-board camera is mounted on the center of the robot to measure its pose deviations with respect to the guide paths. In order to improve the accuracy of vision measurement, a plane target with the grid pattern is used to calibrate the intrinsic, distortion and extrinsic parameters of the on-board camera. This camera is then used to record the pose deviations in the experiment of the omni-directional motion, the results of which show the feasibility of that the combination of two guided driving modules can be used to improve the maneuverability of mobile robots.
11:20 Large scale deployment of cooperative mobility systems in Europe: COMPASS4D
Evangelos Mitsakis (Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Hellenic Institute of Transport & Senior Researcher, Greece); Gonzalo Alcaraz (SWARCO MIZAR S.p.A., Italy); Pierpaolo Tona (ERTICO - ITS Europe, Belgium); Jaap Vreeswijk (MAPtm, The Netherlands); Giacomo Somma (ERTICO, ITS Europe, Greece); Rosa Blanco (CTAG, Spain); Josep Maria Salanova Grau (Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Hellenic Institute of Transport & Research Associate); Zeljko Jeftic (IRU Project, Belgium); Anita Toni (ERTICO, ITS Europe, Belgium); Gert Blom (Strategic Advisor City of Helmond, The Netherlands); Georgia Aifandopoulou (Centre for Research and Technology Hellas - Hellenic Institute of Transport, Greece)
This paper provides an overview of the COMPASS4D project, which aims to deploy cooperative mobility systems in seven European cities. More than 330 vehicles with 570 users and 154 intersections will be equipped. After an one-year full-scale pilot the aim of the pilot sites is to remain operational also after the end of the project. The cooperative services and the system architecture are described in detail, including all the main components. The evaluation framework is also presented.
11:40 The Vehicle as Pervasive Display - Potentials and Limitations
Stefan Diewald (Technische Universität München, Germany); Patrick Lindemann (University of Passau, Germany); Andreas Möller (Technische Universität München, Germany); Tobias Seitz (University of Munich, Germany); Marion Koelle and Matthias Kranz (University of Passau, Germany)
Sharing information between traffic participants can improve traffic flow and safety. Currently, communication is mainly done via vehicle lighting such as brake lamps or turn signals. For enhanced information exchange, we propose using the exterior of vehicles as pervasive displays to present information that may be relevant to other traffic participants. The compilation of potential applications and limitations shall provide an introduction to further discussion in the community.
Presenter bio: Stefan Diewald studied Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, majoring in Communication and Information Technology, at the Technische Universität München (Germany). He received his Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degree in September 2010 and his Diplom-Ingenieur (Univ.) degree in May 2011. In June 2011, he joined the Institute for Media Technology at the Technische Universität München as Ph.D. candidate where he is working as a member of the research and teaching staff in the Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group. Since March 2013, he is also part of the Embedded Systems Group of the Embedded Interactive Systems Laboratory (EISLab) at the University of Passau. His research interests are in the fields of automotive user interfaces, vehicle-to-x communication and mobile applications for enhancing the individual mobility situation.

### Wednesday, November 5 13:30 - 15:30

#### TS5-03: Transportation and Connected Vehicles

Room: Schubert 1, First Floor
Chair: Albert Y.S. Lam (The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)
13:30 Enhancement of Suspension System Performance of Heavy Vehicles through the Optimized Parameters using Particle Swarm Technique
Hassan Metered (Czech Technical University in Prague & Helwan University, Czech Republic); Ahmed Elsawaf, Tomas Vampola and Zbynek Sika (Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic)
Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm has attracted significant consideration among a lot of modern heuristic optimization techniques. Nowadays, PSO is widely applied in various scientific and engineering fields. This paper concerns the investigation of design the passive suspension system parameters of heavy vehicles using the non-linear PSO algorithm, for the first time. A mathematical model and the equations of motion of a passive quarter vehicle suspension are derived and simulated using Matlab/Simulink software. The proposed PSO algorithm aims to minimize the dynamic tyre load generated by vehicle-pavement interaction as the objective function with constraint the natural frequency of the unsprung mass. It is applied to solve the nonlinear optimization problem to find the tyre stiffness, suspension stiffness and the damping coefficient of the passive damper by detecting the optimal problem solution through cooperation and competition among the individuals of a swarm. Suspension performance criteria are evaluated in the time and frequency domains in order to quantify the obtained parameters under bump and random road disturbance. Compared with the passive suspension system optimized using the Genetic Algorithm (GA), the proposed PSO algorithm improves the suspension performance effectively and gives a superior performance.
13:50 A Dynamically Reconfigurable Architecture for Emergency and Disaster Management in ITS
Smail Niar (Université de Valenciennes et du Hainaut-Cambr, France); Arda Yurdakul (Bogazici University, Turkey); Osman Unsal (Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Spain); Tuna Tugcu (Bogazici University, Turkey); Aziz Yuceturk (Vodafone Teknoloji, Turkey)
Current transportation infrastructures are not designed to handle unexpected and undesired events or disasters. Emergency Vehicles (EV) such as ambulances, malfunctioning or broken cars, and accidents may appear at any time at any spot in the traffic. Less likely but not inevitably, there might be fires, terrorist attacks, earthquakes which will cause panic behaviour and unexpected traffic congestion. The challenge in our framework is the proposition of a range of innovative solutions for intelligent and efficient traffic management in Emergency and Disaster Management (EDM). In this paper, we propose a multilevel infrastructure which is dynamically reconfigured and thus allows a trade-off between total cost, energy consumption and quality of service in EDM.
Presenter bio: Pr. Smail Niar (University of Valenciennes & CNRS, France) received his PhD in computer Engineering from the University of Lille in 1990. Since then, he has been professor at the University of Valenciennes at the “Laboratory of Automation, Mechanical and Computer Engineering”, a joint research unit between CNRS and the university of Valenciennes. He is member of the European Network of Excellence on “High Performance and Embedded Architecture and Compilation” (Hipeac). His research interests are in multi-processor system-on-chip (MPSoC) architectures, power/energy consumption optimization, dynamically reconfigurable embedded systems (FPGA), simulation acceleration techniques for MPSoC design space exploration, and hybrid MPSoC in Intelligent Transportation Systems.
14:10 Vehicular Traffic Predictions from Cellular Network Data - A real world case study
Davide Tosi (University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy); Stefano Marzorati and Claudia Pulvirenti (Vodafone, Italy)
The emergence of mobile technologies provides the opportunity to carry mobility field into the smart city arena. Transportation data are key factors for improving mobility services: traditional approaches to compute urban dynamics, mobility patterns and real-time vehicular traffic situations are based on cameras, on-road sensors or emergency calls, while more modern approaches merge social warnings and mobile data in collaborative navigation systems to detect traffic congestions. In this paper, we present a novel "passive" approach for gathering, processing, and predicting real-time vehicular traffic conditions from cellular network data. The approach exploits the regression statistical tool to detect whether significant statistical models exist to describe correlations between cellular network events and vehicular traffic situations. The paper discusses the regression model we derived and it presents the results obtained by validating our approach, in a real industrial setting and for the Milan city, against the well-known traffic solutions: Autostrade.it, InfoBlu and Google.
Presenter bio: Davide Tosi received his MSc in Computer Science (2002) and his PhD in Computer Science (2007) at the University of Milano Bicocca. Currently Davide Tosi is a Researcher at the Universita degli Studi dell'Insubria and charter member of OpenSoftEngineering. His research interests include software testing, mobile agens, self-managed software, and Open Source quality. He has published about 30 research papers in international journals, conferences and workshops. Davide Tosi has been involved in several international projects, including EUfunded projects such as SHADOWS, QualiPSo, and SUPERHUB. Davide Tosi has served on the PC of a number of international software conferences.
14:30 Towards sustainability in multi-modal urban planners
Public transport systems in modern cities are the key to create the sustainable citizens' mobility of the future where the private vehicle is needed only for transportations that public transport cannot be afforded. Supporting the use of the public transport in the cities is one of the main objectives planned by the European Union for next years, making an important effort to reach a decrease of twenty percent for emissions of greenhouse gases derived from urban mobility before 2020. But for achieving this goal is necessary to make a change in the perception that citizens have about transport systems. Current travel and journey planners may not consider some variables that may contribute to improve the perception of the citizen when he has to face mobility into the urban areas of the city. Besides the transport timetable, the citizen schedules or the travel costs, the route planners have to improve both the quality of the proposed planned mobility and the performance of the public transportation system. We study different factors that have to be taken in consideration to develop new planners based not only the optimization of time, costs, distance or the number of transport changes, but also the elements that can help to make the travel more comfortable to users such as knowing the position of transport vehicles or giving advices to make health, safety trips.
Presenter bio: Researcher in scientific instrumentation automation and intelligent transport system. I work with the department of software engineering and the department of applied physics in the University of Granada. I like to work with all kind of devices, specially mobiles and tablets.
14:50 Simulation of Kinetic Traffic Flow with Disturbance
Lan Di, Jiuzhen Liang and Qin Wu (Jiangnan University, P.R. China)
A new model is established for kinetic road traffic flow with disturbance function. It is used to solve the multi-lane, open kinetic road traffic flow simulation problem. The Level of road Service (LOS) is used as the evaluation criteria. It is able to describe the behavior of the changes of the road flows, speeds, occupation ratios and other disturbance factors for the global road traffic flows. The simulation results show that the new model is more efficient and able to get better solutions than the kinetic system approach without disturbance. The proposed model can improve the usefulness of the transport system simulation.
Presenter bio: Lan DI is an associate professor in the School of Digital Media, Jiangnan University (Wuxi, China), a supervisor for the graduate students. She won a number of awards from national, provincial levels and Jiangnan University. She is an "six talent peaks" expert supported by Jiangsu province (China). She was the winner of "Ten Best Teachers" in Jiangnan University in 2013/2014 academic year. Her current research interests include areas of computer modeling simulation, digital image processing, mathematical model in applied mathematics and related topics. Professor Di received both under and graduate educations in mathematics and computer science from Sichuan University (Chengdu, China) and Jiangnan University, respectively. From April/2012 to April/2013, as the visiting scholar supported by China's Minister of Education Department, she spent one year to visit Department of electrical engineering and computer science (Univ. of Tennessee, USA). In recent years, as the principal investigator, she successful completed a number of academic research projects in national, provincial and ministerial levels. She also conducted more than a dozen practical projects linked to the enterprises in the industries, and owning a number of patents. She has published more than 25 academic papers in the both international and domestic academic journals, plus a number of papers in proceedings, most of them were indexed by SCI, EI, CSCD (core).
15:10 A Data-Driven Approach for Travel Time Prediction on Motorway Sections
Bernhard Heilmann (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology); Hannes Koller (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria); Johannes Asamer (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology); Martin Reinthaler (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria); Michael Aleksa, Simon Breuss and Gerald Richter (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology)
The presented method derives travel time predictions for passenger cars (PC) and heavy goods vehicles (HGV) based on a data-driven approach, utilizing historical traffic data of motorway sections. A Kernel-regression is used to assess multidimensional patterns of traffic performance. Time-intervals are averaged according to their similarity, yielding a pattern of likely future development, which allows for the prediction of travel times. The performed steps in pre-processing traffic data, the prediction method as well as preliminary results are described.
Presenter bio: Martin Reinthaler, MSc., studied electronics at the University of Applied Sciences Technikum Wien focused on computer and system technology. Additionaly he finished a Master’s degree in Multimedia and Software Engineering. Since 2005 Martin has been part of the Dynamic Transportation Systems team at AIT Mobility working on traffic telematics, traffic modelling and electromobility.

#### TS6-05: Electric Vehicle and Transportation Electrification

Room: Schubert 2, First Floor
Chairs: Lina Altoaimy (King Saud University, Saudi Arabia), Prateek Jain (Indian Institute of Technology Indore, India)
13:30 Current Ripple Evaluation in Dual Three-Phase Inverters for Open-End Winding EV Drives
Jelena Loncarski (Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Ångström Laboratory Uppsala University, Sweden); Mats Leijon (Uppsala University, Sweden); Claudio Rossi, Milan Srndovic and Gabriele Grandi (University of Bologna, Italy)
Ac motor current ripple in electric vehicles is source of electromagnetic interferences and audio noise, from the inverter-motor power connection cables and from the motor itself. By increasing the inverter switching frequency the ripple amplitude is reduced, but the drive efficiency decreases due to the proportionally increased switching losses. A viable solution to reduce the current ripple amplitude is to introduce a multilevel inverter instead of a standard two-level (2L) three-phase inverter. A simple and effective way to achieve a three-level (3L) inverter in battery-supplied electric vehicles consists of using two standard three-phase 2L inverters with the open-end winding mo¬tor connection. In this paper the peak-to-peak ripple amplitude of the dual-2L inverter is evaluated and compared with the corresponding ripple of the single 2L inverter, considering the same volt¬age and power motor ratings. The ripple analysis is carried out as a function of the modulation index to cover the whole inverter modulation range.
Presenter bio: Gabriele Grandi received the M.Sc. (cum laude) and the Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from University of Bologna, Italy, in 1990 and 1994, respectively. He joined the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Bologna, from 1995 to 2004 as Research Associate, from 2005 to 2015 as Associate Professor, and since 2016 as Full Professor. He has published more than 150 papers on conference proceedings and international journals. His main research interests are focused on power electronic circuits and photovoltaics. Prof. Grandi is IEEE Senior Member, and he serves as Associate Editor for IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, Academic Editor for MDPI Energies, and Editor-at-Large IET Power Electronics.
13:50 Electric Vehicle Shortest Path Problem with Replenishment Constraint
Fouad Baouche (IFSTTAR & Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'Etat (ENTPE), France); Romain Billot (IFSTTAR, France); Rochdi Trigui (LTE, France); Nour-Eddin El Faouzi (IFSTTAR, France)
The deployment of Electric Vehicles (EVs) is constrained mainly by the limited autonomy, the lack of charging stations, the battery recharge time and recuperation capability (e.g. braking phases or downhills). Our work aims to develop energy-efficient routing tools to promote the use of EV. To overcome the autonomy limitation we propose a methodology for the EV routing problem with recharging stage(s) along the way on the available charging stations.
14:10 Utilizing mobility data to facilitate the introduction of E-Taxis in Vienna
Martin Reinthaler (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria); Johannes Asamer (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology); Hannes Koller (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria); Markus Litzlbauer (Vienna University of Technology, Austria)
Introducing E-Taxi fleets in urban areas poses a number of economic, organizational and technical challenges related to the nature of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV). This paper discusses these challenges and demonstrates how existing mobility data can aid the underlying decision process to overcome them. We present an integrated approach developed for the introduction of an E-Taxi system in the city of Vienna, where mobility data based on taxi floating car data (FCD) was used as decision support.
Presenter bio: Martin Reinthaler, MSc., studied electronics at the University of Applied Sciences Technikum Wien focused on computer and system technology. Additionaly he finished a Master’s degree in Multimedia and Software Engineering. Since 2005 Martin has been part of the Dynamic Transportation Systems team at AIT Mobility working on traffic telematics, traffic modelling and electromobility.
14:30 Linking Statistical Mobility Data with Electrical Distribution Network Infrastructure for Generating an Agent Population for Multi-Agent Simulation of Electric Vehicles with Markov Chains
Stefan Uebermasser (Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria); Matthias Stifter (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria); Gernot Lenz and Bernhard Heilmann (Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria)
To create realistic travel chains Markov Chains and Monte Carlo method are used. This includes different travel purposes in different locations, information about departure/arrival times and the distance driven. Individual agents are then generated which represent the EV population of a certain area. Depending on the defined charging infrastructure in the specific grid and the chosen EV model, this agent population can be calibrated for LV and MV grids of different areas as there are rural or urban areas. Different charging strategies are simulated and their effect to the power grid analyzed.
14:50 SOC Estimation for LiFePO4 Battery in EVs Using Recursive Least-Squares with Multiple Adaptive Forgetting Factors
Van Huan Duong, Hany A. Bastawrous, KaiChin Lim, Khay W. See, Peng Zhang and Shi Dou (Institute of Superconductor and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Australia)
This work presents a novel technique which is simple yet effective in estimating electric model parameters and state-of-charge (SOC) of the LiFePO4 battery. Unlike the well-known recursive least-squares-based algorithms with single constant forgetting factor, this technique employs multiple adaptive forgetting factors to provide the capability to capture the different dynamics of model parameters. The validity of the proposed method is verified through experiments using actual driving cycles.
Presenter bio: Van Huan Duong received the B.Sc. degree and the M.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering from Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Vietnam, in 2008 and Soongsil University, Korea, in 2013, respectively. He is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering at University of Wollongong, Australia. His current research interests include battery management system and MCU/DSP applications.

#### TS1-05: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking

Room: Schubert 4, First Floor
Chair: Safdar Hussain Bouk (Kyungpook National University, Korea)
13:30 An Innovative Adaptive Streaming System for Connected Vehicles
Jianping Chen (Institute for Infocomm Research, Singapore)
The development of communication and multimedia technologies makes it possible and practical to exchange high-volume data in Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) in real time. However, the challenges are eminent in the vehicular streaming systems where the network conditions change rapidly. It is meaningful and valuable to develop adaptive streaming technologies that suit the vehicular environments. In this paper, we present an innovative adaptive streaming system for the connected vehicles to meet the stringent requirements in vehicular environments. We analyze and discuss the advantages and constraints of transport protocol, scalable coding, bandwidth estimation and delivery strategy that are critical to a vehicular adaptive streaming system. An implementation of the adaptive streaming system is also given out.
Presenter bio: Dr Jianping Chen received his BEng in Control Science from Shanghai Jiao Tong University in 1993, MEng in Control Science and Control Engineering from Xiamen University and Tsinghua University in 1999, and PhD in Electrical and Computer Engineering from National University of Singapore in 2003, respectively. Dr Chen has rich R&D experiences in industry and academy in a wide range of area. Since 2007, he has been a Scientist in Institute of Infocomm Research where he researched and developed advanced streaming technologies and vehicle-related technologies. In his previous research appointments, he researched and developed control systems and information security systems. Dr Chen is a Senior Member of IEEE.
13:50 Cloud-Based Malware Defense for Connected Vehicles
Brian Zhang (Dwight-Englewood School, USA)
Malware will be a serious threat to vehicles that are increasingly connected to the external world. Malware can infect vehicles through its various communication channels and cause dire consequences. Defending vehicles against malware presents many unique challenges that have not been well addressed before. This paper outlines main unique challenges and presents a new cloud-based vehicle malware defense solution to address these challenges.
14:10 Centralized Cooperative Spectrum Sensing with Multiple Antennas Over Imperfect Feedback Channels
Ahmed Al Hammadi (Khalifa University, United Arab Emirates); Omar H Altrad (American University of Madaba, Jordan); Sami Muhaidat and Mahmoud Al-Qutayri (Khalifa University, United Arab Emirates); Saleh R Al-Araji (Saleh Engineering, USA)
In this paper, we study the performance of a cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) scheme over imperfect feedback channels, where N secondary users (SUs) collaborate in order to enhance the detection probability of a primary user (PU). The sensing process is divided into two phases: In the first phase each SU, which is equipped with multiple antennas, independently detect the PU signal. In the second phase, the SUs' local decisions are sent via erroneous and orthogonal feedback channels to a fusion center (FC), where a final decision is made. We utilize Bayesian criterion which accounts for the costs of misdetection and false alarm. Quasi-Newton method is employed to obtain the optimal number of antennas for a given SNR and vice versa. Our simulation results concur the mathematical derivations and validate the optimality of quasi-Newton method. We further show that the derived optimal fusion rule outperforms the OR rule, AND rule and MAJORITY rule.
Presenter bio: Graduate student at Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research. Communication Systems Engineer at Center of Excellence, UAE Armed Forces.
14:30 Analysis for Interference-based Capacity of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
Minming Ni (Beijing Jiaotong University); Jian Yu, Hao Wu and Zhangdui Zhong (Beijing Jiaotong University, P.R. China)
In view of the various quality of service (QoS) requirements raised by the different applications of vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), the characteristic of communication capacity is vital for the design and implement of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). Although some scaling law-based results had already been obtained for VANETs to describe the general performance changing pattern when the total number of network nodes goes to infinity, they cannot be used directly to estimate the actual capacity of a communication pair or the entire network. To make up with this disadvantage, a interference-based capacity analysis is finished in this paper for the VANETs scenario. For representing the unique constraint of inter-vehicle distance, which directly affects both the signal and interference power decaying, the car-following model is used to describe the vehicles' mobility feature. Based on that, a series of probability characteristics are derived for a general interfering scenario, which finally leads to the expected VANET capacity. We believe the new results obtained in this paper will provide useful guidelines for the deployment of future VANETs.
14:50 Chaotic Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization for Parameter Adjustment in Green Cognitive Radio
Hongyuan Gao (Harbin Engineering University, P.R. China); Chenwan Li (Harbin Engineering Universty, P.R. China)
In this paper, we study parameter adjustment to maximize the energy efficiency of green cognitive radio. Since the problem of parameter adjustment can be looked as a complex discrete optimization problem，a chaotic quantum particle swarm optimization (CQPSO) was proposed to solve it. CQPSO integrates the characteristics of chaos and quantum theory to particle swarm optimization, which makes it have strong search ability. Chaotic mutation is introduced to avoid premature convergence and keep diversity. Quantum computing has excellent features used to speed up the optimization and enhance the search ability of CQPSO. We design a green cognitive radio system for performance analysis, and a novel parameter adjustment method based on CQPSO is derived. The proposed method has a good performance in terms of convergence rate and convergence accuracy, and can search an optimal solution for parameter adjustment in green cognitive radio network. Through simulations, we can get a conclusion that the proposed CQPSO can improve the energy efficiency and meet the users' quality of service (QoS) needs.
15:10 ESPAR Antenna System Designings & Simulations
Ahmed Umar (Boise State University, USA)
This paper encompasses simulation, designing and hardware manufacturing of ESPAR based smart antenna system that is capable of electronic beam forming. Antenna designing involves defining of design parameters followed by simulation of results and manufacturing of hardware. Seven element ESPAR antenna is designed with active centre element and six passive elements. Feed is provided to centre element while parasitic elements are loaded with pin diodes, pin diodes acts as RF switch for opening shorting of passives dipole elements.

#### TS3-04: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles

Room: Schubert 5, First Floor
Chair: Aleksandar Kostikj (Ss Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of)
13:30 An Event-Driven Inter-Vehicle Communication Protocol to Attenuate Vehicular Shock Waves
Markus Forster (KYC3 Sarl, Luxembourg); Raphael Frank (University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg); Thomas Engel (University of Luxemburg, Luxembourg)
In this paper we investigate an event-driven Inter- Vehicle Communication protocol to mitigate shock waves in dense traffic situation. From previous work we know that flooding or frequent beaconing require excessive network resources. To overcome this limitation we focus on an efficient message exchange mechanism requiring as few network resources as possible, while still providing timely and accurate traffic information. We designed Density Redistribution through Intelligent Velocity Estimation (DRIVE), an event-driven Inter-Vehicle Communication protocol that learns about traffic conditions ahead and recommends optimal velocities in order to prevent the formation of vehicular shock waves. We demonstrate that our approach of reacting in case of traffic fluctuations leads to significant improvements in overall traffic flow. Furthermore we show that even a low number of equipped vehicles is sufficient to achieve this target.
Presenter bio: 2011 - M.Sc in Information and Computer Science 2015 - PhD in Computer Science from the University of Luxembourg
13:50 A Formal Multi-Agent Language for Cooperative Autonomous Driving Scenarios
Andreas Witsch, Stephan Opfer and Kurt Geihs (University of Kassel, Germany)
This paper addresses the problem of coordinating autonomous cars to provide higher safety standards in public road traffic with limited computational resources. Thus, we present a modelling language that allows formal program verification to guarantee correctness. Here, we borrowed the sophisticated multi-agent coordination language ALICA that has originally been developed for the robotic football domain. To show the practical applicability and efficiency for the autonomous driving domain, we applied ALICA to two autonomous car driving scenarios.
Presenter bio: 08/04 - 07/10 Master in Computer Science at the University of Kassel. Since 2010 Working at the Distributed Systems Group, University of Kassel. Taking Part in the Venus Project (Socio-technical Design of Ubiquitous Computing Systems). Since 2006 yearly participation at various RoboCup MSL Tournaments and Workshops. Since 2010 Leader of the Carpe Noctem RoboCup Team. Since 2013 Part of German RoboCup National Comitee
14:10 Driver Behaviour Profiling using Smartphone Sensory Data in a V2I Environment
Chalermpol Saiprasert (National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Thailand); Suttipong Thajchayapong (NECTEC, Thailand); Thunyasit Pholprasit (National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Thailand); Chularat Tanprasert (National Electronics and Computer Technology Center (NECTEC), Thailand)
Road traffic accidents prevention and mitigation are important issues that appear on top of the priority list of many countries around the world today. Many measures and approaches have been put in place in terms of policy level as well as technical level. Driver behaviour is one of many key factors that should be seriously considered to improve road safety. This paper proposes a method for driver behaviour profiling using sensory data on smartphones in a vehicle-to-infrastructure environment. Based on driving behaviours with the most risk to causing accidents, the profiling algorithm takes into account sudden driving events which occur during a journey to categorise drivers into different profiles according to their safety levels. The profiling algorithm offers the flexibility to adjust the parameters weightings in order to put an emphasis on specific driving events for different scenarios and applications. The impact on vehicle- to-infrastructure is that the stored driving profiles can be used to generate a norm for a given road section. Approaching vehicles deviating from the norm can be notified in real-time. Moreover, localised dangerous driving events can be clustered together to form a potential blackspot which can be deployed as an advanced warning for approaching vehicles as a location based service. As a result, the risk of road traffic accidents can be reduced. Real-world driving data was collected over two major routes in Thailand with four distinct profiles and five major factors to road accidents.
Presenter bio: Dr. Chalermpol Saiprasert received his masters and PhD from Imperial College London in Electrical Engineering in 2010. He is currently a researcher at the National Electronics and Computer Technology Center in Thailand. His research interests include driver behaviour evaluation using sensory data from smartphones.
14:30 Intelligent traffic control and optimization with cooperative systems on the eHighway
Oliver Graebner and Thomas Sachse (Siemens AG, Germany); Meike Möckel (German Aerospace Center & Germany, Germany); Claus Kaschwich and Jens Plättner (German Aerospace Center, Germany)
Making the traffic more efficient, safer and ecofriendly are important global aims for a sustainable future. To reach these goals electro mobility and V2X-communication are important key technologies. To reduce the emissions the automobile industry presented a quantity of electric car models during the last years. While the range of electric cars with about 150 km is adequate for inner city use, the battery-systems are not suitable for truck purpose. To enable electric driving also for long distance heavy goods vehicles (HGV) SIEMENS developed the eHighway technology. While using the overhead contact line it is possible to continuously provide electric energy to the vehicle and thus drive environmentally cleaner and more energy efficient. With the V2X-equipment of the eHighway and the connection to the traffic control centre (Conduct+) it is possible to increase the safety, the road capacity and to provide additional information for eHighway–user and all other V2X-equipped road users. While using the information from existing road sensors combined with the V2I-status-information of the road users, Conduct+ generates a holistic overview of traffic events. Via I2V Conduct+ advises the participants about changes in the traffic flow using in-vehicle signage. On a purpose-build test track SIEMENS and the DLR are proving the interaction of Conduct+, eHighway-infrastructure and V2X-equipped-eTrucks. This paper provides an insight into the eHighway-components and the functionality of the system components which enables the accumulation of traffic-data to enable an intelligent traffic control using V2X.
14:50 Analyzing Cooperative Lane Change Models for Connected Vehicles
Umer Khan (University of Hildesheim, Germany); Pavlos Basaras (Trinity College, Ireland); Lars Schmidt-Thieme (Universität Hildesheim, Germany); Alexandros Nanopoulos (University of Eichstätt, Germany); Dimitrios Katsaros (University of Thessaly, Greece)
This paper examines intelligent lane change models based on the cooperation among connected vehicles for traffic management and travel time optimization. Lane change decisions and speed controls could be coordinated and optimized to reduce overall braking and achieve greater traffic throughput. In an effort to design (D-CLCA) a distributed cooperative lane change assistant within the European Commission's project REDUCTION*, this paper describes the requirements associated with an optimal lane change behavior, and evaluate existing lane change models based on these requirements. We have evaluated these models for travel times, fuel consumptions, number of lane changes and total braking for all the vehicles globally on the considered road segment. For evaluations, we have developed traffic simulations using different traffic densities for both symmetric and asymmetric lane changes and different levels of cooperation among drivers. Our empirical analysis show that an optimal lane change model should optimize the proposed evaluation criteria for all the vehicles simultaneously. These results will be used to develop an efficient distributed and cooperative lane change assistant.
15:10 Application of Improved shuffled Frog Leaping in Cooperative Vehicle Infrastructure System
Yi Zheng (Jilin Unversity, P.R. China)
Under the Connected Vehicles (CV) environment, the running statuses of vehicles are essential for unsignalized intersection based on cooperative vehicle infrastructure system that enables cooperation between vehicles and infrastructure for effective intersection operations and management. Assuming that there is an intersection controller that is particularly designed to gather individual vehicular information and provide an optimizing strategy to the vehicles using improved Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm which can avoid colliding with other vehicles while crossing the intersection. V2V and V2I can exchange real-time information under wireless communication environment, and all vehicles are unmanned intelligent vehicle. Simulation results of VISSIM demonstrate the accurate and high-speed response of Nonlinear Constrained Programming. The main contribution of this study is provide a fast accurate method with high quality in real-time control applications

### Wednesday, November 5 15:50 - 17:50

#### TS5-04: Transportation and Connected Vehicles

Room: Schubert 1, First Floor
Chair: Safdar Hussain Bouk (Kyungpook National University, Korea)
15:50 Autonomous Vehicle Public Transportation System
Albert Y.S. Lam (The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong); Yiu-Wing Leung and Xiaowen Chu (Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong)
Under active research, technology of autonomous vehicles (AVs) is getting mature and many AVs will run on the roads in the near future. With the support of vehicular ad-hoc network, AVs become connected. The ability of high degree of control allows AVs to respond to instantaneous situations cooperatively with high efficiency and flexibility. In this paper, we propose a new public transport offering point-to-point services with ride sharing. It manages a fleet of AVs to accommodate a number of transportation requests. Due to the unmanned nature, the AVs operate by following the routes instructed by the control center of the system. With proper scheduling, the control center assigns the transportation requests to appropriate AVs in order to minimize the total operational cost. We formulate the scheduling problem with a mixed-integer program. We study the system performance with a typical artificial scenario. Our results show that ride sharing can effectively lower the operational cost and increasing the vehicular capacity can further enhance the system performance.
16:10 An Analysis Model of Queue Length Fluctuation at Signals Using Vehicle Trajectories
Tomoyuki Tange and Akihito Hiromori (Osaka University, Japan); Takaaki Umedu (Shiga University, Japan); Hirozumi Yamaguchi and Teruo Higashino (Osaka University, Japan)
Floating car systems have attracted much attention. In particular, trajectory information of vehicles, which cannot be obtained in legacy traffic monitoring systems, would be significant for more detailed and precise traffic prediction. In this paper, we focus on vehicle queues formed in front of intersections and present a model that analyzes the dynamics of their length using vehicle trajectory information. In general, a queue grows in a red phase of the traffic signal cycle and shrinks in a green phase. We assume that vehicles arrive at a signal with a Poisson process, and estimate the queue length for each signal cycle. Our method was evaluated using a traffic simulator where the real field data were injected. Evaluation results have shown that the queue length could be estimated and the mean error was about 5 vehicles, which is acceptable compared with the whole queue sizes.
Presenter bio: Tomoyuki Tange graduated from Osaka University, Department of Information and Computer Sciences in 2014. He is a master course student of Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University. He has been engaged in research on traffic estimation using floating car data.
16:30 A Smart Drive to Future Transport Systems
Ramon Marrero Almonte (Technical University of Catalonia, Spain); Eva Marín-Tordera (Technical University of Catalonia UPC, Spain); Xavier Masip-Bruin (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) & Advanced Network Architectures Lab (CRAAX), Spain); Roman Nuez (Lear, Spain); Jaume Batlle (Doxa Innova & Smart, Spain); Guang-Jie Ren (IBM, USA)
Road transport vehicles (RTV) technologies, features and capacities are rapidly evolving, hence fostering innovative transport paradigms strongly impacting on all involved transport players. Current and unforeseen technological advances are pushing for creating a novel environment where road transport users can be empowered with tools enabling higher flexibility, bringing new opportunities , opening social ecosystem participation and finally endowing the ability to determine which options are more feasible while traveling. However, the development of such environment is not easy to deploy. Indeed, Intelligent Transport System (ITS) infrastructures should be improved to support the integration of heterogeneous technologies as well as to promote the development of ITS standards and smart transport vehicles utilization. This paper presents the characteristics of an innovative cloud-based architecture for an in-vehicular platform that integrates heterogeneous technologies, providing the necessary features to manage the connectivity, data, applications and services for RTV, thus providing them with analytic and smart "social"-oriented capabilities.
Presenter bio: Master Degree in Information Technologies and Communications from Technical University of Cartagena (UPCT), Spain. PhD candidate at the Advanced Network Architectures Lab (CRAAX), Technical University of Catalonia, Spain. Research Interest: Internet of Things, Big Data, Business Intelligence and Smart Vehicles.
16:50 Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals for evaluating H-infinity performance of platoons of communicating vehicles
Gabriella Varga, Gábor Rödönyi and Péter Gáspár (Computer and Automation Research Institute of Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary); József Bokor (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary)
Robust string stability of finite length homogeneous vehicular platoons is analyzed in the time-domain, where disturbances and constant delays in the inter-vehicle communication are present. The goal of the paper is to compare and evaluate the accuracy and computational cost of several Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) based methods. The potential of the approach in analyzing platoon performance is that it can be extended to cope with time-varying delays, large scale systems, vehicle model uncertainties and platoon heterogeneity. Simple delay-independent, delay-dependent and discretized complete LKF based performance criteria are presented.
17:10 Cloud Enabled Secure Communication in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks
Sanoop Mallissery and Manohara Pai (Manipal Institute of Technology & Manipal University, India); Radhika M. Pai (Manipal Institute of Technology, India); Smitha A (Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, India)
Security is one of the existing challenge in cloud enabled VANET communication. To address the security issues and to reduce payload overhead we are proposing a novel method for classification of VANET messages along with a Multi-hashed Binary Tree (MuBT) Algorithm. This algorithm verifies the identity and authenticity of the vehicles and messages exchanged. In addition to this, the concept of public cloud is used to store the location of vehicles, keys, messages and certificates involved in VANET communication. This ensures any time data accessibility from anywhere and helps to track the messages when necessary. The messages exchanged and the Transient Tickets (TTs) used in VANET communication is encrypted using the geolocation key of the RSU. The use of geolocation key provides location confidentiality against vehicles outside the zone and also ensures that a message can be sent only if the vehicle is physically present in the location.
Presenter bio: Dr. Manohara Pai M.M. is currently Professor of Information and Communication Technology and Associate Director of Innovation Centre, Manipal Institute of Technology (MIT), Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India. He has 25 years of rich experience in industry, research and teaching. He has started the Department of Information and Communication Technology in MIT and was heading the department from 2001 to 2008. He holds PhD Degree in Computer Science and Engineering from University of Mysore.
17:30 Preliminary Results on Driving Diagnosis and Indexing
Emre Kaplan (Infotech Bilisim ve Iletisim Teknolojileri Ltd., Turkey); Ali Ufuk Peker (Infotech, Turkey); Kerem Par (Infotech Bilisim ve Iletisim Teknolojileri Ltd., Turkey); Tankut Acarman (Galatasaray University, Turkey)
Driver scoring and risk analysis is gaining impact towards fuel economy and off-line driver's education. Today's cars are becoming computer controlled systems in which the driver's commands, car's motion and trajectories can be logged and transmitted to the control center by means of cellular communication, [1]. Furthermore, local dynamic map involving the digital road map, speed limits and average link travel speed can be used to match the driving behavior with respect to the normal conditions of the static and dynamic traffic. On the other hand, driver scoring enforces better driving and operation of the vehicles in the fleets. Fleet managers can take corrective actions to the drivers according to their driving quality. In this paper, we define a safety oriented driving quality index and the corresponding architecture which is scalable up to 50.000 vehicles.

#### TS4-03: Automotive Electronics and Automatic Control

Room: Schubert 2, First Floor
Chair: Lina Altoaimy (King Saud University, Saudi Arabia)
15:50 Traffic Light Assistant System for Optimized Energy Consumption in an Electric Vehicle
Emre Kural, Alejandro Ferreira Parrilla and Stephen Jones (AVL List GmbH, Austria); Anders Grauers (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden)
A sustainable intelligent vehicle driving system is nowadays a trend and a necessity in the context of sustainable mobility. This paper presents an innovative approach for the control of a fully electric vehicle approaching a road segment with multiple Traffic Lights (TL). By utilizing Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication, the energy consumption for the maneuver completion can be reduced. The problem is approached from a Model Predictive Control (MPC) framework. The performance of the system is evaluated using a complex simulation tool-chain representing the vehicle, powertrain, driver, road as well as the traffic conditions. The results have shown an overall energy consumption reduction of 28.5% for the selected maneuver as compared to a normal driver behavior.
16:10 A Secure Diagnostic Framework for connected vehicle
Debojyoti Bhattacharya (Robert Bosch Engineering and Business Soluions Limited, India); Sriram Subramanian Neelakantan (Robert Bosch Enginering and Business Solutions Limited, India)
Security in the area of automotive security has been drawing enormous attention lately. This work focuses on the security of automotive diagnostic interface which is used to connect a remote or local external tool with a vehicle to perform diagnostic related tasks. Diagnostic related tasks can also include changing the behavior of the vehicle temporarily or permanently (firmware update). Due to the possibility of abusing such critical services diagnostic security has always been of prime importance. In this paper we provide a tradeoff study between security and usability of current automotive diagnostics. We also present a secure diagnostic framework based on the concept of connected vehicle and connected workshop which can potentially address the existing tradeoff problem.
16:30 Design of Wireless Gateway between On-Board Vehicle Wired Networks and Mobile Devices
Szilárd Aradi and Tamás Bécsi (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary); Péter Gáspár (Computer and Automation Research Institute of Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary); Gábor Bárány and Ádám Hajdú (Robert Bosch Engineering Center Budapest, Hungary)
The paper proposes a novel system architecture with a communication mechanism to provide the driver with information about the vehicle conditions on a mobile device such as a mobile phone. The system uses cost efficient and reliable connection between LIN/CAN networks and the mobile phone. A prototype of the system has been developed and tested with a LIN-based sensor of a vehicle and a smartphone platform. The operation of the system is also demonstrated in the paper.
Presenter bio: Studied at Budapest University of Technology and Economics 2002-MSc in Transportation Engineering, 2008-PhD, area of Transportation modeling and simulation Currently is an Associate Professor at Department of Control for Transportation and Vehicle Systems teaching Computing and Mechatronics Research interest: mechatronics, embedded system, control
16:50 Combined Wheel-Slip Control and Torque Blending using MPC
Clemens Satzger and Ricardo de Castro (German Aerospace (DLR), Germany)
This article is concerned with the design of braking control systems for electric vehicles endowed with redundant braking actuators, i.e., with friction brakes and wheel-individual electric motors. Facing the challenge to optimally split the braking torque between these two actuators, a unified model predictive control (MPC) algorithm is presented here. The proposed algorithm unifies the wheel slip controller and the torque blending functions into a single framework. The capability of handling energy performance metrics, actuator constraints and dynamics, represents the main advantages of this approach. Simulation studies demonstrate that, in comparison with state-of-art solutions, the proposed control strategy is able to improve the wheel slip and torque tracking by more than 20%, with minor penalization in the energy recuperation.
17:10 Guidelines for Vehicle Cyber Security
Hirofumi Onishi (Alpine Electronics Research of America, USA)
Vehicle cyber risks recently seriously concerned by a society have additional complicated vulnerabilities, compared to ordinary computer or internet cyber security. Considering these vulnerabilities, proper guidelines are required as well as competitive approaches. In general, to define proper security guidelines, risk analysis has to be investigated thoroughly. In this paper, first, we will analyze risks of vehicle cyber security including potential hackers' motivations and skills, and then we will introduce various cyber security guidelines for vehicles, as well as general cyber-physical systems.
Presenter bio: Hiro Onishi is specialist at Alpine Electronics Research of America, Inc., and he is researching ITS (Intelligent Transportation System) and Intelligent vehicle technologies, more than 25 years. Now he is a member of SAE(Society of Automotive Engineers)–Vehicle Electrical System Security Committee, TRB(Transportation Research Board)–Cyber Security sub-committee, SAE–Safety & Human Factor committee and DSRC committee and other public committees. He holds a Master degree of Electronics Engineering at Nagoya University (Nagoya, Japan).
17:30 2D and 3D Face Recognition based on IPC Detection and Patch of Interest Regions
Mebarka Belahcene (Mohamed Khider University, Algeria); Ammar Chouchane (Mohamed KHIDER Biskra University - Algeria-, Algeria); Nadia Mokhtari (Mohamed KHIDER Biskra University, Algeria)
In this paper we propose a framework for 3D face recognition; we focused on face detection and interest regions of the face. We try to improve the performance of 3D Faces Recognition System .We are interested in a global approach. To learn faces, after localized, we need to extract visual features and establish similarities in these sufficiently relevant characteristics. We study characteristics resulting from the PCA+ EFM (Enhanced Fisher Model). We present the mathematical tools necessary for the detection and also to the design of a FRS3D. We develop the algorithm for face detection: which contains also the essence of interest regions detection by (Integral Projection Curves). Finally, we discuss the fusion of modalities and also the classification by SVM. Our goal is to realize an automatic system based on integral projection and the subdivision of face. Experiments are performed on the CASIA3D face database which contains 123 persons under varying illumination, expression and expression and illumination.
Presenter bio: I have a diploma in Electronic Engineering obtained at the Polytechnic School of Algiers Algeria obtained in 1984 and a DEA in "sensors, microprocessors, instrumentation and systems" obtained in 1985 at Rouen University in France, a Magister "Image Processing" on "Texture Analysis" at Batna University (Algeria) and Doctorat on "Identification and Authentification in Biometrics" at Mohamed KHIDER BISKRA University (ALGERIA). I am teacher in higher education and University since 1984 at Batna University, from 1987 to 1989 at the IUT of the University of Rouen, from 1989 to 1994 at the University of Batna and from 1994 to 2014 at the University of Biskra. I have framed several DIUT, DEUA Engineers, Master 2, Magister and Doctorat.

#### TS1-06: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking

Room: Schubert 4, First Floor
Chair: Yutaka Takahashi (Kyoto University, Japan)
15:50 Minimum Real-Time Chunk Delay for Active Safe Driving in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks
Ying-Hsin Liang (Nan Kai University of Technology, Taiwan); Ben-Jye Chang (National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan); Cheng-Hsin Liu (Chaoyang University of Technology, Taiwan)
16:10 Performance Evaluation of Receiver-based GeoRouting Protocols for Infotainment Services in VANETs
Cihan Z Taysi (Yildiz Technical University, Turkey)
Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC) is a promising technology, which enables Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communications, to improve driving safety, reduce traffic congestion and support information services in vehicles. GeoNet project brought the IVC one step further by enabling transparent IP connectivity between vehicles and the infrastructure. Integrating the IVC with existing infrastructure over IPv6 will also enable the use of infotainment services. Specifications produced by the GeoNet project have been incorporated into several ETSI standards, which define the geonetworking layer and the IPv6-over-geonetworking adaptation layer. In this work, we focus on the georouting module of these standards. The default georouting protocol proposed in these standards is a sender based Greedy Forwarding protocol. We investigate the performance of this protocol for infotainment services and compare its performances with several alternative receiver-based georouting protocols. Our experiments shows that receiver based protocols perform better in most of the cases.
16:30 Minimizing Emergency Message Collisions and Maximizing Network Throughput in IEEE 802.11p Vehicular Wireless Network
Ben-Jye Chang (National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan); Ying-Hsin Liang (Nan Kai University of Technology, Taiwan); Jiun-Ting Lai (National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan)
IEEE 802.11p is proposed as the VANET wireless MAC interface for the transmissions of emergency messages in V2V and V2I Communications. However, in a high mobility VANET, QoS of both the emergency message (EM) and handoff transmissions suffer from high collision probability of the contention-based media access mechanism and high interference exhibiting near the cell-edge that encodes a low coding rate of the Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) scheme. Thus, this paper proposes an efficient MAC for IEEE 802.11p to solve above critical issues, in which the approach consists of three main mechanisms: 1) the Sigmoid-based CW Decrease (SWD) algorithm, 2) the Dynamic Initial CW (DIW) algorithm, and 3) Relay-based partition Collision Domain for Handoffs (RCDH). Note that the CW decrease formulation is determined based on the Sigmoid function. Numerical results demonstate that the analysis results are close to the simulation results, and thus justify the correctness of the mathematical analytical model. In addition, the proposed approach outperforms the compared approaches (including the IEEE 802.11p std.) in EM transmission delay, collision probability, throughput, and MAC frame dropping probability.
Presenter bio: Ben-Jye Chang is currently a full professor of the department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan. He was the Chair of the Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering of this department in 2011-2014 and the Chaoyang University of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan, in 2008, where he joined the department in 2002. His research interests include resource management and analysis in 4G LTE-Advanced, 5G WiFi, active safety driving, cross layer-based mechanism, active safe driving in VANET and telematics communications, seamless cooperative heterogeneous wireless networks, adaptive-based wireless real-time transmission congestion control.
16:50 Optimization of Assigned Power and Bandwidth in Macro-Femto Cellular System using Geometric Programming
Fjolla Ademaj (TU Wien, Austria); Bujar Krasniqi (University of Prishtina, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kosovo)
Femtocells are used to increase indoor coverage and network capacity of traditional macro BS deployments. Interference is key performance limiting factor in such heterogeneous mobile networks. In order to minimize the interference between macro- and femto base stations, we use a constrained optimization technique to optimally allocate bandwidth and power to macrocell and femtocell UEs. Matlab's CVX library is used to solve the optimization problem. Depending on the UEs' position from their serving base station (macro or femto) and their demand for higher data rates than minimum requirement data rate, the optimal power and bandwidth is assigned to each base station.
Presenter bio: Fjolla Ademaj received the B.Sc. degree in electrical engineering and M.Sc. degree in telecommunications from the FECE, University of Prishtina, Kosovo, in 2011 and 2014. She is currently pursuing the Ph.D degree in telecommunications engineering and she is employed as a Project Assistant with the Institute of Telecommunications, TU Wien. Her current research interests include heterogeneous cellular networks and system level modeling and analysis of wireless channels, 3D beamforming and FD-MIMO.
17:10 Vehicle Routing with Backup Provisioning Using Wireless Sensor Infrastructure
Nuno Carvalho, Gabriela Schütz and Noelia Correia (University of Algarve, Portugal)
Intelligent transportation systems are currently under strong research and are expected to promote the emergence of new solutions for urban transportation networks. Here we introduce a variant of the open vehicle routing problem, called vehicle routing with backup provisioning, where the possibility of reacting to overloading/overcrowding of vehicles in certain stops is considered. This is based on the availability of vehicle load information in real time, which can be captured using wireless sensor technologies. A heuristic algorithm to plan routes is also proposed. Results show that vehicle routing with backup provisioning can be a way of providing sustainable urban mobility with efficient use of resources, while increasing quality of service perceived by users.
Presenter bio: Member of Center for Eletronics Opto-eletronics and Telecommunications. Master student ar University of Algarve, Portugal. Currently writing Master Thesis on Monitoring Tools for Urban Transportation System s using Wireless Sensor Networks.
17:30 A Large Set of Orthogonal Codes for the V2V Scenario
Mahdiyar Sarayloo, Ennio Gambi and Susanna Spinsante (Università Politecnica delle Marche, Italy)
This paper investigates the use of binary De Bruijn sequences as vehicle signatures in a vehicular CDMA communication framework, over Rayleigh and Weibull distributed fading channels. Orthogonal De Bruijn codes are able to outperform OVSF sequences, whereas it is shown that their inherent Zero Correlation Zone does not provide any significant advantages in the presence of severe fading.
Presenter bio: Mahdiyar Sarayloo received his MSc in 2011 from the University of Southampton for his research in System On Chip (SOC). And in November 2013 he began PhD research at Universita Politecnica delle Marche on the evaluation the Effect of De Bruijn sequences on the CDMA systems.

#### TS3-05: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles

Room: Schubert 5, First Floor
Chair: Syed Hassan Ahmed (Georgia Southern University, USA)
15:50 Vehicle Navigation in GPS denied Environment using Image Registration
Darko Jurić (Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing (FER), Croatia); Sven Lončarić (University of Zagreb, Croatia)
A novel method for vehicle detection and tracking which is capable to correctly detect and track vehicle headlights in rural and urban areas is presented. The detection procedure does not require image thresholding, or other preprocessing, which is commonly used in other methods, thus offering robustness and performance. A tracking method based on Joint Probability Data Association Filter (JPDAF) efficiently associates object detections with existing tracks and provides a track management system. The method deals with object appearance and disappearance and can handle false detections introduced by the frame-based detector.
Presenter bio: Darko Juric received his BSc and MSc degree from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing in Zagreb. He finished his undergraduate study program in Computing in 2010 and in 2012 his master study program in Computer Science with a specialization in Image processing and analysis. Currently, he is employed at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, as a research engineer at the Department of Electronic Systems and Information Processing within Image Processing Group, where he is pursuing his PhD degree. His research interests are in the areas of image processing and machine learning which is used for solving problems in computer vision.
16:30 Inter-Vehicle Communication, License Plate Verification, and Distance Estimation for the Construction of Driving Surroundings
Chingchun Huang and Hoang Tran Vu (National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan); Tsann-tay Tang (Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan)
In this paper, we proposed a crowd-sensing idea to construct the driving environment so that the driver could have better understanding of his/her surroundings on the highway. We assume that intelligent vehicles would embed a sensing system which is composed of three basic modules, including inter-vehicle communication, license plate verification, and distance estimation. Through the help of inter-vehicle communication, a vehicle can receive a set of IDs from its nearby vehicles. Those received IDs, including the license plate numbers of those nearby vehicles, can further improve the license plate verification function and verify the front vehicle under an uncontrolled environment. Moreover, we proposed a regression method, which models the relationship between the image coordinate and the geometric distance, in order to estimate vehicle distance in the front. Finally, by fusing the vehicle verification and distance information from nearby vehicles, the system would provide a global view to tell the driver which vehicles are around you and their distances. Comparing with the existing ADAS (advanced driver assistance system), this system would support a wider view of the driving environment, and provide a more comfortable and safer driving experience. To fulfill the sensing system, a license plate verification method with the help of inter-vehicle communication and a regression method for distance estimation are detailed in this paper. Based on the results, our system could verify the license plate with a high accuracy rate and provide robust distance estimation.
Presenter bio: Hoang Tran Vu received the Master degree from National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Taiwan, in 2015. He is currently a Ph.D. student in National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan. His research interests are in image processing, computer vision and machine learning.
16:50 Regional Risk Estimation for Drivers Cutting Intelligent Graph with Intra Cells Enabling Risk Transfer for Street Players
Ozgur Karaduman, Haluk Eren and Hasan Kurum (Firat University, Turkey); Mehmet Celenk (Ohio University, USA)
As a vehicle proceeds on urban road that includes possible street players such as pedestrian, vehicles, traffic signs, traffic lights, or crosswalks, we can mention about holistic risk caused by dynamic behavior of each items moving along stochastic directions. In the numerous studies, traditional risk estimation methods have been devoted to utilize traffic agents, which have not resulted in effective outcome for a vehicle resided at somewhere among these agents and sometime at its own place. In our scenario, we consider total emerging risks for a driver owing to continuous movements of some of agents on the scene. Specified partitions are envisaged for each agents referring to players at the sight of driver, each of which might have risks as the time goes on. One or multiple agents may occupy in same partition. Therefore, we can mention about potential risks for the subject vehicle. This study has inspired from conventional Graph Cut theory. Graph vertex representing partitions may have transferable risk capacity for the agents in the scene. Vertexes can be imitated to memory cell array that have transferable risk capacities enabling the system to estimate instant risks as traveling in city traffic. As an outcome of this study, the proposed system suggests a driver to take a caution while moving along the street at clutter environment.
Presenter bio: I have been working at Firat University, department of Computer Technology. My focus is on intelligent vehicles, pattern analysis, and computer vision. I am the member of IEEE.
17:10 Evaluation of lateral trajectories with different controllers for multi-vehicle merging in platoon
Mohammad Goli (The George Washington University, USA); Azim Eskandarian (George Washington University, USA)
This paper studies the problem of vehicle platooning with a particular focus on evaluation of lateral trajectories when one or several vehicle(s) merge(s) from the adjacent lane into the main vehicle platoon under longitudinal control. The merging vehicles should be capable of executing lateral maneuver in different platoon speeds while avoiding high lateral acceleration. For this purpose two adaptive lateral trajectory generation techniques are proposed and compared. Performances of different controllers are tested under adaptive lateral maneuvers when multi-vehicles change lane to join the platoon. The proposed approaches are then tested and verified in our newly developed simulation platform SimPlatoon.
Presenter bio: Azim Eskandarian is a Professor of Engineering and Applied Science at The George Washington University (GWU) where he joined in 1993. He is the founding director of the Center for Intelligent Systems Research (CISR) since 1996 and the director of the university and School of Engineering and Applied Science cross-disciplinary “Transportation Safety and Security” program, a major Area of Excellence, since 2002. Dr. Eskandarian also helped establish the National Crash Analysis Center (NCAC) in 1992 and served as its director from 1998 to 2002, and currently is directing the center again. He has three decades of R&D and engineering design experience in Dynamic Systems, Controls, Intelligent Systems, and Applied Mechanics, with applications in automotive engineering, transportation safety, intelligent vehicles, and robotics. He has conducted leading research in driver assistance, collision avoidance, autonomous vehicle controls, and vehicle dynamics/control, and impact dynamics, non-linear finite elements, and meshless methods for crashworthiness, computer simulation and modeling of vehicle crashes, and design optimization under impact loading. Dr. Eskandarian is a Senior Member of IEEE, a Fellow of ASME and a member of SAE, and previously Sigma Xi professional societies, and Tau Beta Pi and PI Tau Sigma engineering honor societies. He received the Recognition Award in 2003 for Service as director of the FHWA/NHTSA National Crash Analysis Center and Distinguished Researcher Award of GW School of Engineering and Applied Science in 2011; he was among the highest cited authors of the IEEE Transactions in ITS in 2010, evaluated over a ten year period. He received his B.S. (with honors), M.S., and D.Sc. degrees in Mechanical Engineering from GWU, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, and GWU, respectively.
17:30 Towards a 3-tier Architecture for Connected Vehicles
Christian Prehofer (TU München, Germany); Konstantin Schorp (Fortiss GmbH & Technische Universität München, Germany); Stefan Kugele (Technische Universität München, Germany); Markus Duchon and Daniel Clarke (Fortiss GmbH, Germany)
In this paper, we consider scenarios, requirements, and architectures for future connected vehicles. Regarding scenarios, we discuss new features like autonomous driving, which has very strong requirements on sensor data fusion, real-time processing, and decision making. We also address a major trend in automotive architectures, which is the aggregation of computing inside the vehicle. Furthermore, we consider connected vehicles, where functionality can be taken over by the cloud. This leads to new challenges with respect to allocation of real-time data processing and control as well as the distribution of the strategy layer across the tiers. To address the challenges of these novel scenarios, we propose a 3-tier architecture for future connected vehicles.
Presenter bio: Konstantin Schorp is staff researcher and PhD candidate at the fortiss research institute of technical university of Munich and the federal state of Bavaria. In his research, in cooperation with partners from industry and academia, he focuses on new approaches to functional as well as system architectures for future vehicles. Prior to that, he studied electrical engineering at technical university of Munich and Tongji University, Shanghai and was involved in a Munich-based technology startup.

### Thursday, November 6 10:20 - 12:20

#### TS8-01: Practices, Standards, Policy, Economics, and Social Implications

Room: Schubert 1, First Floor
Chairs: Yi Shi (Huawei Technologies, P.R. China), Haluk Eren (Firat University, Turkey)
10:20 What tomorrow vehicles will change in safety engineering?
Adama Ba (Jaguar Land Rover, United Kingdom (Great Britain))
The vehicle of tomorrow will be autonomous, more connected, cleaner, and will improve people's mobility. To better prepare its arrival on the roads, it is important to make sure this vehicle is safe from early development phases. Trying to figure out the needs of users for such vehicles allows safety engineers to focus their effort on subjects that require a deeper study. In this paper, we use the systems engineering approach to first describe the future vehicle as a system, the, we will explain the key functions of such system, and eventually we will evaluate the impact of these functions in terms of safety engineering.
10:40 Cooperative ITS - EU standards to accelerate cooperative mobility
Lei Chen (RISE Viktoria, Sweden); Cristofer Englund (Viktoria Swedish ICT, Sweden)
With intensive research and field operational tests over the intelligent transportation area and the advancements of information and communication technologies, intelligent transportation systems reach the stage of deployment. EU focuses on cooperative intelligent transportation systems and confirms the finalization of the first release of the standards, paving the way for deployment in the coming years. This paper presents the concept of EU's cooperative intelligent transportation systems and describes in detail the functional architecture, together with the highlights of related standards that are finalized in Release 1. Latest updates of the cooperative intelligent transportation systems are provided for both industry and academia, aiming at helping to accelerate cooperative mobility.
Presenter bio: Lei Chen received his M.Sc. degree in Communication Engineering from Northwestern Polytechnical University, China, in 2007, and Ph.D. degree in Infra-informatics from Linköping University, Sweden. He is now working as a senior researcher within Cooperative Systems at Viktoria Swedish ICT. He has broad experience from mathematical modeling and optimization, wireless network modeling and simulation, radio network (UMTS, LTE, 4G, 5G, etc.) planning and optimization, cooperative intelligent transportation systems (C-ITS), and innovative applications of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT).
11:00 A Survey of Public Opinion about Connected Vehicles in the U.S., the U.K., and Australia
Brandon Schoettle and Michael Sivak (University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, USA)
This survey examined public opinion regarding connected-vehicle technology across three major English-speaking countries—the U.S., the U.K., and Australia. The survey yielded useable responses from 1,596 persons over the age of 18. The main results were as follows: • The majority of respondents had not previously heard of connected-vehicle technology; however, most had a positive initial opinion of the technology. • The majority felt that the expected benefits presented in the survey are likely to occur. • Respondents generally expressed a high level of concern regarding the security and performance issues presented in the survey. • The majority of those surveyed stated that safety was the most important aspect of connected vehicles. • Most individuals said that it is important for personal communication devices to integrate with connected vehicles, as well as for such vehicles to have Internet connectivity. • The majority of respondents expressed a desire to have this technology in their vehicle. • Willingness to pay for connected-vehicle technology was very similar across the three countries. The main implications of these results are that the general public in the three countries surveyed feel positive about connected vehicles, have optimistic expectations of the benefits (while still maintaining some concerns), and generally desire connected-vehicle technology when it becomes available.
Presenter bio: Brandon Schoettle is a Project Manager in UMTRI’s Human Factors Group. Since joining UMTRI in 2000, Mr. Schoettle has authored over 100 scientific articles and technical reports. His recent research with the Sustainable Worldwide Transportation program focuses on international road-safety trends, changes in driver licensing and demographics, monitoring of new-vehicle fuel economy and emissions, and international public opinion regarding connected and self-driving vehicles. Mr. Schoettle is the current project manager for the University of Michigan Eco-Driving Index, a national index that estimates the average monthly greenhouse gas emissions produced by new light-duty vehicles in the U.S. He received a B.S. in Biopsychology & Cognitive Science from the University of Michigan.
11:20 Channel Estimation with Two-Dimensional Interpolation for the 802.11p Communication
Michal Sybis (Poznan University of Technology, Poland)
One of the most important parts of the vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) communication is reliable channel estimation. Accurate estimation is crucial for the successful application of equalization and demodulation, since the V2X (common name for V2V and V2I) channels characteristics are very time-varying. This paper presents an effective channel estimation that requires only a slight modification to the 802.11p standard pilot scheme.
Presenter bio: Michal Sybis received his PhD in 2012. He is employed as the Assistant Professor at the Chair of Wireless Communications at the Faculty of Electronics and Telecommunications at Poznan University of Technology. Currently he is involved in the research projects related to 5G networks and communication between vehicles.

#### TS7-01: Geographic, Spatial and Social Information Systems

Room: Schubert 2, First Floor
10:20 Measurement of In-Vehicle Channel - Feasibility of Ranging in UWB and MMW Band
Josef Vychodil (Brno University of Technology & BUT Brno, Czech Republic); Jiri Blumenstein and Tomas Mikulasek (Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic); Ales Prokes (Brno University of Technology & Sensor, Information and Communication Systems Research Centre, Czech Republic); Vojtech Derbek (CISC Semiconductor Design+Consulting GmbH, Austria)
This paper provides results of radio channel measurement campaign carried out in the intra vehicle environment for ultra-wide band (UWB) and millimeter wave (MMW) frequency bands, namely 3--11 GHz and 55--65 GHz. In discussed frequency bands, we present and compare channel impulse responses (CIRs) for various antenna locations while considering the effect of passengers presence. On the basis of performed statistical evaluation of time of arrival (TOA) based ranging system deployed in mentioned bands, we discuss feasibility and precision of local positioning systems for intra vehicle ambiance.
Presenter bio: Josef Vychodil received a Master degree in electronic engineering from Brno University of Technology in 2013. Currently he is a PhD student at the same university.
10:40 OWL: Optimized Weighted Localization for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
Lina Altoaimy (King Saud University, Saudi Arabia); Imad Mahgoub (Florida Atlantic University, USA)
Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) allows the exchange of messages between neighboring vehicles or roadside units (RSU). The performance of VANET applications is subject to the ability of determining the location of the vehicles at anytime and anywhere within the network, and thus demands real-time, precise position of vehicles. Accordingly, a number of methods and protocols have been proposed to fulfill this requirement, however, the accuracy of the obtained location is not sufficient for VANET safety applications. We propose an enhancement to our previous localization method, weighted localization using distance information (WLD), that uses signal to interference-noise ratio (SINR) obtained from the exchange messages, and distance between the neighboring vehicles to assist vehicles in estimating their positions. Our proposed optimized weighted localization (OWL) uses the heading information shared by the neighboring vehicles in addition to the SINR and distance information. Our proposed method is an extension to centroid localization (CL) with a weight assigned to each of the neighboring vehicles' coordinates, based on SINR values, distance and heading. We implement a simulation program to evaluate the proposed method against CL, WLD and relative span weighted localization (RWL). The results show the proposed method to have better performance and consistently less average location errors in varying densities.
11:00 Study on UGV Path Selection Method based on GIS Database
Meiling Wang and Xinping Wang (Beijing Institute of Technology, P.R. China)
As an important research field of Intelligent Transport System (ITS), unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) will improve the efficiency of the urban traffic system by its high intelligence. Geographic information system (GIS), which has strong capabilities of storage and management for geographic information, will play a key role in path planning for UGV. Firstly, construct a GIS database aiming at the needs for perceiving the urban traffic environment and storing traffic information related to the perception and decision-making of UGV; secondly, establish a prediction model of travel time based on RBF neural network to predict the travel time of each section, then use the actual travel time achieved by real car experiments to constantly update the predicted travel time; thirdly, a path selection method based on probability is proposed according to people's demand of daily trips; lastly, the GIS database in the simulation will provide several alternative paths, with which the probabilities of arriving on time and arriving at the optimal time can be calculated for each path, help the travelers select their paths in accordance with actual situations. Experiments have shown that the proposed path selection method based on GIS database can provide more efficient paths for UGV driving, guiding UGV to complete the driving tasks successfully.
Presenter bio: Xinping Wang received the B.E. from Beijing Institute of Technology (BIT), China, in 2012. She is currently pursuing her Master degree in the school of automation, Beijing Institute of Technology (BIT), Beijing. Her research interests include building GIS for unmanned ground vehicle in the urban envirnment and path planning for unmanned ground vehicle , etc.
11:20 Geospatial Data Aggregation and Reduction in Vehicular Sensing Applications: the Case of Road Surface Monitoring
Mobile devices present several features which make them attractive as enabling technology for crowdsensing systems. In particular, their spectrum of sensing capabilities, together with consolidated diffusion and ease of use contribute to an increasing adoption in different mobility-based sensing scenarios. On the other hand, the availability of massive volumes of geospatial data provided by large-scale distributed sensing systems prompts the need for innovative approaches to efficient data gathering and processing. Data reduction strategies are often necessary in order to cope with challenges posed by these volumes, for instance when dealing with real-time visualization of query results. In this paper we present a data reduction and aggregation approach for mitigating the impact of data size in a vehicular sensing application aimed at monitoring the roughness of road surfaces. Data collected by smartphones on board of vehicles is progressively thinned at different levels of the proposed architecture through sampling and spatial/temporal aggregation. Preliminary results show that the proposed methodology provides substantial benefits in terms of reduced impact of data while, at the same time, it enables full exploitation of statistical error compensation.
Presenter bio: Born in Berne (CH) in 1984. Achieved his bachelor's in Applied Computer Science at the University of Urbino, then received his master's degree in Computer Science at the University of Venezia. Lorenz is now a Ph.D. student at the University of Urbino.

#### TS1-07: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking

Room: Schubert 4, First Floor
Chair: Alexey Vinel (Halmstad University, Sweden)
10:20 Understanding the Channel Busy Ratio Metrics for Decentralized Congestion Control in VANETs
Alessia Autolitano (Istituto Superiore Mario Boella (ISMB), Italy); Massimo Reineri and Riccardo M. Scopigno (Istituto Superiore Mario Boella, Italy); Claudia Campolo and Antonella Molinaro (University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Italy)
Most of the emerging applications for road safety and traffic management rely on the frequent exchange of awareness messages among vehicles. Unfortunately, the 802.11 protocol poorly behaves under congested scenarios and cannot guarantee the reliability and timeliness demands of massively transmitted broadcast messages, leading to the severe degradation of safety. Recently, there has been a consensus from academia, automotive industries and standardization bodies in adapting transmission parameters (e.g., rate, transmission power) according to the channel load status. Although the objective of controlling channel load can be met with local load measurements only, the participation and fairness principles require the dissemination and sharing of load information among vehicles. In this paper, we aim to shed light on the dynamics of the channel busy ratio (CBR) metrics (locally measured and shared over one/two hops), commonly used in the literature and at the basis of the Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC) standard, under different density and mobility settings.
Presenter bio: Riccardo Scopigno achieved his M.Sc. in 1995 and his Ph.D. in Electronics and Telecommunications 10 years later, while working. He was a hardware and network designer for Siemens Networks (1997-1999) and for Marconi (2000-2002). In 2003 he joined Istituto Superiore Mario Boella where he has been Head of Networking Lab for almost 10-years. His current responsibilities cover research strategy, project proposal and project management. He is ISMB's representative in ETSI ITS (the European standardization body for vehicular communications and Car-to-Cat Communication Consortium (C2C-CC). His research activity is mainly focused on wireless communications (vehicular networks, industrial communications and wireless robotics) and multimedia management (cross-layer solutions for Quality of Services).
10:40 Simulation of Region-based Geocast Routing Protocols
As one of the most important enablers of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC) have been a hot research direction in nearly a decade. To improve vehicle safety and cooperative systems, most of ITS applications need efficient and stable Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) among vehicles and infrastructures, which can be set up by Geocast routing protocols. Some of these applications require the protocols, known as region-based Geocast routing protocols, supporting to broadcast messages to vehicles within a specific geographic region. Since different protocols are appropriate for different purposes or occasions, it is significant to simulate protocols and evaluate their performances under a variety of scenarios. Therefore, this paper focuses on investigations of simulation environment configurations for some known Geocast routing protocols. According to the investigations, a region based Geocast routing simulator is designed and developed. To demonstrate the effectiveness and the reliability of this simulator, several protocols are simulated and the performances of them are presented.
Presenter bio: Tony Larsson, is Professor of Embedded Systems at Halmstad University. After a Master in Mechanical Engineering Tony worked in industry for more than 28 years mainly at Ericsson AB in the areas of real-time, dependable, network distributed, -embedded systems; both with hardware and software. During the period at Ericsson he did his PhD in Computer Science at Linköping University, Sweden 1989 and was appointed technical expert in system design methods 1993. After a short period for the Defense Material Administration in Sweden working with system architecture for the network based defense he in 2003 became Professor of Embedded Systems at Halmstad University. His current interests are focused around software solutions supporting real-time cooperative embedded systems and especially for intelligent transport, vehicle and mobile sensor network applications relying on different forms of wireless communication. E-mail: tony.larsson@hh.se WWW: http://www2.hh.se/staff/tola
11:00 Region-based Geocast Routing Protocols for VANETs: Summary, Evaluation Methods and Simulation Models
Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) is a technology to support communication among vehicles or between vehicles and infrastructure in order to exchange traffic information and avoid accidents. Many applications in VANETs need to transmit messages to vehicles within a specific geographic region. This behaviour is called Geocast. Several Geocast routing protocols have been proposed for VANETs. In this paper, some important and representative Geocast routing protocols are summarized and theoretically compared. In order to evaluate the performance of these protocols, the evaluation methods are also defined, which include both the Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and the Packet Delivery Time (PDT). Additionally, some important and new models, such as the influences of city lights, and the distance between buildings potentially acting as free line of sight obstacles, are proposed to create a more realistic city environment for Geocast routing simulation.
Presenter bio: Rui Wang is from Tianjin, China. He was admitted to Halmstad University, Sweden, in 2011. He received his M.Sc. in Computer Science and Engineering with specialization in Embedded and Intelligent Systems in 2014. During his time at Halmstad University, he chose Simulation-based Performance Comparisons of Geocast Routing Protocols as his thesis project led by Prof. Tony Larsson. Two papers about this project have been accepted by the ICCVE 2014 conference. Besides, he also participated the research team led by Prof. Walid Taha at Halmstad University. This research team focuses on developing foundations for future modeling and simulation tools, with a focus on rigorous and guaranteed methods with applications in CPS domains.
11:20 Routing Protocol for Complex Three-dimensional Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
Ying He and Xuelian Cai (Xidian University, P.R. China); Yankang Zhang (Shengli Power Plant, Shengli Oilfield Company, SINOPEC); Xiaolei Han, Qin Lin and Changle Li (Xidian University, P.R. China)
Due to the existence of three-dimensional (3D) scenarios in realistic Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET), such as the viaduct, tunnel and ramp, the distribution of vehicles is 3D. To the best of our knowledge, the issue of designing a routing protocol for 3D VANET has been rarely studied. Our previous work [10] has provided the routing protocol TDR for the simple 3D scenario which contains two or more parallel roads with different heights. Because the distribution of nodes in the complex 3D scenarios has no rules and no obvious stratification phenomenon, TDR is not suitable for the complex 3D scenarios. Here the complex 3D scenarios are these flyover scenarios with many ramps and irregular arrangement in a large range. Therefore, we propose a novel routing protocol C-TDR for the complex 3D scenarios. In C-TDR we introduce the concept of virtual neighbor and the completion process of neighbor list considering the feature of fluctuant transmission range of nodes in 3D VANET. Finally, we build a simulation scenario containing the simple 3D scene and the complex 3D scene and conduct the simulation for C-TDR. The C-TDR is shown to increase the packet delivery rate and decrease the end-to-end delay and hop count.
Presenter bio: Changle Li received the Ph.D. degree in Communication and Information System from Xidian University, China in 2005. From 2006 to 2007, he was with Computer Science Department at University of Moncton, Canada as a postdoctoral researcher. From 2007 to 2009, he was an expert researcher at National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Japan. He is currently a professor in State Key Laboratory of Integrated Services Networks at Xidian University, China. His research interests include cross-layer design and communication protocols for cellular network, mobile ad hoc network, wireless sensor network, vehicular network and wireless body area network (WBAN).
11:40 Sybil Attack Detection in Vehicular Network based on Received Signal Strength
Rakesh Shrestha, Sirojiddin Djuraev and Seung Yeob Nam (Yeungnam University, Korea)
Vehicular networks are vulnerable to many security threats. One of the security threats is Sybil attack, and traditional security solutions which are based on cryptography and centralized authority are insufficient to protect vehicular network from Sybil attacks. We present a lightweight solution for Sybil attacks based on received signal strength. Our scheme is lightweight enough to be used by independent vehicles without using centralized trusted third party and additional hardware like GPS. We show through the experiments that it is possible to detect Sybil attacks by using received signal strength of the neighboring vehicles.
Presenter bio: Rakesh Shrestha completed his Bachelors degree in Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering from Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal, in 2007. He was awarded with IITA scholarship to pursue his Masters of Engineering degree in Information and communication Engineering, Chosun University, South Korea in 2010. He has also worked as a core Network Engineer in Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd, Nepal Headquarter in 2011. He is currently pursuing his PhD degree in Yeungnam University, South Korea. He is also an active student member of IEEE.
12:00 Cellular Aided Vehicular Named Data Networking
Alessandro Bazzi (CNR, Italy); Barbara M Masini (CNR - IEIIT & University of Bologna, Italy); Alberto Zanella (Istituto di Elettronica e di Ingegneria dell’Inform. e delle Telecomunicazioni, Italy); Cristina De Castro (CNR - IEIIT, Italy); Carla Raffaelli and Oreste Andrisano (University of Bologna, Italy)
With the recent new paradigm for the future Inter- net named data networking (NDN), contents are searched by names and not by address, and any node storing a content can also act as a source of information. Such a paradigm appears to be of particular interest for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), where vehicles are expected to be equipped with short range wireless communication technologies such as, for instance, WAVE/IEEE 802.11p. In VANETs, devices not only use, but also generate contents; devices are generally not constrained in power or memory, thus easily carrying large amount of information; furthermore, the high mobility continuously creates new opportunities for data exchange. In such scenario, the TCP/IP networking paradigm shows some performance limitations and NDN appears as a way to improve reliability and efficiency of content distribution. However, when the node density is limited, the exclusive use of short range communications might reduce the effectiveness of NDN. Motivated by this consideration, we propose the use of cellular networks to carry the signaling part of NDN, and the exploitation of short range wireless communications for the content distribution. We will show, through simulations performed in an urban scenario with different vehicle densities, that moving the signaling part to the cellular networks significantly improves the performance of NDN compared to the case when only short range communications are used.
Presenter bio: Alessandro Bazzi is a researcher of the National Research Council of Italy and he acts as Adjunct Professor at the University of Bologna for courses in the field of wireless communications. His work mainly focuses on connected vehicles. (Further information at www.alessandrobazzi.com)

#### TS2-02: Mobile Internet, Mobility Internet and Internet of Things

Room: Schubert 5, First Floor
Chair: Manohara Pai (Manipal Institute of Technology & Manipal University, India)
10:20 ADCS: An Adaptive Data Collection Scheme in Vehicular Networks using 3G/LTE
Wassim Drira (Qatar Mobility Innovations Center, Qatar); Deepak Puthal (UTS, Australia); Fethi Filali (QMIC, Qatar)
Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) are special kind of Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs). The distinctive characteristics of the VANETs include high speed of vehicular nodes and high variability in node density. Collecting data from VANETs is important to monitor, control and manage road traffic. However, efficient collection of the needed data is quite challenging due to vehicles mobility and the tremendous amount of events and data generated. In this paper we focus on vehicle data collection using 3G/LTE. In the first step, we compare proactive and reactive data collection schemes using simulation. The results show that proactive gives the lowest delay and bandwidth usage but the most loss ratio. Interested in optimizing the bandwidth usage, an adaptive data collection scheme will be provided. It is based on the proactive scheme while it uses variable periods depending on the vehicle position and travel time to provide accurate traffic and travel time information to the Traffic Management Center~(TMC). Emulation results, using taxi traces in Qatar, shows that our algorithm consumes an acceptable amount of mega bytes (~ 31MB) per month when the basic reporting period is set to 10s.
Presenter bio: Fethi Filali is the Head of Technology Development & Applied Research at Qatar Mobility Innovations Center (QMIC). He is leading a group of more than 15 researchers at QMIC in charge of the technology development of QMIC's Masarak ITS solution, Labeeb IoT platform, and Connected Vehicles systems. He holds a Ph.D and Habilitation degree in Computer Science from the University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, France, in 2002 and 2008, respectively. Before joining QMIC in 2010, he was Assistant/Associate Professor at EURECOM for 8 years teaching graduate students and a key investigator in several European projects. He was the Ph.D. Supervisor of eight Ph.D. students in the area of computer networking, wireless sensor and mesh networks, broadband networks, connected vehicles, and mobility management. Fethi published more than 100 research papers and several patents. He is a senior member of IEEE. Fethi's web page: http://www.fethifilali.com
10:40 A Smart Trip Advice Model by Inter-Car Voting Data over Internet towards Pleasant Driving
Mustafa Kaya, Aytug Boyaci, Sengul Dogan, Erhan Akbal and Haluk Eren (Firat University, Turkey)
Almost every day we can observe that most of people spend quite a long time in traffic environment. In the course of driving, motorists occasionally desire to get traditional travel information, such as traffic, road, car and safety related driving data. In the near future, we shall quite likely mention about new generation drivers who wish to get social based data and its manipulation. Hence, we should develop new driver necessity strategies satisfying Internet based requirements for new generation drivers. Here, we propose a system suggesting sub-trip options without ruining driver's primary trip plan. In fact we consider driving efficiency taking pleasure in driving by means of social computing rather exploiting traditional data manipulations such as safe driving, fuel-efficient driving, and obtaining traffic data. For the sake of new generation driver wishes, we develop a model using trip data and feedback information provided by drivers earlier visiting intended attraction place. Then we utilize a social platform associated with central server holding social data such as road safety, weather conditions, and satisfaction rate of attraction place. In this study, we earlier define driver profiles as gourmand, shopaholic, adventurer, art lover, and technophile. Therefore, we propose a system satisfying possible sub-trip expectations of drivers having different profiles. Eventually, we have modeled a new generation inter car sub-route advice platform for pleasant and efficient trip.
11:00 Hierarchical and Hash-based Naming Scheme for Vehicular Information Centric Networks
Safdar Hussain Bouk (Kyungpook National University, Daegu); Syed Hassan Ahmed (Georgia Southern University, USA); Dongkyun Kim (Kyungpook National University, Korea)
In this paper, we propose a hierarchical and hash-based naming scheme for Vehicular Information Centric Networks (VICNs). Our proposed naming scheme makes the best use of the features offered by hierarchical as well as hash-based naming schemes. The hierarchical part of the content name contains information about content owner or generator, content type, sub-types, and attributes of the digital content itself that is shared between vehicles. It serves two main purposes: first, it helps in minimizing the routing table by aggregating the names and simplifying the routing decisions. Second, it contains attributes, spatial, temporal and their range information to easily find and resolve the content. The hash part uniquely identifies the digital content required for VICN applications.
Presenter bio: Dr. Safdar H. Bouk did his Bachelors in Computer Systems Engineering from Mehran University of Engineering & Technology (MUET), Jamshoro in 2001. In the same year after completing his B.E, he visited University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, USA and worked as a Research Scholar. After returning from USA, Dr. Safdar joined QUEST, Nawabshah as a Lecturer and started his teaching career. In 2005, he was awarded with the MEXT Japan's MONBUKAGAKUSHO scholarship to pursue his Higher Education in Japan. He completed his Masters and PhD in Engineering from the Graduate School of Science & Technology, Keio University, Yokohama, Japan in 2007 and 2010, respectively. Mr. Bouk, also worked as a researcher at Intel Japan on the project of M2M Healthcare usecase scenario standardization. Currently, he is working as a PostDoctoral Fellow at Kyugnpook National University, Korea. His research interests include Ad Hoc, Sensor, Vehicular Networks and Information Centric Networks.
Presenter bio: Syed Hassan Ahmed (S'13, M'17, SM'18) is currently an Assistant Professor in the CS Department of Georgia Southern University at Statesboro, USA. Previously, Dr. Hassan was a Post-Doc in the ECE Department, Uni. of Central Florida, Orlando. Furthermore, he completed his B.S in CS from Kohat University of Science and Technology, Pakistan and Master combined Ph.D. Degree from School of Computer Science and Engineering, Kyungpook National University (KNU), S. Korea. In summer 2015, he was a visiting Ph.D. student at the Georgia Tech, Atlanta, USA. Collectively, Dr. Hassan authored/co-authored over 100 international publications including Journal articles, Conference Proceedings, Book Chapters, and 03 books. In 2016, his work on robust content retrieval in future vehicular networks won the Qualcomm Innovation Award at KNU. Dr. Hassan is an active IEEE Senior Member and ACM Professional Member and his research interests include Ad-hoc Networks, Vehicular Communications and Future Internet.
11:20 An IPv6 Architecture for Cloud-to-Vehicle Smart Mobility Services over Heterogeneous Vehicular Networks
Panagiotis Matzakos (Eurecom, France); Jérôme Härri (EURECOM, France); Bernadette Villeforceix (France Telecom R&D, France); Christian Bonnet (Institut Eurecom, France)
In this paper, we provide the specification of a cloud-initiated Point-of-Interest (PoI) application, and illustrate its requirement for a convergence between IPv6 mobility management and Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) geographic services. We propose to extend a flat IPv6 mobility management architecture with a new functional block, namely LIMME (Location \& Infrastructure Mobility Management Entity), composed of three key functions: a Location Manager (LM) acting as location anchor point for cloud-based services, a Geographic Mobility Management (GMM) function acting as location proxy for the LM and handling IPv6 mobility, and an Infrastructure Node selector, which selects a route based on geographical data and local infrastructure node conditions. As a proof-of-concept, we implemented these extensions on the iTETRIS ITS simulation platform and illustrated their benefits in enhanced IPv6 mobility management and traffic offloading.
Presenter bio: Panagiotis Matzakos was born in Athens, Greece in 1986. He received his Diploma in Electronic and Computer Engineering, with a specialization in Telecommunications, from the Technical University of Crete in 2010. He obtained his Master of Science degree from EURECOM in Mobile Communications in January 2013. His Master thesis entitled: "Implementation and Testing of Heterogeneous Cooperative Communication for Intelligent Transportation Systems under iTETRIS Platform " was performed in the context of a research contract between EURECOM and Orange Labs and was supervised by Assistant Prof. Jérôme Haerri. In March 2013 he joined the Department of Mobile Communications, EURECOM, as a PhD student under the supervision of Professor Christian Bonnet. His current research interests include Transport and Network Layer issues for challenging Mobile Network environments as well as Vehicular Communications under Heterogeneous Networks.

### Thursday, November 6 13:30 - 15:30

#### SS3: Future Transportation: Connected, Automated, Intelligent, Electric and Electronic

Room: Schubert 1, First Floor
13:30 Technology Evaluations of Personal Mobility Vehicles in Tsukuba-City Mobility Robot Designated Zone
Naohisa Hashimoto and Kohji Tomita (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan); Akiya Kamimura (AIST, Japan); Osamu Matsumoto (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan)
Many researchers have been seeking ways to solve traffic problems. Also, some countries, especially Japan, will face an unprecedented situation, with fewer children and an aging society. Thus, new eco-friendly and universal mobility are expected. In order to evaluate new mobility and transportation system, it is necessary to perform experiments under real world condition as a pilot study. We performed technology evaluations and demonstration experiments for personal mobility with Tsukuba city, which is a local city in Japan. In this paper, one of the experiments is explained. We proposed a personal mobility sharing system using two kinds of two-wheel and self-balancing vehicles. The proposed experiment is one of the pilot programs, and its result is valuable for evaluating the social receptivity, safety, and efficiency of a mobility sharing system. These experimental data are utilized to construct simulation model on transportation study for the purpose of exploring the capability of these kinds of system as a future transportation.
Presenter bio: Naohisa Hashimoto is a senior researcher of smart mobility Research group in National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). He received Ph.D from Keio University in 2005. During 2010-2011, he was a visiting researcher of the Ohio State University and Center of Automotive Research.
13:50 Study of Coupling Technologies for Personal Vehicle Transit
Takeki Ogitsu (Tokyo University of Science & Faculty of Science and Technology, Japan); Tokunosuke Ikegami (Tokyo University of Science, Japan); Shin Kato (The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan); Hiroshi Mizoguchi (Tokyo University of Science, Japan)
Personal vehicle transit is focused on as a key technology to solve transit issues in Japan. Some traveling salesmen and deliverymen in urban areas travel using personal vehicles instead of vehicles or motorcycles. However, few families use personal vehicles. This study investigates coupling technologies that will encourage families to purchase personal vehicles. Coupling technologies should offer reliability, operability, and cost balance. Therefore, we comparatively evaluate three coupling devices having different characteristics using identical personal vehicles. All the coupling devices use vehicle-to-vehicle communication. The characteristics of these coupling devices are explained, and their present accomplishments are discussed.
Presenter bio: Takeki Ogitsu received his Ph.D. degree in Media and Governance from Keio University in 2013. He is an Assistant Professor at Tokyo University of Science. His research topics are sophistication and development of intelligent systems with a central focus on the field of vehicles. He is a Member of the IEEE and JSAE.
14:10 Variability Analysis of In-Car Gesture Interaction
Pablo Sauras-Perez (Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research, USA); Joachim Taiber and John Smith (Clemson University, USA)
In this paper we present an analysis of the variability of contactless gestures performed to control secondary functions in a car. In particular, those used to control the music player. We set up a Wizard-of-Oz experiment in a driving simulator where participants performed the gestures they think they would use to control the functions of the music player. The results of the experiment show a high level of variability in the gestures performed by different drivers for the same function. This could lead to driver distraction as well as user acceptance issues if a gesture vocabulary is 'enforced' in order to use these systems. Thus, vehicle manufacturers should provide solutions to overcome these issues, such as gesture customization.
Presenter bio: Dr. Joachim G. Taiber joined Clemson University in 2010 as a research professor member of the faculty of Automotive Engineering located at the Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR) in Greenville, South Carolina, USA. Since 2011 he is also institute director. The research focus of his institute is Sustainable Mobility and Connected Vehicle Technology where he studies in particular the interaction between vehicle and infrastructure systems. He is leading a joint economic development initiative between CU-ICAR and SC-TAC (South Carolina Technology Aviation Center) with the purpose to redevelop a significant part of an airport/business park property into a unique test bed for public and private stakeholders to develop and validate innovative vehicle-infrastructure solutions. Prior to his engagement at Clemson University, Dr. Taiber was leading the Information Technology Research Office of the BMW Group Information Technology Research Center (ITRC), the first facility created at the CU-ICAR campus. He joined BMW in Germany in 1997 as an in-house consultant for business process re-engineering in product development with a focus on functional integration and vehicle systems integration. Since 1999 he worked in different leadership positions in the BMW Group Enterprise IT organization in the areas of IT strategy, IT program management, IT innovation management and IT benchmarking. In 2005 he came to the US to implement collaborative IT innovation projects for the BMW Group in the ITRC which included topics in the domain of the “networked vehicle”. Dr. Taiber started his career as assistant to the CTO of a Swiss start-up company in the area of CAD/CAM/PDM systems where he was responsible for product strategy and university research collaboration. He holds a Master Degree in Mechanical Engineering and a PhD Degree in Technical Sciences from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETHZ). He has been instrumental to develop the IEEE Transportation Electrification Initiative and chairs a new IEEE pre-standardization working group in dynamic wireless charging.

#### TS7-02: Geographic, Spatial and Social Information Systems

Room: Schubert 2, First Floor
Chairs: Safdar Hussain Bouk (Kyungpook National University, Korea), Lina Altoaimy (King Saud University, Saudi Arabia)
13:30 Dynamic base station DGPS for Cooperative Vehicle Localization
Cooperative approaches are becoming of great interest in automotive research. One of the most important ITS applications is cooperative localization. In this paper, the concept of a dynamic base station DGPS (DDGPS) and its application in the vehicular cooperative localization is introduced and discussed. The DDGPS is a decentralized cooperative method which aims to improve the GPS positioning by estimating and compensating the common error in GPS pseudorange measurements. It can be seen as an extension of DGPS where the base stations are not necessarily static with an exact known position. In the DDGPS method, the pseudorange corrections are estimated, based on the receiver's belief on its positioning and its uncertainty, and then broadcasted to other GPS receivers. A new method for fusing all the received corrections from different sources is proposed and the data dependency problem is also discussed.
Presenter bio: Mohsen Rohani was born in Iran in 1985. He received the B.S. degree from Amirkabir University of Technology (formerly Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran, in 2007, the M.S. degree from the University of Tehran, Tehran, in 2010, and the Ph.D. degree from the Université de Sherbrooke (UdeS), Sherbrooke, QC, Canada, in 2015. During his Ph.D., his main focus was on cooperative vehicular systems. He was the Leader of the Image Processing Unit of students' robotic group at Amirkabir University of Technology for more than four years. He was a member of the Laboratoire Intelligence Véhiculaire (LIV) Group as a Postdoctoral Researcher at UdeS and a Highly Qualified Person (HQP) member of Auto21. Currently, he is doing research on signal processing, particularly intelligent transportation systems.
13:50 WiFi based indoor localization with adaptive motion model using smartphone motion sensors
Xiang He (ReTech Labs, Inc, USA); Jia Li and Daniel N Aloi (Oakland University, USA)
We present an adaptive motion model for tracking the movement of smartphone user by using the motion sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer) embedded in the smartphone. A particle filter based estimator is used to seamlessly fuse the adaptive motion model with a WiFi based indoor localization system. The system applies Gaussian process regression to train the collected WiFi received signal strength (RSS) dataset, and particle filter for the estimation of the smartphone user's location and movement. Simulations were conducted in MATLAB to provide more insights of the proposed approach. The experiments carried out with an iOS device in typical library environment illustrate that our system is an accurate, real-time, highly integrated system.
Presenter bio: Xiang He PhD Deep Learning Research Engineer at ReTech Labs Graduated from Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Oakland University
14:10 A Multi-Weights Map Matching Algorithm used in GPS System for Vehicle Navigation Application
Yiran Zhang (Research Institute of Electronic Science and Technology of UESTC, P.R. China)
Map Matching (MM) is an important part of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). GPS fusing electronic map model is frequently used for vehicle navigation application. While most of the existing solutions fail to provide trustworthy trajectory when the situation is ambiguous (U-turn, road intersections … ). Azimuth Angle of GPS point (AZP) started to be utilized as a new feature in Map Matching. This method can enhance the matching accuracy of GPS points around the intersections. This paper proposes an improved Map Matching algorithm based on Multi-Weights. Through integrating these Multi-Weights to search the optimal road among many candidates for GPS point. The navigation solution was tested in urban area by mounting the navigation system on a land vehicle. The assessment of the Multi-Weights algorithm is based on comparing the trajectory after Map Matching with the GPS-Only trajectory and the reference trajectory, obtained with higher grade sensors, through which the proposed algorithm provides a significant enhancement in the positional accuracy.
14:30 Vehicle Self-localization in Urban Canyon Using 3D Map based GPS Positioning and Vehicle Sensors
Yanlei Gu and Yutaro Wada (The University of Tokyo, Japan); Li-Ta Hsu (The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong); Shunsuke Kamijo (The University of Tokyo, Japan)
Precise and robust vehicle localization in the urban canyon is a new challenge arising in the autonomous driving and driver assistance systems. Sensor integration is proposed to realize this target in this paper. Global Positioning System (GPS) has been proven itself reliability for accurate vehicle self-localization in the open sky scenario. However, it suffers from the effect of multipath and Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) propagation in urban canyon. The paper proposes to estimate vehicle position by using 3-dimensional (3D) map and ray-tracing method in order to overcome the problems in urban canyon. The proposed positioning method distributes numbers of positioning candidates around of reference positioning, and then the weighting of the position candidates are evaluated based on the similarity between the simulated pseudorange and the observed pseudorange. In this way, the additional 3D map information is used to reduce the effect of multipath and NLOS. Moreover, the information from vehicle sensors, including motion sensor and rotation sensor, are integrated with the GPS positioning result in a Kalman filter framework. The integration not only smooths the trajectory of vehicle, but also reduces the positioning error. The experimental results demonstrate the accuracy of our proposed method and its feasibility for autonomous driving.
14:50 Vehicular Cooperative Map Matching
In this paper a novel Vehicular cooperative map matching method is presented. This map matching method uses the V2V communication in a VANET to exchange GPS information between vehicles. Then vehicles can apply the road constraints of other vehicles in their own map matching process and acquire a significant improvement in their positioning. The dependency of GPS measurements between different vehicles, which can lead to an over converged positioning result has been considered and circumvented in our method. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been verified with simulations in several realistic scenarios.
Presenter bio: Mohsen Rohani was born in Iran in 1985. He received the B.S. degree from Amirkabir University of Technology (formerly Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran, in 2007, the M.S. degree from the University of Tehran, Tehran, in 2010, and the Ph.D. degree from the Université de Sherbrooke (UdeS), Sherbrooke, QC, Canada, in 2015. During his Ph.D., his main focus was on cooperative vehicular systems. He was the Leader of the Image Processing Unit of students' robotic group at Amirkabir University of Technology for more than four years. He was a member of the Laboratoire Intelligence Véhiculaire (LIV) Group as a Postdoctoral Researcher at UdeS and a Highly Qualified Person (HQP) member of Auto21. Currently, he is doing research on signal processing, particularly intelligent transportation systems.

#### TS1-08: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking

Room: Schubert 4, First Floor
Chair: Syed Hassan Ahmed (Georgia Southern University, USA)
13:30 Distributing Blackbox Data to Multiple Vehicles in a Secure and Privacy-preserving Manner
Cheuk Yu Yeung, Wai Chun Law, Tat Wing Chim and Siu Ming Yiu (The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong); Victor O. K. Li (University of Hong Kong, P.R. China); Lucas Hui (The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)
In addition to information such as the track of wheels, vehicle blackbox data (like a blackbox in an aeroplane) provides another major source of information for the study of the cause of car accidents. However, according to a study, 5\% of blackboxes were destroyed in traffic accidents and about 35\% data inside a blackbox could not be retrieved. With the setup of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET), it is motivated to store the blackbox data in a distributed manner in the road-side units of such a network. This scheme works well provided that there are enough road-side units installed. But this assumption is not valid in rural areas and also may impose a large overhead to road-side units. In this paper, we propose a distributed scheme that allows vehicles to periodically broadcast blackbox data to nodes nearby (other vehicles) as extra backup. And the trusted authority can reveal those data from recipients. The proposed scheme will ensure the integrity and confidentiality of messages as well as the privacy of drivers. We show that our scheme is secure and the performance is reasonable through simulation.
Presenter bio: C.Y. Yeung is a current Ph.D. student in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Hong Kong supervised by Dr. Lucas C.K. Hui. He received his First Class Honour, B.Eng. degree in Computer Science from the University of Hong Kong in 2013. His research interest include information security and network simulation, currently having research in Vehicle Ad-hoc Network (VANET).
13:50 Providing Internet to Trains using MIMO in LTE Networks
Claes Beckman (KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden); Mohammad Alasali (KTH: Royal Institute of Technology, Jordan); Mats Karlsson (Icomera AB, Sweden)
Providing broadband passenger internet on board trains with continuous connectivity at high speeds and over large rural distances is a challenging issue. One solution to the problem is to use an onboard WiFi network connected to multiple 3G and 4G networks deployed outside the train and aggregate their combined capacity at the IP protocol level. In order to be able to provide the capacity and the data rates that tomorrow's travelers are expecting, the future 4G standard (LTE - Advance) uses a combination of high order MIMO and carrier aggregation. In this study we use the Swedish company Icomera's passenger internet system for our investigation. The system provides aggregation of multiple carrier and handover on an IP level. For about 10 years the system has in Sweden primarily been using multiple 3G communication links. However, here we present analysis and onboard measurements of the MIMO channel to fast moving train in a live LTE 900 network. The results indicate that MIMO works surprisingly well and it is discussed that by combining 8x8 MIMO with carrier aggregation in future releases of 4G, it may be possible to bring gigabit internet connections to trains.
Presenter bio: Claes Beckman is a visiting antenna systems engineering professor and the founding director of the research center wireless@kth. He has more than 30 years of experience from both academia and the radio communications and radar industries. He has authored several patents, published +100 journal articles and conference reports, and served on both ETSI and 3GPP committees. Currently he is KTH’s Principal Investigator in the “5G” EU-project METIS.
14:10 Optimal Deployment of Road Side Units in Urban Environments
Abdelhak Farsi (University of Paris13, France); Piotr Szczechowiak (Zylia, Poland)
In this paper, we address the problem of Road Side Unit (RSU) deployment in urban environments. One of the main goals in designing a Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) network is to find optimal locations for deployment of all the RSUs. The objective in our case is to cover all the road parts that have the highest car density using a limited number of wireless access points (the number of available RSUs is an input parameter in our formulation). Such design improves data delivery to moving vehicles by maximizing the network coverage and enabling higher data rates. To deal with the RSU deployment problem we propose a methodology which starts by characterizing the mobility of cars using real data traffic. In this step the parts of the road that have the highest average car density over a long period of time are identified. This data is used as input for the formulated nonlinear integer programming problem. The solution to this problem determines the optimal location for RSUs deployment given a fixed budget for networking equipment. Numerical results show that our formulation provides a more optimal solution for RSUs deployment when compared with other deployment strategies proposed in the literature.
Presenter bio: Dr. Piotr Szczechowiak is a Senior Research Scientist at Zylia Sp. z o. o. He received the BEng and MSc degrees in Telecommunications from Poznan University of Technology, Poland in 2006, and the PhD degree in Electronic Engineering from Dublin City University (DCU), Ireland in 2010. He has over 5 years of work experience in the areas of wireless ad-hoc and sensor networks. His research areas of interest cover mobile and pervasive computing, wireless sensor networks, and security solutions in embedded systems.
Presenter bio: Dr. Abdelhak FARSI joined Zylia company (ex-Telcordia Technologies, Poland) in March 2013 as a Post-Doctoral researcher to work on the CarMesh project. He obtained the PhD in computer sciences (major: computer networks) with honors from L2TI - University of Paris 13 in France on December 11th 2012. In September 2007, he gained a MSC diploma with specialty in Signal, Telecommunication, Image, Networks and Multimedia, (University of Paris 13) in France. In September 2002, he received Engineer Diploma in electronics from the University of Science and Technology of Oran (USTO) in Algeria.
14:30 A Survey on Intersection-Based Routing Protocols in City Scenario of VANETs
Mengmeng Wang (Xidian University, P.R. China); Yankang Zhang (Shengli Power Plant, Shengli Oilfield Company, SINOPEC); Changle Li, Xin Wang and Lina Zhu (Xidian University, P.R. China)
As is known, the intersection-based geographic routing protocol is a promising solution to the information dissemination in realistic city environments. Also, there exists a series of special issues for VANETs urban area. Aiming to tackle these issues, many such routing protocols have been proposed in academia. In this paper, we present four important issues for city scenarios which not only strongly affect the performance of routing protocols, but also will be key factors to prompt us to redesign more suitable routing protocols. Those issues include intermittent connectivity, traffic light at intersections, three-dimensional and traffic accident city scenarios. Then we give a survey on recent intersection-based geographic routing protocols and explore how those issues impact the performance of these protocols. In order to better reflect the influence of these issues, we perform a simulation-based analysis. We evaluate the performance of the existing routing protocols including GPCR, GyTAR, STAR, and TDR in city scenarios with above issues. Simulation results prove that these scenarios affect the performance of routing protocol significantly. Finally, we put forward guidelines which are conductive for designing VANETs routing protocols.
Presenter bio: Changle Li received the Ph.D. degree in Communication and Information System from Xidian University, China in 2005. From 2006 to 2007, he was with Computer Science Department at University of Moncton, Canada as a postdoctoral researcher. From 2007 to 2009, he was an expert researcher at National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Japan. He is currently a professor in State Key Laboratory of Integrated Services Networks at Xidian University, China. His research interests include cross-layer design and communication protocols for cellular network, mobile ad hoc network, wireless sensor network, vehicular network and wireless body area network (WBAN).
14:50 A 3D Web-based Visualization Tool for VANET Simulations
Can Gocmenoglu and Tankut Acarman (Galatasaray University, Turkey)
VANET Simulation schemes require a combination of mobility and wireless network simulation packages, coupled with custom scripts, visualization tools and various scenarios. The results of simulation studies need to be supported by special tools or scripts to analyze or visualize them easily. Some additional difficulties arise at sharing the results, visually comparing simulation runs across different platforms and showcasing the findings of a research to a larger audience. As a solution, we have developed a 3D Web-based Visualization Tool for VANET Simulations (WGL-VANET), which takes advantage of HTML5 and WebGL technologies to create a cross platform, easy-to-use and flexible visualization tool for VANET simulations. WGL-VANET reads simulation data from a JSON document and supports a variety of visual features, and displays the simulation run on a WebGL canvas inside a web-browser.
15:10 Making Inter-flow Network Coding Possible for Unicast Routing in VANETs
Cemulige Wu (The University of Electro-Communications, Japan); Satoshi Ohzahata (The University of Electro-Communications & Graduate School of Information Systems, Japan); Yusheng Ji (National Institute of Informatics, Japan); Toshihiko Kato (University of Electro-Communications, Japan)
Designing an efficient unicast routing protocol for vehicular ad hoc networks has been a challenging issue due to the vehicle movement, limited wireless resources and lossy feature of wireless channel. We propose a protocol which utilizes inter-flow network coding to route data messages. The proposed protocol uses common backbone vehicles for different traffic flows. A reliability connected backbone is selected by considering vehicle movement dynamics and link quality between vehicles. By using inter-flow network coding at the backbone vehicles, the protocol can reduce the number of generated packets by 25% in most cases as compared to conventional routing approach. As a result, the proposed protocol can provide high packet delivery ratio, low overhead and low delay. We show the effectiveness of the protocol using theoretical analysis and computer simulations.
Presenter bio: received his M.E. degree from Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China, in 2006, and PhD degree from the University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo, Japan, in 2010. He was an assistant professor at the Graduate School of Information Systems, the University of Electro-Communications from 2010, and since November 2015, he has been an associate professor at the same university. His current research interests include vehicular ad hoc networks, sensor networks, intelligent transport systems, IoT, 5G, and mobile cloud computing.

#### TS5-05: Transportation and Connected Vehicles

Room: Schubert 5, First Floor
Chairs: Mostafa Majidpour (UCLA, USA), Christoph Schmittner (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH & Vienna University of Technology, Austria)
13:30 Efficient engineering of safety-critical, software-intensive systems
Joachim Taiber and John McGregor (Clemson University, USA)
The transportation ecosystem is currently in a transition phase from combustion to electrified, from isolated to connected, and from hands-on to automated. During this transition, new disruptive technologies replace existing technologies and then quickly become obsolete themselves. As drivers provide less input into driving decisions, safety and efficiency become even more critical and difficult to achieve: driving decisions increasingly rely on software, while automotive engineering traditionally relies on mechanical solutions. In the rush to deploy solutions with the latest technology the quality of the software can suffer. The objective of this work is to suggest changes needed in current automotive software engineering to meet the levels of quality demanded by autonomous, connected vehicles. One of the biggest changes is that vehicle and infrastructure technology needs to be developed in context. Strategic decisions concerning which technologies to integrate and the development processes to use require an understanding of the emerging markets. The development method outlined here provides an organization with guidance on using ecosystem roadmaps and a high integrity software development process to accommodate emerging technologies and ever shorter product cycles. In part guidance is given by fitting those technologies into existing, validated architectures and in part by specifying V&V techniques that detect defects early. The result is an environment in which safety-critical products are developed more effectively and efficiently.
Presenter bio: Dr. Joachim G. Taiber joined Clemson University in 2010 as a research professor member of the faculty of Automotive Engineering located at the Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR) in Greenville, South Carolina, USA. Since 2011 he is also institute director. The research focus of his institute is Sustainable Mobility and Connected Vehicle Technology where he studies in particular the interaction between vehicle and infrastructure systems. He is leading a joint economic development initiative between CU-ICAR and SC-TAC (South Carolina Technology Aviation Center) with the purpose to redevelop a significant part of an airport/business park property into a unique test bed for public and private stakeholders to develop and validate innovative vehicle-infrastructure solutions. Prior to his engagement at Clemson University, Dr. Taiber was leading the Information Technology Research Office of the BMW Group Information Technology Research Center (ITRC), the first facility created at the CU-ICAR campus. He joined BMW in Germany in 1997 as an in-house consultant for business process re-engineering in product development with a focus on functional integration and vehicle systems integration. Since 1999 he worked in different leadership positions in the BMW Group Enterprise IT organization in the areas of IT strategy, IT program management, IT innovation management and IT benchmarking. In 2005 he came to the US to implement collaborative IT innovation projects for the BMW Group in the ITRC which included topics in the domain of the “networked vehicle”. Dr. Taiber started his career as assistant to the CTO of a Swiss start-up company in the area of CAD/CAM/PDM systems where he was responsible for product strategy and university research collaboration. He holds a Master Degree in Mechanical Engineering and a PhD Degree in Technical Sciences from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETHZ). He has been instrumental to develop the IEEE Transportation Electrification Initiative and chairs a new IEEE pre-standardization working group in dynamic wireless charging.
13:50 An Approach to Designing an Autonomic Network of Traffic Managers
Vangalur Alagar (Concordia University, Canada); Kaiyu Wan (Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, P.R. China)
Critical improvements are needed to handle a huge increase in the volume of vehicles that use the current urban transportation network. The surface transportation must become safer and smarter. Current advances in wireless communication technology can be brought in to achieve connectivity in surface traffic and based on it services can be provided for drivers of vehicles to avoid collision and congestion, while improving safety and security on one hand, and facilitating navigation and routing on the other. To achieve this kind of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) connectivity, interoperability between wireless devices is necessary. However, managing the communication complexity in a huge traffic network is hard, whether or not the vehicles are driven by humans. In the former case the drivers may be loaded with information from external sources and the task of reasoning with the information, which are often conflicting, will effectively distract them from driving. In the later case, the embedded system in the vehicle must also include policy databases and a reasoning engine. Putting such a demand on the embedded system only increases the complexity of the system, because there is no guarantee that correct decisions can be made in real-time. In this paper the goal is to provide the vehicle a minimum set of simple tasks, and allow it to be largely guided by the smartness of the infrastructure. This vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) connectivity is emphasized as the basic building block to ultimately (perhaps indirectly) achieve V2V. Assuming that every vehicle has a built-in set of embedded systems which perform intelligent actions, such as location sensing, Anti-lock Braking System, and Lane Change Warning System, it is shown that a collision-free coordinated motion of vehicles can be achieved by designing a network of autonomic Traffic Managers (TM), where each TM manages vehicles using its own resources such as real-time controllers, arbiters, and other external actuators. Being autonomic a TM will have the ability to reconfigure the system owned by it, protect itself from unauthorized attacks and repair itself in order to minimize its downtime.
Presenter bio: Dr. Vangalur (Vasu) Alagar is Professor Emeritus at Concordia University, Montreal, Canada. His area of interests are in algorithms, languages, and systems. Currently his research focuses on Cyber-physical Systems, Context-aware Systems and Applications, and Service-oriented Architectures. He is the author of two text books, has edited many conference proceedings and journals.
14:10 Validation of a microscopic single lane urban traffic simulator
Aleksandar Kostikj (Ss Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of)
This paper presents the validation process of a microscopic single lane urban traffic simulator. The simulator was developed in Matlab and calibrated with experimentally obtained traffic data. It handles real traffic situations in urban environment. The validation is performed in order to determine the extent of conformity of the model i.e. simulator with the real traffic stream in urban environment. The process itself is based on qualitative and quantitative comparative analyzes of the model parameters and experimentally obtained traffic stream parameters. The results extent our previous research and confirm the flexibility and engineering utility of the simulator in the domain of traffic analyses and planning.
14:30 Safety Management on Hazardous Material Transportation
Wenjie Chen and Guanhua Zhang (East China Normal University, P.R. China)
The safety management of hazardous material transportation is important for the people's life, the environment and the economy. Currently, trajectory monitoring systems are set up to manage the hazard material transportation in China. However, the coordination among different departments of government on accident prevention, handling and investigation is still in low efficiency due to lack of means. This paper proposes a centralized monitoring and safety management system for all the users, including the transportation enterprise and every related government departments and service organizations. Based on the Internet-of-Things technologies, this system uses various methods to monitor the status of the person, the vehicle, the goods and the roads, so as to detect every sign before an accident try to avoid it. To elevate the efficiency of accident handling, this system coordinates every relevant department of the government to be alerted at the first time and react immediately according to the prepared emergency plan with full information of the site. This system also collects sufficient information for accident investigation. This system can improve the efficiency on accident prevention, handling and investigation.
Presenter bio: Wenjie Chen is an associate professor at Software School of East China Normal University (ECNU). His research focuses on Connected Vehicles, Internet-of-things and Embedded system. In the past two years, he also worked part-time at Chinese Academy of IoT Industry Development (CAID), where he took charge of some projects on internet of things.
14:50 Infrastructure based sensor fusion for enhancing the positioning accuracy to vehicles for enabling safety critical ITS applications
Fritz Kasslatter (Siemens AG Österreich, Austria); Omer Karacan (Siemens AG Corporate Technology, Austria)
Intelligent cooperative transportation systems (ITS), dedicated short range communication (DSRC), vehicle to vehicle /infrastructure communication (V2X) technologies support applications for improving traffic information and road efficiency. Using this technology for increasing safety such as real-time crash mitigation, an accurate position matching of vehicles to driving lanes of a given topological map is required. Today's vehicles or mobile devices use satellite based positioning systems and data fusion of additional sensors, which is still not a guarantee for a reliable position acquisition, satisfying the requirements for safety applications. This paper presents positioning calculation procedures, based on road infrastructure sensors, for driving vehicles and moving pedestrians. An ITS infrastructure equipment, mounted on the road side, is stationary and therefore knows exactly its GPS position. Such an ITS roadside station is able to track moving ITS stations (vehicles, bicycles, pedestrians, etc.) by reception of their radio signals and using additional sensing technologies like angle of signal arrival, radar, video, etc. The combination of infrastructure based sensing technology and the exact knowledge of the surrounding map, allows an ITS roadside station to execute a correlation algorithm for reliable estimation of the position of moving ITS-stations. The combination of infrastructure based positioning computation and vehicle own positioning information will lead to a high accurate and reliable position computation and enable pedestrians or vehicles to execute critical safety applications (e.g. execution of lane based maneuvers in intersections, wrong way driving, etc.)
Presenter bio: Fritz Kasslatter has received his Diploma degree in communication engineering from the Technical University in Vienna in 1988. He has worked for 4 years in R&D department in Munich at “Gesellschaft für Technologieberatung” and Schlumberger Technologies. In 1993 he has moved to Vienna and started as engineer at Siemens AG Österreich in the R&D department. He has represented Siemens in the EU Project WirelessCabin and is working since the last years as project manager in the field of car-to-car/infrastructure communications. He is actively participating at standardization bodies as ETSI, ISO/CEN, SAE and Car2Car Consortium.
15:10 An extension of MovSim for Multi-Agent Cooperative Vehicles Modeling
Maxime Guériau (IFSTTAR); Romain Billot (IFSTTAR, France); Salima Hassas (University of Lyon (UCB), France); Frédéric Armetta (University of Lyon1, France); Nour-Eddin El Faouzi (IFSTTAR, France)
We present a multi-agent based extension of a microscopic time continuous lane-based simulator designed to develop cooperative vehicle behaviors within a connected environment. We have chosen to extend the Multi-model Open-source Vehicular-traffic SIMulator (MovSim) which offers a complete traffic simulation platform. By integrating concepts coming from artificial intelligence and related intelligent distributed systems such as multi-agent systems, we aim to model complex individual interactions (including sensors measurements, communication between vehicles and with the infrastructure).
Presenter bio: Maxime Guériau is a PhD. student in Computer Science at Lyon 1 University in co-operation with the French National Institute for Transportation, development and networks (IFSTTAR). He received an engineering degree in Computer Science from the University of Technology of Belfort-Montb\’eliard (UTBM). His research interests are distributed intelligent systems, vehicular simulation, and traffic modeling for Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems applications.

### Thursday, November 6 15:50 - 17:50

#### SS4: Future Transportation: Connected, Automated, Intelligent, Electric and Electronic

Room: Schubert 1, First Floor
Chair: Naohisa Hashimoto (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan)
15:50 Connected Mobility Aids: Supporting Physically Impaired Traffic Participants with Vehicle-to-X Communication
Stefan Diewald (Technische Universität München, Germany); Patrick Lindemann and Matthias Kranz (University of Passau, Germany)
Due to population ageing, the number of people that depend on mobility aids, such as walking frames, mobility scooters, or wheel chairs, will increase steadily over the next decades. In order to support the physical impaired outside traffic participants, barrier-free navigation and trip planning solutions have been developed. In this work, we go beyond these approaches and investigate potential benefits arising from the integration of mobility aids in vehicle-to-x communication. We argue that this can lead to increased safety for all traffic participants as well as to a more efficient mobility for the physically impaired people as individual requirements can be met.
Presenter bio: Stefan Diewald studied Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, majoring in Communication and Information Technology, at the Technische Universität München (Germany). He received his Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degree in September 2010 and his Diplom-Ingenieur (Univ.) degree in May 2011. In June 2011, he joined the Institute for Media Technology at the Technische Universität München as Ph.D. candidate where he is working as a member of the research and teaching staff in the Distributed Multimodal Information Processing Group. Since March 2013, he is also part of the Embedded Systems Group of the Embedded Interactive Systems Laboratory (EISLab) at the University of Passau. His research interests are in the fields of automotive user interfaces, vehicle-to-x communication and mobile applications for enhancing the individual mobility situation.
16:10 Application of Existing Wireless Power Transfer Standards in Automotive Applications
Darya Bululukova (University of Applied Sciences Technikum Wien, Austria); Michael Kramer (University of Applied Sciences Technikum Wien)
Wireless power transfer is an emerging technology with potential for deployment in consumer electronics as well as in industrial solutions. A number of standards have been implemented in the past several years. In spite of the stated differences in coupling mechanism, the main effect behind the technology is resonant induction. The main advantage of the wireless power transfer from a consumer perspective – interoperability – has not been achieved, preventing mass adoption of the technology.
Presenter bio: Darya Bululukova, born in November 1990. She received her Bachelor Degree in Intelligent Transport Systems from the UAS Technikum Wien in 2013 and continued her studies in the Master Degree Program "Embedded Systems". Currently, she is employed as junior researcher at the UAS Technikum Wien, departments of Embedded Systems (ULEA project) and Information Engineering&Security (EU-ASCIN project). The ULEA project is an education laboratory for E-Mobility and Assistive Technologies. The EU-ASCIN project deals with introduction of Smart Cities in the existing study programs. At present, she is working towards her Master Thesis in the field of wireless power transfer in electric vehicles.
16:30 Understanding Traffic: Towards a Smart Traffic Control Architecture
Amjad Gawanmeh (Khalifa University, United Arab Emirates); Mohammad Alwadi (University of Canberra, Australia); Ashraf Ghawanmeh (Yarmouk University, Jordan)
We address the problem of traffic jams at connected intersections by proposing a simplified model for a network of four connected intersections, each has four incoming and four outgoing single lane roads. The proposed model, on the other hand, is flexible and can fit to any real case study with different intersections structures and topologies. We conduct discrete-event simulation in order to sturdy the effect of traffic arrival rate and traffic directions on average processing time for cars. We show that delay exhibits exponential behavior with regards to poison arrival model, which is expected, however, it is essential to identify the break point for traffic delay based on the arrival rate, which can be used for further consideration of methods to reduce this delay.
Presenter bio: Amjad Gawanmeh [Senior Member IEEE], is an assistant professor at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Khalifa University since 2010. He is also an affiliate Assistant professor, Concordia University Montreal, Canada since 2015. He received the M.S. and the Ph.D degrees from Concordia University, Montreal, Canada, 2003 and 2008. He worked as a researcher for the Hardware Verification Group at Concordia University between 2000 and 2008. He worked for Applied Science University in Jordan from 2008 until 2010 as an assistant professor. He has co-authored two edited books, 3 book chapters, more than 20 peer reviewed journal papers, and around 50 peer reviwed conference papers. His research interests are verification of hardware systems, security systems, and healthcare systems, modeling and analysis of complex systems such as CPS, performance analysis of complex systems, reliability of as medical system, and Energy efficient algorithms design in CPS. He is an associate editor for IEEE Access Journal, and for Human-centric Computing and Information Sciences Journal, Springer. He acted as guest editor for several special issues. He is on the reviewer board for several journals in IEEE, Elsevier, Wiley, and many others. He is a member of the executive committee for IPCCC conference. He has co-chaired several conferences and chaired several workshops organized in key conferences including ICC, ICDCS, IPCCC, Healthcom, and WiMob. Has served on the TPC for key conference such as Globecom, ICC, PIMRC, ICCVE, WCNC, and Infocom workshops. He is an IEEE member.

#### TS7-03: Geographic, Spatial and Social Information Systems

Room: Schubert 2, First Floor
Chair: Lina Altoaimy (King Saud University, Saudi Arabia)
15:50 Using Stationary Vehicles to Enhance Cooperative Positioning in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks
Rodrigo H. Ordonez-Hurtado (University College Dublin, Ireland); Robert Shorten (IBM, Ireland)
A new approach to enhance Cooperative Positioning (CP) in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) using stationary vehicles is presented. Tests using SUMO simulations shows some preliminary benefits of the approach.
16:10 A street safety inventory aid using an automated smartphone-cloud application
Ali R. Kattan (Ishik University, Iraq); Mohammed Aboalmaaly (National Advanced IPv6 Centre, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia)
Potholes, debris, sunken manhole covers and others are common street safety hazards drivers experience daily as they "bump" into them unexpectedly while driving. The repair and maintenance process by municipals is an ongoing effort that requires periodic streets inventory to guarantees safety. Unless someone reports the location of a street problem, such process cannot take place. This paper presents a simple, yet an effective technique to aid in reporting such street hazards automatically using a smartphone application. The smartphone's accelerometer is used to detect bumps during driving and report the data and location to cloud service. The cloud application utilizes an artificial neural network that is trained to differentiate between a "shock" resulting from normal driving maneuvers from those possibly resulting from road problem. It also analyzes the location and based on the frequency of reporting a certain "shock" data from the same geographical location it reports a street hazard location. The city's municipal can then take the suitable actions for inspection and repairs. Promising results were obtained by using a preliminary test implementation indicating the effectiveness of the proposed technique.
16:30 Intelligent driving lane with RF-ID for vehicle navigation system
Takeshi Kawamura, Tatsuya Kashiwa, Kenji Taguchi and Yasutaka Kishimoto (Kitami Institute of Technology, Japan)
In our residential area, northern part of Japan, we sometime meet heavy snow fall and are put into low visible condition due to the snowstorm. Unfortunately, some drivers go out from their driving lane. In order to prevent, such traffic accidents with low visible condition, we developed a vehicle navigation system with UHF RF-ID system. There are several studies related on lane departure and vehicle positioning. Some of them uses GPS, DSRC, and other technique, and are some application of triangular surveying. Our navigation system finds vehicle position using information written on RF-ID tag buried under the road surface. From the view point of lane support system, buried RF-ID tags has capability to make the driving lane intelligent with driving support information. We will show our navigation system on this viewpoint.
16:50 Automatic estimation of road inclinations by fusing GPS readings with OSM and ASTER GDEM2 data
Christophe Boucher and Jean-Charles Noyer (Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, France)
This work presents a method of estimating the slope of road networks that are ground-modeled by OSM originally. The aim is to get 3-D road vectors including their 2-D location and inclination, that is an important parameter to ensure more reliable route planning. This is done from GPS data that are collected by a vehicle traveling on an existing OSM road network whose a DEM, like SRTM or ASTER data, provides a modeling of the terrain surface. GPS, OSM and DEM data are modeled as measurement equations in order to account for their errors in an UKF that fuses them in a centralized scheme. Here, the key step is to match GPS/OSM/DEM measurements successively by computing statistical Mahalanobis distances. The experimental framework show some results of road inclinations estimation and the significant contribution of a DEM as baseline.
Presenter bio: Christophe Boucher received the PhD degree in computer science engineering from the Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale (ULCO), Calais, France, in 2000. Since 2002, he served as an Associate Professor with the Institut Universitaire de Technologie (IUT) du Littoral Côte d'Opale. In 2010, he joined the Laboratoire d'Informatique, Signal et Image de la Côte d'Opale (LISIC). His research interests include non-linear filtering, and multisensor fusion applied to intelligent transportation systems.

#### TS1-09: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking

Room: Schubert 4, First Floor
Chair: Syed Hassan Ahmed (Georgia Southern University, USA)
15:50 A Novel Blockwise PAPR Minimization Algorithm for Connected Vehicles
Adrian Langowski and Krzysztof Wesołowski (Poznan University of Technology, Poland)
In this paper we present a novel algorithm which minimizes peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal used in IEEE 802.11p like transmission. The proposed algorithm is an extension of the widely known selected mapping (SLM) algorithm. Its novelty relies on performing PAPR minimization jointly in blocks of a few OFDM symbols and transmitting on side information usually required by the SML algorithm on pilot positions. Simulation results prove the usefulness of the proposed algorithm.
16:10 The Impact of Jamming on Threshold-Based Agreement in VANET
Hani Alturkostani and Axel Krings (University of Idaho, USA)
In Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) enables communication among vehicles (V2V) and vehicles to infrastructure (V2I). ITS safety applications are designed to increase road safety and to reduce accidents. The reliability of DSRC-based ITS safety applications is essential. Thus, improving resiliency against faults, and enhancing reliability, are primary goals. Research has shown that threshold-based agreement methods effectively reduce the impact of value faults through validating events, by receiving the Basic Safety Message (BSM) from multiple sources. Whereas previous work considered value faults, e.g., injection, data fabrication and sensor manipulation, it does not address the impact of omission faults and jamming. This paper investigates the impact of jamming on threshold-based agreement in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET). It is shown that jamming drastically reduces the correctness of the voted upon decision. We consider the Emergency Electronic Brake Lights (EEBL) safety application, and demonstrate how jammer position and power affect the correctness of the decision. Furthermore we show how the number of vehicles impacts the correctness of decisions in the presence of jamming. Finally a new adaptive threshold algorithm is introduced that improves the resilience against jamming attacks compared to algorithms presented in previous research.
16:30 An Information-Centric Approach for Data Dissemination in Vehicular Networks
Yuhong Li (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.R. China); Theo G. Kanter and Rahim Rahmani (Stockholm University, Sweden); Lars C Wolf (Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany)
The features of information exchange in vehicular networks has raised the concern to introduce Information-Centric Networking (ICN) to vehicular networks. However, some design principles of ICN must be implemented and extended in order to realize efficient data dissemination in vehicular networks. This paper proposes an information-centric data dissemination approach in vehicular networks. An architecture for organizing and disseminating information in a vehicle has been suggested. Clusters of common interests are proposed, which are established dynamically by vehicles based on the information in which the they are interested. Within each cluster, information are disseminated to the vehicles in a way decided by the features of the information. To show the feasibility of our approach, we have implemented the approach in the simulation environment.
Presenter bio: Prof. Dr. Ing. Theo Kanter received his MSc in electrical engineering, cum laude, from the University of Advanced Technology, the Netherlands in 1976. He completed studies in computer science and artificial intelligence at the University of Technology in Linköping in Sweden (1986, 1987), before pursuing a technical doctorate in computer communications, which he earned from the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden in 2001. During his career, Theo has held a number of leading positions in telecommunications research, earlier at Ellemtel AB, Sweden (1996-1999), where he led research in agent-based service architectures for context-aware voice services on the Internet. He holds a number of patents in this area. Between 1999 and 2007, Theo was a senior scientist at Ericsson Research in the area of Service Layer Technologies focusing on Adaptive Mobile Services and Mobile Presence, contributing to standardization in the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) and Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). During this period, Theo was also affiliated as guest researcher with the Wireless Center at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, where he lead research in adaptive & context-aware mobile multimedia communication, -service architectures, & -self-organizing application infrastructures, and lectured on Mobile Presence. From September 2007, Theo holds the position of full Professor of Computer Science in the area of Distributed Systems within the Department of Information Technology and Media at the Mid Sweden University. From May 2010, Theo holds a position of guest professor the Department of Computer and System Sciences at the Stockholm University in the area of sensor-based mobile services. Kanter is an associate editor of IEEE Computer Communications magazine, and technical committee member / (co-) organizer of several well-known international conferences on wireless & mobile computing and applications, such as: IEEE Conference on Mobile and Wireless Communications Networks (MWCN), International Symposium on Wearable Computers (ISWC), IEEE Workshop on Local and Metropolitan Area Networks (LANMAN), and IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC).
16:50 Mobility Pattern based Misbehavior Detection in Vehicular Adhoc Networks to Enhance Safety
Fuad Abdulgaleel Abdoh Ghaleb (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia); Mohammad Abdur Razzaque (Trinity College, Ireland); Anazida Zainal (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia)
Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) can make roads safer, cleaner, and smarter. It can offer a wide range of services, which can be safety and non-safety related. False or bogus information is a real threat in VANET's safety applications, security and privacy. Vehicles or drivers may react to false information and cause serious problems. In VANETs Drivers' behavioral tendencies can be reflected in the mobility patterns of the vehicles. Monitoring mobility patterns of the vehicles within their transmission range helps them in earlier detection of the correctness of the received message. Detection of the false message is not enough to enhance the security and safety. The misbehaving vehicles must be also detected and penalized, so they will not misbehave in the future. Existing misbehavior detection schemes have not adequately addressed this issue in the highway. In this paper we present a misbehavior detection scheme (MDS) and framework based on the mobility patterns analysis of the vehicles in the vicinity of concerned vehicles. The proposed MDS is a hybrid mechanism of both Data-Centric and Entity-Centric to cover wide range of misbehaviors. Simulation results demonstrate the potential of the proposed MDS and framework especially in highway safety applications.
Presenter bio: Dr. Mohammad Abdur Razzaque (raz) is Senior Lecturer in the Faculty of Computing, UTM, Malaysia. His research interests centered around the area of Wireless and mobile computing and communications, Cloud computing, Big-data analytics . Subtopics of focus include Big-data pre-processing, Security and Privacy in Cloud computing, Security and Privacy in Wireless Networks including Wireless Sensor Networks, Body Area Networks, Vehicular Adhoc Networks, Data compression, Intelligent Transportation System, etc. His current research works centered on data compression and data management in wireless sensor network, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITSs), Compression in Big-data pre-processing and analytics, Cloud computing security and privacy.
17:10 Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 with the Unslotted CSMA/CA for Mobile Vehicle
Xiaoya Hu (Huazhong University of Science and Technology, P.R. China); Jiao Fang and Wei Xiong (Huazhong University of Science & Technology, P.R. China)
We introduce a mathematical model of the IEEE 802.15.4 with unslotted CSMA/CA for mobile vehicle by the M/G/1 queuing theory. Our analysis results show the influence of the vehicle speed and the optimum application scope of IEEE 802.15.4 in ITS.
Presenter bio: She was born in Hubei, China, in July 1990. She will obtain a Master in Engineering degree, detection technology and automatic equipment, from Huazhong University of Science and Technology in 2015.
17:30 V2V Communication in a Cox Field of Vehicles
Youngmin Jeong, Dung Phuong Trinh and Hyundong Shin (Kyung Hee University, Korea)
We study the effect of vehicle's random locations in vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. To account for a doubly stochastic property of a vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET), we model vehicle's random locations as a stationary Cox process. The key wireless propagations--path loss, shadowing, and multipath fading--are also considered. The modeling and analysis resort to the H-transform theory to develop a unifying framework for characterizing V2V communication. We also analyze the maximal number of hops in a doubly stochastic VANET.
Presenter bio: Youngmin Jeong received the B.E., M.E., and Ph.D. degrees in Electronics and Radio Engineering from Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Korea, in 2009, 2011 and 2015, respectively. He is currently a Research Professor at the Kyung Hee University, Korea. He was a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Kyung Hee University, Korea, from 2015 to 2018, and a Postdoctoral Associate at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA, from 2016 to 2018. His research interests include wireless communications and information theory with current emphasis on MIMO systems, network interference, vehicular communication networks, molecular communications, and quantum communication networks.

#### TS5-06: Transportation and Connected Vehicles

Room: Schubert 5, First Floor
Chair: Mostafa Majidpour (UCLA, USA)
15:50 A Novel Formulation for the Distributed Solution of Load Balancing Problems in Mobility On-Demand Systems
Francesco Acquaviva (Politecnico di Bari, Italy); Donato Di Paola (National Research Council (CNR), Italy); Alessandro Rizzo (NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering & Politecnico di Bari, USA)
In this paper, we propose a distributed solution to the load balancing problem in Mobility On-Demand (MOD)systems. First, we present a novel optimization framework for the load balancing problem, then we propose the Distributed Load Balancing (DLB) algorithm, which aims to keep the system balanced and, at the same time, to maximize the number of accepted customers' requests. The DLB algorithm is iterative, and each iteration consists of two phases: in the first phase a feasible assignment to the customers' requests is defined, while in the second phase the assignment is evaluated (and, as a consequence, confirmed or rejected) in order to maintain the system balanced. The performance of the proposed strategy is assessed through an extensive simulation campaign. We validate the performance of the DLB in several operational conditions, by varying the number and locations both of the customers and of the vehicles, also considering different communication topologies among the pick-up and drop-off stations. Finally, a comparison of the performance of DLB with an optimal solver is provided.
Presenter bio: Francesco Acquaviva was born in Bari, Italy, in 1985. He received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. (with honors) degrees in Automation and Control Engineering from Politecnico di Bari, Italy, in 2009 and 2012, respectively. Since 2012 to the end of 2013 he has been visiting research scholar in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering of the New York University Polytechnic School of Engineering, Brooklyn, NY. He is Ph.D. candidate in Electrical Engineering and Information Technology at the Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Politecnico di Bari, Italy. His Ph.D. programme is part of a joint program of high qualification, held by the three Italian Technical Universities, namely, Politecnico di Torino, Politecnico di Milano, and Politecnico di Bari. His research interests include modeling and control of dynamical systems and distributed control and optimization of autonomous multi-agent systems for vehicle routing and urban transportation systems applications.
16:10 RECON: A REmotely CONtrolled Drone for Roads Safety
Jasem Al-Fadhli (Salmiya & American University of Kuwait, Kuwait); Mostafa Ramadhan, Abdulwahab Yousef, Issam W. Damaj and Mohammed El-Shafei (American University of Kuwait, Kuwait)
The RECON project is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) which is automated to monitor, analyze, inspect, and intervene in bridges, roads, residential areas, etc. RECON controlled via LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench) by using computer. The system is prepared to intervene by communicating, delivering, and assisting according to its capabilities. RECON is ubiquitous; the software is web-enabled so that the user can control it using smart phones, tablets, laptops and other computing devices. The system provides a true pervasive computing experience. This paper presents the system organization, architecture, programming application, evaluation and analysis of the proposed system.
16:30 Ontology layering in an early warning sensor (EWS) bicycle accident prevention system
Johan Scholtz, Andrew Wendelborn and Kevin Maciunas (University of Adelaide, Australia)
Every domain has a core ontology, with conceptualization specifications, which defines individuals, class attributes and relations. These abstract relations between classes and sub-classes, governed by events and observations are aligned to specific restrictions, rules and functions, which have structural similarities. Similarly, a descriptive ontology structure exists for sensor devices, which represent concepts unique to sensors. We investigate how sensor devices from multiple domains perform as an early warning collision avoidance system. Sensor characteristics define sensor behavior; this awareness prescribes typical sensor activity related to a particular domain. Primary sensor event processes, associated with event observations, function as a result of trigger or stimuli activities. Matching and correlating sensor event data integration, challenge the collection and analysis of streamed sensor data from various sensor-typical domains. As a consequence, individual sensor ontologies prescribe class relations with specific relevance to sensor ontology domains and how sensor characteristics are portrayed in the intended semantics of the descriptive ontology. Our mock-up Early Warning Sensor (EWS) system, investigates methods to identify, localize, and track users movement in a wireless signal area. The EWS system identifies and correlates different wireless sensor devices, unique to specific sensor ontology, which interact with other devices in a wireless sensor network. As a result device localization estimations, which are required for integrated multisensory data is produced. Approaches in our EWS system may apply to localization techniques in environmental and military positioning, where device and user positions need to be localized with more exactness. Hence, core processes in our approach extend to other domains where uncertain event instances may influence mobile localization prediction. Our spatiotemporal sensor event identification model presents layered event occurrence similarity. Similar sensor event data are obtained during the initial ontology layering processes, and filtered data are temporally layered to a new data set, which includes specific annotated sensor data. This layered new dataset presents sufficient data for localization, based on radio signal strength indicators (RSSI), required for early warning detection
Presenter bio: From a diverse social science background to a Masters MCIS in Digital Forensics at AUT, I am in the last months of my PhD. research at the University of Adelaide. My primary research interests cover the integration of abstract ontologies up to real implementation of wireless devices, in mobility enhanced transportation system. To this regard I am interested obtaining support for my novel research in clip-on layering of devices. Additionally, I also have a keen interest in file fragment deletion in the cloud and forensic traceability to final deletion with sufficient confirmation to users. A am beta tester and proof-reader for the eForensics Magazine.
16:50 Enabling a Self-Organized Traffic System in Existing Legacy Hardware
Sanjay Goel, Ersin Dincelli, Austin Parker and Ethan Sprissler (University at Albany, SUNY, USA)
This work presents a hardware design that allows us to retrofit legacy controllers and facilitate implementation of distributed traffic signal optimization algorithms. This work is specifically focused on supporting the deployment of self-organized traffic algorithms of traffic control. The paper describes the legacy hardware, its limitations, needs for implementation of distributed algorithms, as well as design of a supplementary controller based on small plug-in computers that allows distributed decision making. The supplementary controller uses a plug-in computer and establishes a cost effective means of deploying efficient distributed algorithms on existing controllers.
17:10 Self-Organization of Traffic Lights for Minimizing Vehicle Delay
Sanjay Goel (University at Albany, SUNY, USA); Stephen Francis Bush (GE Global Research, USA); Krishnaraj Ravindranathan (Virginia Tech University, USA)
Advances in sensors and communication have enabled the use of novel algorithms for improving traffic signal efficiency. This paper investigates the use of a distributed traffic signal control algorithm based on the concepts self-organization. The algorithm is benchmarked against traditional traffic signal algorithms. The self-organization based algorithms perform significantly better compared to the existing algorithms. A simulation model was created based on an abstraction of city road with multiple intersections using data on actual traffic counts. The results are presented in this paper along with the details of the algorithm.
17:30 Online Parameter Estimation for a Flexible, Adaptive Traffic Network Simulation
Elvira Thonhofer (Vienna University of Technology, Austria); Elisabeth Luchini (TU Wien, Austria); Andreas Kuhn (ANDATA Entwicklungstechnologie GmbH, Austria); Stefan Jakubek (Vienna University of Technology, Austria)
This paper deals with macroscopic traffic modeling and online parameter calibration suitable for real-time simulation of complex road configurations. A numerical solver for the nonlinear hyperbolic transport PDE is introduced that works with fundamental diagrams of arbitrary shape and piecewise differentiable initial conditions. Suitable boundary conditions at road inlets and outlets (traffic light signals) are realized. Furthermore, we present a method to identify parameters of the underlying fundamental diagram via aggregated traffic sensor data and utilize the Fisher Information Matrix to optimize traffic sensor placement. The results are validated through comparison with microscopic traffic simulation based on a car-following model.
Presenter bio: Elvira Thonhofer is a University Assistant at the Vienna University of Technology, at the department of Mechanics and Mechatronics. She studied Mechanical Engineering at the Vienna UT and graduated as Master of Science in 2011. Her research interests include numerical simulation, system control and in particular intelligent network control. In the scope of her PhD project she is working on traffic network control.

### Friday, November 7 10:20 - 12:20

#### SS1: Future Transportation: Connected, Automated, Intelligent, Electric and Electronic

Room: Schubert 1, First Floor
Chairs: Naohisa Hashimoto (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan), Nuno Vasco Lopes (University of Minho, Portugal)
10:20 Vehicle Navigation in GPS denied environments using Image Registration
Due to the more accuracy and robustness of vision based sensors, the magnetic and optical sensors are ignored in many applications, like in quality control, optical measurement and biomedical applications. Vision based navigation is an open issue nowadays which is generally carried out by image registration technique. The requirements for a successful registration are adequate illumination in the environment, dominance of static scene over moving objects, enough texture to allow apparent motion to be extracted, and sufficient scene overlap between consecutive frames. In the proposed method modified normalized phase correlation has been used. The distinction between changed and unchanged surfaces is based on an identification of corresponding features. In particular Gram polynomial basis functions are applied to remove the Gibbs error problem. Entropy based tensor approximation has been used to remove outliers for robust image registration. The pixel movement between two consecutive images is calculated and converted to meters along the vehicle direction. The new position of the vehicle is estimated by adding the projected pixel movement in the Latitude and Longitude values of the previous position. Velocity of the car could also be found by the method. A few hundred images are taken during a test drive along with their heading data. The positions estimates provided by the proposed technique are compared with the GPS values. In 200 seconds the accuracy of the last traveled point is quite satisfactory. The trajectory made by the proposed method computed and compared with GPS data.
10:40 Requirements on Tomorrow's Road Infrastructure for Highly Automated Driving
Philippe Nitsche and Isabela Mocanu (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Austria); Martin Reinthaler (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH)
This paper presents the results of a study on the requirements on road infrastructure regarding increased use of highly automated vehicles. Based on the outcome of a literature review and a web questionnaire, factors that most influence the performance of automated driving systems are given. Requirements for future road design and planning are recommended to ensure a safe and efficient operation.
Presenter bio: Martin Reinthaler, MSc., studied electronics at the University of Applied Sciences Technikum Wien focused on computer and system technology. Additionaly he finished a Master’s degree in Multimedia and Software Engineering. Since 2005 Martin has been part of the Dynamic Transportation Systems team at AIT Mobility working on traffic telematics, traffic modelling and electromobility.
11:00 Standardization Challenges for Safety and Security of Connected, Automated and Intelligent Vehicles
Christoph Schmittner (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH & Vienna University of Technology, Austria); Zhendong Ma (Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria); Thomas Gruber (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria)
Connected, automated and intelligent vehicles give rise to new safety and security challenges. These challenges need to be considered in automotive standards. We describe the challenges and analyze the state of the art of related automotive standards. We identify the gaps and propose possible actions.
Presenter bio: Christoph Schmittner is research fellow at the Austrian Institute of Technology, Safety and Security Department. He received his M. Sc. in Electrical Engineering in 2013 at Ostbayerische Technische Hochschule Regensburg in Applied Research in Engineering Science, System and Software Engineering. His PhD research is focused on safety&security co-engineering. His doctoral supervisor is Prof. Dr. Peter Puschner from Vienna University of Technology, Department of Computer Engineering, Cyber-Physical Systems Group.
11:20 Proposing a RPL based Protocol for Intelligent Connected Vehicles
According to the growth of different projects and researches in the transportation filed and also connected, automated and intelligent vehicles, the use of effective protocols and standardization is a growing necessity in this context. In this paper we customized an existing internet standard which is called RPL for connected vehicles. RPL is flexible and has special specifications such as supporting too many low power and lossy nodes, different traffics and self-healing. We believe customized RPL could be suitable for connected vehicles. Our proposed RPL regarding the Quality of Service (QoS) parameters and the simulation results with different scenarios proof our claims.
Presenter bio: Mostafa Majidpour is a PhD candidate in the Electrical Engineering department and Smart Gird Energy Research Center at UCLA, developing Statistical and Machine Learning algorithms to analyze various data in the context of smart grid. He was a founding member and CEO of a start-up company developing software packages for regional electricity utilities from 2006 to 2007. In 2011 and 2012, he was a Research Intern and Independent Consultant for Fujitsu Laboratories of America on Electric Vehicle Charging Algorithms and Building Level Load Prediction. He has demonstrated a strong research background in Computer Vision and Image Processing as well, with his M.S. thesis on Face Recognition and projects on Medical Imaging Analysis. He is recipient of, among others, the UCLA Graduate Division Fellowship Award in 2011, NeuroImaging Training Program Fellowship Award (NIH funded) in 2012, and the Henry Samueli Outstanding Teaching Award for the best Teaching Assistant in 2014. His research interest is concept extraction and pattern discovery in data, which depending on the context, is referred to as Machine Learning, Pattern Recognition, Data Mining, or System Identification.
11:40 Validating Connected Vehicles Architecture
Amjad Gawanmeh (Khalifa University, United Arab Emirates); Mohammad Alwadi (University of Canberra, Australia); Ashraf Ghawanmeh (Yarmouk University, Jordan)
Connected vehicles, smart cars, smart roads, and autonomous cars are bringing a new era of road transportation systems. In addition, several promising applications are looming based on these new concepts. This imposes unprecedented scenarios for cars and roads in modern transportation systems. Therefore, connected vehicles architectures must be developed and implemented carefully in order to accommodate these changes. On the other hand, several challenges appear when dealing connected vehicles due to the complex and dynamic characteristics of such system. Hence, it is essential to identify and validate possible challenges in connected vehicles architectures at early stages of development.
Presenter bio: Amjad Gawanmeh [Senior Member IEEE], is an assistant professor at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Khalifa University since 2010. He is also an affiliate Assistant professor, Concordia University Montreal, Canada since 2015. He received the M.S. and the Ph.D degrees from Concordia University, Montreal, Canada, 2003 and 2008. He worked as a researcher for the Hardware Verification Group at Concordia University between 2000 and 2008. He worked for Applied Science University in Jordan from 2008 until 2010 as an assistant professor. He has co-authored two edited books, 3 book chapters, more than 20 peer reviewed journal papers, and around 50 peer reviwed conference papers. His research interests are verification of hardware systems, security systems, and healthcare systems, modeling and analysis of complex systems such as CPS, performance analysis of complex systems, reliability of as medical system, and Energy efficient algorithms design in CPS. He is an associate editor for IEEE Access Journal, and for Human-centric Computing and Information Sciences Journal, Springer. He acted as guest editor for several special issues. He is on the reviewer board for several journals in IEEE, Elsevier, Wiley, and many others. He is a member of the executive committee for IPCCC conference. He has co-chaired several conferences and chaired several workshops organized in key conferences including ICC, ICDCS, IPCCC, Healthcom, and WiMob. Has served on the TPC for key conference such as Globecom, ICC, PIMRC, ICCVE, WCNC, and Infocom workshops. He is an IEEE member.

#### TS3-06: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles

Room: Schubert 2, First Floor
Chair: Aleksandar Kostikj (Ss Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of)
10:20 Automatic Traffic Sign Recognition based on Saliency-enhanced features and SVMs from Incrementally Built Dataset
Keren Fu (Shanghai Jiao Tong University, P.R. China); Irene Y. H. Gu (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden); Anders Ödblom (Volvo Cars AB, Sweden)
This paper proposes an automatic traffic sign recognition method based on saliency-enhanced feature and SVMs. As when human observe a traffic sign, a two-stage procedure is performed by first locating the region of sign according to its unique shape and color, and second paying attention to content inside the sign. The proposed saliency feature extraction attempts to resemble these two processing stages. We model the first stage via extracting salient regions of signs from detected bounding boxes contributed by sign detector. Salient region extraction is formed as an energy propagation process on local structured graph. The second stage is modeled by exploiting a non-linear color mapping under the guidance of the output of the first stage. As results, salient signature inside a sign is popped up and can be directly used by subsequent SVMs for classification. The proposed method is validated on Chinese traffic sign dataset that is incrementally built.
Presenter bio: Keren Fu is a Ph.D. candidate with the signal processing group at Department of Signals and Systems in Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. His Ph.D. research areas are computer vision and image/video modeling, with applications to, e.g. object tracking and detection, visual saliency detection, traffic analysis, activity analysis, machine learning.
10:40 Probabilistic Risk Assessment using Major Features of Rural Road Curves via Rear and Front Car Cameras
Ozgur Karaduman, Haluk Eren and Hasan Kurum (Firat University, Turkey); Mehmet Celenk (Ohio University, USA)
Rural and secondary roads inherently exhibit road curves and turns. This study aims to predict the risk associated with rural road curves exploiting major curve features such as curvature, slope type, and direction. The images acquired by rear and front cameras are utilized to capture the underlined features. Slope type is obtained by two-view images while direction and curvature are estimated by single-view front camera. Our approach is based on geometrical derivations using visual clues such as vanishing points and curb borders. Consequently, the impact of major features on the risk has been assessed using the Bayesian belief theory and network. The proposed model is expected to be an advanced driver assistant system for long distance drivers, which tackles with prominent risk components associated with road curves. In turn, this type of advanced driver assistance systems would become a critical part of autonomous vehicles.
Presenter bio: I have been working at Firat University, department of Computer Technology. My focus is on intelligent vehicles, pattern analysis, and computer vision. I am the member of IEEE.
11:00 Implementation of a Multivariable Modular Structure for Fuzzy Taxi Scheduling System (FTSS)
Issam Kouatli (Lebanese American University, Lebanon)
Taxi scheduling problem represent the heart of management problems for most Taxi companies. This is due to the fact that information in such environment is dynamic in nature with a high degree of uncertainty. Fuzzy logic can be utilized to deal with such uncertainty in the information. Genetic algorithm can be utilized for optimization of solution. This paper describes the implementation of a hybridized intelligent algorithm to reach a decision under uncertainty and to tune the possible solution using genetic algorithm. This hybridization is one type of Genetic Fuzzy system termed the Genetic Fuzzimetric Technique (GFT). GFT was used with AHP technique to develop a prototype system to illustrate the proposed solution to the taxi scheduling problem termed as "Fuzzy Taxi scheduling System" (FTSS). The developed prototype can also act as an educational tool towards illustrating the mechanism of building modular multivariable fuzzy system. Using FTSS, five criteria were chosen as inputs and one needed output which is the score of specific driver/taxi. An example of 4 Taxis/Drivers with different characteristic values was executed on FTSS to achieve the final optimized Taxi choice.
11:20 Enhanced Work Zone Safety Through Cooperative Autonomous Vehicle Systems
Michael Brown (SwRI, USA); Paul Avery (Southwest Research Institute, USA); Purser Sturgeon II (SwRI, USA)
Despite improvements in work zone safety, injuries and fatalities remain a significant problem for work zone personnel. Crew and vehicles are often protected with the use of a vehicle located at the rear of the work zone, which is fitted with a mechanism to attenuate the impact energy of a vehicle. This vehicle, called an impact attenuation, or crash cushion, vehicle, is designed and placed to be struck by any errant vehicles; however, this vehicle is an active part of the work crew and is often manned by a member of the work crew, and this person can still be injured or killed when the vehicle is struck. This paper will present recent work by SwRI in conjunction with the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) to replace this manned vehicle with a fully-autonomous vehicle, capable of communicating with other vehicles in the work crew, traffic management systems, and, using visual recognition techniques, follow other vehicles in the crew or even respond to arm gestures by a member of the work crew.

#### TS1-10: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking

Room: Schubert 4, First Floor
Chair: Thomas Zemen (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Austria)
10:20 Energy-Efficient Design for TDBC-Based Two-Way Relay Network with Weighted Fairness
Basem M. ElHalawany (Benha University & Shoubra Faculty of Engineering, Egypt); Osamu Muta (Kyushu University, Japan); Maha Elsabrouty (Egypt Japan University for Science and Technology, Egypt); Hiroshi Furukawa (Kyushu University, Japan)
In two-way relay network (TWRN), both end nodes may have different quality-of-service (QoS) requirements accord- ing to their priority, traffic demand, and/or their downlink and uplink split ratio. This paper proposes an easy and energy- efficient weighted fairness solution that can be implemented at the relay node to control the uplink and downlink traffic according to the dynamic traffic changes. An energy efficient design is proposed for two-way relaying (TWR) with time division broadcast (TDBC) protocol that minimizes the allocated power to the two transceiver end nodes and to the relay node under a weighted quality-of-service (QoS) bidirectional data rates. This design utilizes the signal combining process at the relay node in TDBC, also known as relay power allocation (RPA), to provide a new simpler way to ensure the weighted rates without increasing the complexity to control different power allocation of the three nodes. Adaptive calculation of the relay power allocation factor, , is adopted for combining the two received signals to satisfy the QoS requirements with (α) weighting factor. Simulation results shows an improvement in efficiency in terms of the average allocated power and a perfect users fairness compared with tradition Variable-gain relay power allocation (VG-RPA) and with scenarios where a predetermined fixed value of is used.
Presenter bio: Basem M. ElHalawany was born in 1983. He received his BSc. in Electronics and Communication Engineering, with honors in 2004, M.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering in 2011 from the Benha University, and Ph.D in Electronics and Communication Engineering in 2014 from Egypt-Japan University of Science & Technology, EGYPT. He also holds the position of an assistant professor at the Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Shoubra, Benha University, Egypt. He served as a special research student at Kyushu University for one year. His research interests include wireless Communication, cooperative communication, energy-efficient relaying protocols, distributed relay beamforming, Analog Network Coding, 5G networks, future wireless backhaul techniques, mobile robot navigation, robot Vision, and image processing.
10:40 An Intelligent Clustering Algorithm for VANETs
Rasmeet S Bali (Thapar University, Patiala, India); Neeraj Kumar (Thapar University Patiala, India); Joel J. P. C. Rodrigues (National Institute of Telecommunications (Inatel), Brazil & Instituto de Telecomunicações, Portugal)
Presenter bio: Joel Rodrigues [S'01, M'06, SM'06] is a professor and senior researcher at the National institute of Telecommunications (Inatel), Brazil and senior researcher at the Instituto de Telecomunicações, Portugal. He was professor at the University of Beira Interior, Portugal and visiting professor at the University of Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Brazil. Prof. Rodrigues is the leader of the Internet of Things research group (CNPq), Director for Conference Development - IEEE ComSoc Board of Governors, IEEE Distinguished Lecturer, the President of the scientific council at ParkUrbis – Covilhã Science and Technology Park, the Past-Chair of the IEEE ComSoc Technical Committee on eHealth, the Past-chair of the IEEE ComSoc Technical Committee on Communications Software, Steering Committee member of the IEEE Life Sciences Technical Community and Publications co-Chair, and Member Representative of the IEEE Communications Society on the IEEE Biometrics Council. He is the EiC of three International Journals. He has authored or coauthored over 600 publications.
11:00 Optimizing Lifetime of Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks for Vehicular Monitoring
Wireless Sensor Networks have several applications such as medical monitoring, automotive safety, and many more. Sensor networks, however, have several limitations, such as vulnerability, short transmission range, small memory, and limited battery life. Several algorithms were proposed to address network lifetime problem in wireless sensor networks. Geographic distribution and density of nodes dramatically affect the choice of protocol, nodes life, and the suitability of the method. Sensor networks are effectively used for vehicular monitoring on highways and hence form a linear topology. Therefore, existing clustering methods and routing protocols are not effective when applied on a network of linear topology. In this paper, we introduce a new method to enhance the lifetime and performance of a homogenous wireless sensor network with linear topology that is dedicated for vehicular monitoring. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the method by enhancing the lifetime of the wireless sensor network compared to direct transmission and clustering methods.
Presenter bio: Amjad Gawanmeh [Senior Member IEEE], is an assistant professor at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Khalifa University since 2010. He is also an affiliate Assistant professor, Concordia University Montreal, Canada since 2015. He received the M.S. and the Ph.D degrees from Concordia University, Montreal, Canada, 2003 and 2008. He worked as a researcher for the Hardware Verification Group at Concordia University between 2000 and 2008. He worked for Applied Science University in Jordan from 2008 until 2010 as an assistant professor. He has co-authored two edited books, 3 book chapters, more than 20 peer reviewed journal papers, and around 50 peer reviwed conference papers. His research interests are verification of hardware systems, security systems, and healthcare systems, modeling and analysis of complex systems such as CPS, performance analysis of complex systems, reliability of as medical system, and Energy efficient algorithms design in CPS. He is an associate editor for IEEE Access Journal, and for Human-centric Computing and Information Sciences Journal, Springer. He acted as guest editor for several special issues. He is on the reviewer board for several journals in IEEE, Elsevier, Wiley, and many others. He is a member of the executive committee for IPCCC conference. He has co-chaired several conferences and chaired several workshops organized in key conferences including ICC, ICDCS, IPCCC, Healthcom, and WiMob. Has served on the TPC for key conference such as Globecom, ICC, PIMRC, ICCVE, WCNC, and Infocom workshops. He is an IEEE member.
11:20 Fairness-Oriented Channel-Capacity Distribution in Wireless Multi-Hop Networks
Robil W. Daher (German University in Cairo & Faculty of Information Engineering and Technology, Egypt)
Wireless Multi-hop Networks (MUNETs) are emerged as a key technology for network infrastructures. Thought the several advantages of multi-hop networking, the shared medium access represents a major issue for resource distribution in MUNETs. Therefore, the network topology forms an essential point for determining resource distribution in such networks. Although the importance of network topology for resource distribution is well known, none of known studies analyzed the related effects deeply, i.e., without a comprehensive concept. In that respect, this paper presents the Fairness-Oriented Capacity Distribution (FOCD) concept for analyzing and providing capacity distribution in relation with the network topology (neighborhood graph). For purpose of simplicity, this paper considers only the time-shared medium access based MUNETs, such as MANETs and VANETs. This work determines the major conditions for channel capacity utilization and defines factors for evaluating the capacity distribution. Accordingly, two main algorithms are introduced and evaluated. The analytical (numerical) results of selected examples show that the topology of such networks totally affects the way the channel capacity can be distributed/assigned on the network nodes. Consequently, the analytical results confirm that the maximized distribution of the channel capacity does not necessarily means distributing the whole capacity on the neighboring nodes, but only the part that enables having (stable) nodes.
Presenter bio: Robil Daher is currently an Assoc. Prof. at the German University in Cairo (GUC) in Egypt. He received his B.Sc. degree in Electronic Engineering from Tishreen University (Syria) in 1996, and his Ph.D. from Rostock University in 2007 in the field of load balancing and QoS for wireless networks. In his carrier he got several awards, among others: award for excellent achievements granted by Ministry of Higher Education (Syria) in 1997; award for being the 2nd best research team granted by VentureCup-MV Ideas Competition (Ministry of Education, Science and Culture in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany) in 2010. His research interests include: firstly, wireless networks with more focus on vehicular communication networks, multi-hop networks, heterogeneous networks, and subjects of QoS, routing and load distribution; secondly, interplanetary communication and delay tolerant networks; finally, future Internet technologies with focus on multi-homing and mobility management. He is organizer of several workshops and author/co-author of several scientific publications. He is member of several scientific organizations and has recently co-established the “Scientific Society of Interplanetary Communication” for supporting and enhancing the R&D activities in the field of interplanetary communication in Germany. He worked as researcher and lecturer in various universities (Tishreen University, Syria; Rostock University, Germany; German University in Cairo, Egypt). He also worked in and for the Industry, such as working on studies for Lufthansa and Deutsche Telekom.
11:40 Fairness aware Chunk-Based Resource Allocation in Multi-Cell OFDMA Networks
Mahmoud M Selim (Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology & Tanta University, Egypt); Osamu Muta (Kyushu University, Japan); Hossam Shalaby (Alexandria University, Egypt); Hiroshi Furukawa (Kyushu University, Japan)
Resource allocation in multi-cellular OFDMA systems is highly considered nowadays to either maximize system throughput or minimize transmitted power. Although resource allocation per sub-carrier is optimum in terms of system throughput, resource allocation per chunk instead is highly considered to simplify allocation algorithms and minimize required signalling. In this paper, we propose a fairness aware chunk-based resource allocation algorithm for the downlink transmission of multicellular OFDMA system with fractional frequency reuse (FFR) adoption. Simulation results reveal that our proposed algorithm performance exceeds two reference algorithms in literature in terms of average system spectral efficiency (SE), fairness and cell-edge users rates.
Presenter bio: Mahmoud M. Selim received the B.Sc. degree in Electronics Engineering and Electrical Communications (Distinction with honor degree, ranked first) in June 2008 from Tanta University, Egypt, the M.Sc. degree in Electronics and Communications Engineering from Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology (E-JUST), Egypt, in Sept. 2012, and currently pursuing the PhD degree in Wireless Communications in the Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering in E-JUST University, Egypt, since Sept. 2012. He served as a teaching assistant in Tanta University, Egypt, from Sept. 2008 to Feb. 2010, a graduate student in E-JUST university, Egypt, from Feb. 2010 to present and a special research student in Kyushu University, Japan, from Apr. 2014 to present. His research interests include Wireless Communications, Interference Mitigation in Heterogeneous OFDMA Networks, Resource Allocation in OFDMA Wireless Networks, and Signal Processing for Communication Systems.
12:00 Bi-Beacon: Two-Level Power Control for Enhancing Beacon Performance in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) support safety applications to prevent car accidents. Beacons are periodically broadcasted for various safety applications but very sensitive to collision and delay. In this paper, we propose a new transmission scheme, called Bi-Beacon, which transmits two levels of power to reduce collision and maintain maximum transmission range. High collision problem still remains in high vehicle density condition and contention window (CW) control with Bi-Beacon reduces collision but results in larger delay time. We propose a new beacon update scheme which reduces delay time in high density condition.
Presenter bio: Heecheol Song (S' 05) received the B.S. and M.S. degree in electrical engineering from KAIST, Daejeon, South Korea, in 2004 and 2006, respectively. He is working toward the Ph.D. degree at KAIST, Daejeon, Korea. Since 2004, he has been a research assistant with the Mobile Communications Laboratory at the Department of Electrical Engineering, KAIST. His research interests include mobile communications, wireless sensor networks, wireless mesh networks, IPv6 mobility management, model-driven design and implementation of mobile communication systems and vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs).

#### TS1-12: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking

Room: Schubert 5, First Floor
Chair: Alexey Vinel (Halmstad University, Sweden)
10:20 Safety Enhancement Service for Vulnerable Users using P2V Communications
Woong Cho (Jungwon University, Korea)
Vehicular communications can be used for enhancing the safety level of drivers and pedestrians by exchanging safety/warning messages for both sides. In this paper, we propose pedestrian-to-vehicular (P2V) communication systems which provide safety service especially for vulnerable users. We focus on the proposed system at the unsigned single road and intersection area. Then, requirements for the overall system are considered to support reliable safety services. In addition, some practical implementation issues are also discussed based on the proposed system architecture.
Presenter bio: Woong Cho received the B.S. degree in electronics engineering from the University of Ulsan, Ulsan, South Korea, in 1997, the M.S. degrees in electronic communications engineering and electrical engineering from Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea, in 1999, and the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, in 2003, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical and computer engineering from University of Florida, Gainesville, in 2007. He was a senior research engineer from Feb. 2008 to Feb. 2012 in Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon, South Korea. He is currently with the department of Computer System Engineering in Jungwon University, Goesan, South Korea. His research interests are cooperative/relay networks, vehicular communications, and signal processing for wireless communications.
10:40 Connection Sharing on top of a Virtualization Layer to Support Vehicular Cloud Computing
Jack Fernando Bravo-Torres (Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, Ecuador); Martin Lopez-Nores and Yolanda Blanco-Fernández (University of Vigo, Spain); Jose Juan Pazos-Arias (Universidad de Vigo, Spain); Alberto Gil-Solla and Manuel Ramos-Cabrer (University of Vigo, Spain)
The vision of vehicular cloud computing (VCC) is to harness the wealthy resources contributed by groups of vehicles to enable innovative information services on the road. Thus far, the scenarios envisaged for this paradigm are limited by the challenges derived from the mobility of the vehicles, to the point that most of the proposals in the literature have merely dealt with vehicles in parking lots, stuck in traffic jams or moving as a flock for a long time. We present an approach to overcome those limitations by engaging the vehicles in collaboration to emulate an infrastructure of stationary virtual nodes, which can be made responsible for computing, sensing, storage and communication tasks. We present the architecture and the main procedures of the proposal, along with simulation results for the VCC service model known as Network as a Service (NaaS), aimed as exploiting the various connections available to groups of connected vehicles as an integrated whole.
Presenter bio: Jack Fernando Bravo Torres, PhD in the Department of Telematics Engineering at the University of Vigo, Spain. His research interests include the design and development of innovative services for vehicular ad hoc networks
Mohamed Ben Brahim (Qatar Mobility Innovations Center QMIC); Wassim Drira (Qatar Mobility Innovations Center, Qatar); Fethi Filali (QMIC, Qatar)
We aim through this work to investigate the optimal deployment of roadside units, the stationary component in the vehicular network, in order to improve the performance, the reliability and the connectivity of the network. RSUs have a critical role in safety applications but also in infotainment applications. Hence, spreading RSUs should take into account to cover with its best effort the dark zones and to serve the biggest number of vehicles with continuous services all with keeping in the range of the deployment budget. To reach our objectives, we consider stationary and mobility-based statistics to model our traffic network as a graph with weighted links showing the importance of each link in terms of amount of vehicles, hazardous level, and mobility-based parameters (speed, speed limit, average of connected time). Then, all the potential positions are designated and two different algorithms, Knapsack and PageRank, are applied to select the optimal set of RSUs positions within the cost range. Finally the output set of each algorithm is evaluated against real traffic records and statistics to show the network performance
Presenter bio: Fethi Filali is the Head of Technology Development & Applied Research at Qatar Mobility Innovations Center (QMIC). He is leading a group of more than 15 researchers at QMIC in charge of the technology development of QMIC's Masarak ITS solution, Labeeb IoT platform, and Connected Vehicles systems. He holds a Ph.D and Habilitation degree in Computer Science from the University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, France, in 2002 and 2008, respectively. Before joining QMIC in 2010, he was Assistant/Associate Professor at EURECOM for 8 years teaching graduate students and a key investigator in several European projects. He was the Ph.D. Supervisor of eight Ph.D. students in the area of computer networking, wireless sensor and mesh networks, broadband networks, connected vehicles, and mobility management. Fethi published more than 100 research papers and several patents. He is a senior member of IEEE. Fethi's web page: http://www.fethifilali.com
11:20 Emergent Behaviors and Traffic Density among Heuristically-Driven Intelligent Vehicles using V2V Communication
Philippe Morignot (INRIA Rocquencourt, France); Oyunchimeg Shagdar (VEDECOM, France); Fawzi Nashashibi (INRIA, France)
In this paper, we study the global traffic density and emergent traffic behavior of several hundreds of intelligent vehicles, as a function of V2V communication (for the ego vehicle to perceive traffic) and path-finding heuristics (for the ego vehicle to reach its destination), in urban environments. Ideal/realistic/no V2V communication modes are crossed with straight-line/towards-most-crowded/towards-least-crowded path- finding heuristics to measure the average trip speed of each vehicle. The behaviours of intelligent vehicles are modelled by a finite state automation. The V2V communication model is also built based on signal propagation models in an intersection sce- nario and a Markov-chain based MAC model. Our experiments in simulation over up to 400 vehicles exhibit attractive insights: 1) communication's impact is positive for the performance of the emergent vehicles' behaviour, however, 2) the path-finding heuristics may not obtain their expected collective behaviour due to the communications errors in realistic road environment.
Presenter bio: Dr. Oyunchimeg Shagdar is a researcher at the institute VEDECOM, FRANCE. Before joining VEDECOM, she has been researcher at Inria in France and Institute ATR in Japan. Her research interest includes medium access control, resource allocation, routing, and distributed communications for vehicular communications.
11:40 Real-Time Prediction of Communication Link Quality for V2V Applications
Tetiana Zinchenko, Jan-Niklas Meier and Burak Şimşek (Volkswagen AG, Germany); Lars C Wolf (Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany)
In this paper we address prediction of the communication link quality for the Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) safety applications. We focus on the prediction at the receiver vehicle and suggest two novel frameworks, which allow real-time and short-term prediction whether a predefined application-specific QoS will be maintained in the near future. Both frameworks are developed based on the measurement data which was gathered through the 4.5 month of the field trials in the simTD project.In our paper we also suggest an optimization method to increase prediction accuracy and validate both frameworks through additional real-world measurement campaign. The main advantages of both developed methods comparing to the existing work is their completely generic nature and simultaneously high performance in urban, rural and highway environments as well as low to no memory requirements. We demonstrate that in low network density scenarios prediction accuracy can reach up to 97%.
Presenter bio: Tetiana Zinchenko is currently working as an engineer in Volkswagen group research in the field of mobile services. She received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering in Ukraine in 2007 and 2009. Currently she is working towards her Ph.D. degree in computer science (Technical University Carolo-Wilhelmina of Braunschweig). Titel of the thesis: "Reliability Assessment of Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication".
12:00 A Realistic Analytical Model of IEEE 802.11p for Wireless Access in Vehicular Networks
Yamen Nasrallah (University of Ottawa, Canada); Irfan S. Al-Anbagi (University of Regina, Canada); Hussein T. Mouftah (University of Ottawa, Canada)
The IEEE 802.11p is an emerging wireless protocol dedicated for Wireless Access in the Vehicular Environment (WAVE). It employs the Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA) mechanism to access the channel. Its objective is to provide differentiated services to vehicular networks which are delay-sensitive and requires high communication throughput. In this paper, we carry out comprehensive performance analysis of the IEEE 802.11p standard. We propose a Markov chain-based analytical model that depicts accurate representation of the IEEE 802.11p MAC sub-layer. We take into account the internal collision probability that occur among different Access Categories (ACs) in the same vehicle. We also consider an unsaturated traffic condition and include the probability of finding the medium busy when sensed during the backoff period. We study the performance of the system in terms of average throughput and average time delay.

### Friday, November 7 13:30 - 15:30

#### SS2: Future Transportation: Connected, Automated, Intelligent, Electric and Electronic

Room: Schubert 1, First Floor
13:30 A Novel Forecasting Algorithm for Electric Vehicle Charging Stations
Mostafa Majidpour (UCLA, USA); Charlie Qiu (University of California, Los Angeles, USA); Peter Chu (UCLA, USA); Rajit Gadh (University of California - Los Angeles, USA); Hemanshu Pota (UNSW@adfa, Australia)
In this paper, a recently proposed time series forecasting algorithm, Modified Pattern-based Sequence Forecasting (MPSF), is compared with three other algorithms. These algorithms have been applied to predict energy consumption at individual EV charging outlets using real world data from the UCLA campus. Two of these algorithms, namely MPSF and k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN), are relatively fast and structurally less complex. The other two, Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Random Forest (RF), are more complex and hence require more time to generate the forecast. Out of these four algorithms, kNN with k=1 turns out to be the fastest, MSPF and SVR were the most accurate with respect to different error measures, and RF provides us with an importance computing scheme for our input variables. Selecting the appropriate algorithm for an application depends on the tradeoff between accuracy and computational time; however, considering all factors together (two different error measures and algorithm speed), MPSF gives reasonably accurate predictions with much less computations than NN, SVR and RF for our application.
Presenter bio: Mostafa Majidpour is a PhD candidate in the Electrical Engineering department and Smart Gird Energy Research Center at UCLA, developing Statistical and Machine Learning algorithms to analyze various data in the context of smart grid. He was a founding member and CEO of a start-up company developing software packages for regional electricity utilities from 2006 to 2007. In 2011 and 2012, he was a Research Intern and Independent Consultant for Fujitsu Laboratories of America on Electric Vehicle Charging Algorithms and Building Level Load Prediction. He has demonstrated a strong research background in Computer Vision and Image Processing as well, with his M.S. thesis on Face Recognition and projects on Medical Imaging Analysis. He is recipient of, among others, the UCLA Graduate Division Fellowship Award in 2011, NeuroImaging Training Program Fellowship Award (NIH funded) in 2012, and the Henry Samueli Outstanding Teaching Award for the best Teaching Assistant in 2014. His research interest is concept extraction and pattern discovery in data, which depending on the context, is referred to as Machine Learning, Pattern Recognition, Data Mining, or System Identification.
13:50 Incomplete Data in Smart Grid: Treatment of Missing Values in Electric Vehicle Charging Data
Mostafa Majidpour and Peter Chu (UCLA, USA); Rajit Gadh (University of California - Los Angeles, USA); Hemanshu Pota (UNSW@adfa, Australia)
In this paper, five imputation methods namely Constant (zero), Mean, Median, Maximum Likelihood, and Multiple Imputation methods have been applied to compensate for missing values in Electric Vehicle (EV) charging data. The outcome of each of these methods have been used as the input to a prediction algorithm to forecast the EV load in the next 24 hours at each individual outlet. The data is real world data at the outlet level from the UCLA campus parking lots. The Median imputation improved the prediction results. Given that in most missing value cases in our database, all values of that instance are missing, the multivariate imputation methods did not improve the results significantly compared to Median imputation approach.
Presenter bio: Mostafa Majidpour is a PhD candidate in the Electrical Engineering department and Smart Gird Energy Research Center at UCLA, developing Statistical and Machine Learning algorithms to analyze various data in the context of smart grid. He was a founding member and CEO of a start-up company developing software packages for regional electricity utilities from 2006 to 2007. In 2011 and 2012, he was a Research Intern and Independent Consultant for Fujitsu Laboratories of America on Electric Vehicle Charging Algorithms and Building Level Load Prediction. He has demonstrated a strong research background in Computer Vision and Image Processing as well, with his M.S. thesis on Face Recognition and projects on Medical Imaging Analysis. He is recipient of, among others, the UCLA Graduate Division Fellowship Award in 2011, NeuroImaging Training Program Fellowship Award (NIH funded) in 2012, and the Henry Samueli Outstanding Teaching Award for the best Teaching Assistant in 2014. His research interest is concept extraction and pattern discovery in data, which depending on the context, is referred to as Machine Learning, Pattern Recognition, Data Mining, or System Identification.
14:10 Intelligent Driver Support: Integration of Coupon Services into On-Board Infotainment Systems
Alexander Smirnov and Nikolay Shilov (SPIIRAS, Russia)
Presenter bio: Head of laboratory "computer aided integrated systems" of St.Petersburg intitute for informatics and automation of Russian Academy of Science and internation laboratory "intelligent technologies for socio-ciberphisical systems" of ITMO University. Graduated Leningrad state polytechnical university in 1979. Doctor of technical science, professor, honored scientist of Russian Federation. Author of more than 300 scientific publications. Research interests covers knowledge management, web services, group decicion support systems, virtual enterprises, supply chain management.

#### TS3-07: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles

Room: Schubert 2, First Floor
13:30 Feasibility of GPS-based Warning System for Roadside Workers
Jason Forsyth and Thomas L. Martin (Virginia Tech, USA); Darrell Bowman (Virginia Tech Transportation Institute, USA)
Roadside workers and emergency responders, such as police and emergency medical technicians, are at significant risk of being struck by vehicular traffic while performing their duties. While recent work has examined active and passive systems to reduce pedestrian collisions, current approaches require line of sight using either laser, infrared, or vision based systems. We address this problem by developing a GPS-based solution that equips roadside workers and vehicles with GPS units to estimate the trajectory of oncoming traffic, and estimate whether worker strike is imminent. The results of our study show that our approach is 91% accurate in alerting the worker and vehicle of collisions and near misses. Furthermore, accurate warnings can be provided 5-6 seconds before any potential collision, allowing time for mitigating solutions.
Presenter bio: Jason Forsyth is a PhD candidate in the ECE department at Virginia Tech. His major research interests are in wearable and pervasive computing. His pervasive computing work focuses on developing prototype tools and techniques for interdisciplinary teams. Also, Jason is the recipient of the 2012 Best Paper Award from IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering for wearable monitoring of carbon monoxide poisoning in construction workers.
13:50 Optimised Consensus for Highway Speed Limits via Intelligent Speed Advisory Systems
Yingqi Gu (University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Mingming Liu (University College Dublin, Ireland); Emanuele Crisostomi (University of Pisa, Italy); Robert Shorten (IBM, Ireland)
In this paper, an application based on the Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) system is proposed to reduce CO2 emissions of vehicles running on the highway. We apply the idea of optimised consensus to solve the emission optimisation problem in a simplified highway scenario through simulation study. Our approach shows that total CO2 emissions of vehicles can be minimised if all vehicles follow the reference speed signal derived from the ISA.
14:10 Closed-loop flow regulation with balanced routing
Florian Häusler (Fraunhofer FOKUS, Berlin, Germany); Rodrigo H. Ordonez-Hurtado and Wynita Griggs (University College Dublin, Ireland); Ilja Radusch (Fraunhofer FOKUS & Daimler Center for Automotive IT Innovations (DCAITI), Germany); Robert Shorten (IBM, Ireland)
A new rerouting approach for vehicular transit is introduced. The approach is illustrated with a real world scenario and evaluated through a hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform.
14:30 Early Estimation of Multi-Objective Traffic Flow
Dominik Ascher and Georg Hackenberg (Technische Universität München, Germany)
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have come a long way targeting problems such as increasing emissions and growing vehicle numbers. Current approaches address a variety of objectives including congestion management, collision avoidance, energy-efficiency and emission reduction. However, respective solutions typically are designed for and tailored to a predefined set of objectives. Consequently, the effects of drastically changing objectives cannot be assessed easily. To address this situation we present a lightweight approach to estimating multi-objective traffic flow early in systems engineering using non-deterministic models and stochastic optimization techniques. We demonstrate the feasibility of the framework using a basic traffic scenario and conclude with an outlook.
Presenter bio: Dominik Ascher received his B.Sc. degree in Information Systems in 2013 and is currently pursuing the M.Sc. degree in Information Systems at Technical University of Munich. From 12.2013 he has been with the Department of Software & Systems Engineering at Technical University of Munich.
14:50 Fusion of Multiple 2D LiDAR and RADAR for Object Detection and Tracking in All Directions
Kiin Na (ETRI, Korea); Jaemin Byun (Electronicsand Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Korea); Myoungchan Rho and Beomsu Seo (ETRI, Korea)
For autonomous vehicle and ADAS(Advanced Driver Assistance System), it is essential to detect and to track objects within a certain area in realtime. This paper presents the 2D tracker that fuses with four 2D LiDARs and one RADAR. It independently detects objects according to the type of sensors and represents these in the same space. It continuously associates measurements of the same object and tracks these with KF(Kalman Filter) for prediction and JPDAF(Joint Probabilistic Data Association Filter) for update. The result of our multi-sensor fusion tracker is demonstrated with a visualization tool.
Presenter bio: Kiin Na is a researcher in the Intelligent Cognitive Technology Research Department at the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute(ETRI) in the Republic of Korea, where he researches 3D point cloud perception for an autonomous vehicle. He has obtained BS from the Mechanical Engineering Department in the Pohang University of Science and Technology(POSTECH) and MS from the Robotics Program in the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology(KAIST).
15:10 A Cooperative Vehicle Application for Dynamic Lane-level Model Generation
Purser Sturgeon II (SwRI, USA); Paul Avery (Southwest Research Institute, USA); Richard Garcia (SwRI, USA)
Lane-level roadway modeling is a key enabling technology in the deployment of automated vehicles and connected vehicle systems. A variety of applications for these systems would be enabled by the availability of up-to-date lane-level maps; however, current mapping solutions lack this resolution and are not dynamically updated. This paper will present a method for passively collecting vehicle basic safety messages (BSM), as defined by SAE J2735, through roadside equipment (RSE), and a set of learning algorithms that utilize the information contained in the BSM to produce a local map of the roadway at an accuracy level of individual lanes. This map can then be transmitted back to vehicles in the local area as a set of sparse GPS waypoints.

#### TS1-11: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking

Room: Schubert 4, First Floor
Chair: Robil W. Daher (German University in Cairo & Faculty of Information Engineering and Technology, Egypt)
13:30 Performance Analysis of Alamouti Coded OFDM Systems over Wideband MIMO Car-to-Car Channels Correlated in Time and Space
Nurilla Avazov (Inha University, Korea); Matthias Pätzold (University of Agder, Norway)
In this paper, the performance of Alamouti coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems over car-to-car (C2C) fading channels correlated in time and space is analyzed. Taking different geometrical scattering models into account, a generalized expression of the time-variant transfer function (TVTF) is derived for wideband multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) C2C channels. We present a generalized expression for the bit error probability (BEP), which will be used to describe the performance of Alamouti coded OFDM systems over different types of C2C channel models, such as the rectangle model, the tunnel model, the street model, and the curve model. The effect of the maximum Doppler frequency and the antenna element spacing on the system performance is discussed. Furthermore, the proposed generalized model allows us to study the impact of the parameters of the geometrical model on the BEP. The proposed procedure enables us to investigate the system performance using different kinds of C2C fading channel models in a straightforward and time-efficient manner.
Presenter bio: Matthias Pätzold received the Dipl.-Ing. and Dr.-Ing. degrees in electrical engineering from Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany, in 1985 and 1989, respectively, and the habil. degree in communications engineering from the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg, Germany, in 1998. Since 2001, he has been a full professor of mobile communications with the University of Agder, Norway. His research interests are in the area of mobile radio communications with emphasis on channel modelling, MIMO techniques, and cooperative communications.
13:50 Vehicle Node Localization without GPS in VANET
Wei Xiong (Huazhong University of Science & Technology, P.R. China); Xiaoya Hu (Huazhong University of Science and Technology, P.R. China); Bingwen Wang and Jiao Fang (Huazhong University of Science & Technology, P.R. China); Yu Wang (Wuhan University, P.R. China)
In Intelligent Transport System (ITS) there is a new kind of ad hoc network: Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANET). In VANET, vehicles get useful information by communicating with each other or with a roadside unit. The location information is important in VANET. It is easy to obtain the locations of vehicle by GPS technology. However, there still are some unexpected problems such as not always being in signal coverage or not being strong enough for some applications. It is necessary to develop additional localization techniques to overcome GPS limitations. In this paper, we discuss localization techniques via V2V and V2R communications in VANET when there is no available GPS information, design a dynamic positioning system based on IEEE802.11p and IEEE1609 standards, and simulate positioning algorithms of DV-Hop, RSSI and MDS-MAP.
Presenter bio: Wei Xiong was born in Hubei China in 1986. He is a PhD student of control science & technology in School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology.
14:10 A Handoff Algorithm for Packet Loss Optimization in Vehicular Radio-over-Fiber Picocellular Networks
Nikolaos D. Tselikas and Evangelos Kosmatos (University of Peloponnese, Greece)
In mobile picocellular network topologies a very critical issue is the handoff procedure in conjunction with the corresponding packet loss, due to the limited overlapping areas between adjacent cells. Handoffs and packet loss are more frequent and even more critical in picocellular vehicular networks, since the afore-mentioned limitation is combined with the high velocities of the mobile end-users. In this paper we present a mathematical model that depicts the packet loss results of a promising handoff algorithm, i.e., the "moving extended cell", for vehicular Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) picocellular networks at 60 GHz against the corresponding "traditional" handoff algorithm, respectively. Furthermore, we evaluate and verify the mathematical analysis with a simulation study, and, finally, we present the respective results, which reflect that moving extended cell handoff algorithm can be applied to minimize packet loss in vehicular RoF picocellular networks.
14:30 VeSCA: Vehicular Stable Cluster-based Data Aggregation
Seyhan Ucar, Sinem Coleri Ergen and Oznur Ozkasap (Koc University, Turkey)
In-network data aggregation is a promising technique to reduce data transmission that contributes the effective usage of bandwidth and co-existence of different application in vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANET). Early aggregation schemes in VANET are grouped into two categories; structure free and structure based data aggregation. In structure-free data aggregation, vehicles apply pre-defined delay value before forwarding a data packet to the next hop. On the contrary, structure based data aggregation uses a hierarchical structure, based on either road information or vehicles, to perform data aggregation. To provide efficient and scalable VANET communication, data aggregation is essential for reducing per vehicle bandwidth requirements. In this paper, we propose a multi-hop structure based data aggregation method namely VeSCA where mobile nodes are grouped based on relative mobility with minimum overhead cluster construction and cluster members apply data aggregation before forwarding data packet to the parent node. Using various key metrics including data aggregation ratio, delay and aggregated data delivery ratio, we demonstrate superior performance VeSCA compared both previous cluster based data aggregation and alternative aggregation mechanism via extensive simulations in ns-3 with the vehicle mobility input from the Simulation of Urban Mobility (SUMO). VeSCA achieves over 70% aggregated data packet delivery ratio with aggregation ratio 40%.
Presenter bio: Seyhan Uçar received his B.Sc. degree in Computer Engineering from İzmir Institute of Technology in 2011. He received his M.Sc. and the Ph.D. degree in Computer Science and Engineering from Koç University in 2013 and 2017, respectively. Throughout his M.Sc. studies, he worked on developing multi-hop clustering algorithms and Long-Term Evaluation (LTE) based heterogeneous architectures for vehicular ad hoc network. During his Ph.D., he focuses on Visible Light Communication (VLC) and automated car following (or platooning) where a group of vehicles travel within a close proximity through communication. In his work, the joint usage of IEEE 802.11p and VLC is investigated with the goal of achieving secure and efficient architecture for platoon management and communication.
14:50 Propagation Measurements in 5.8GHz and Pathloss Study for CEN-DSRC
Akram Al-Hourani and Sathyanarayanan Chandrasekharan (RMIT University, Australia); Gianmarco Baldini (Joint Research Centre - European Commission, Italy); Sithamparanathan Kandeepan (RMIT University, Australia)
The Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) technology in the $5.8$ GHz band is a key enabler to support a safer and more efficient vehicular transportation in the future. The chosen $5.8$GHz frequency band is therefore of great interest for us to study the propagation of signals under various environments. In this paper we investigate and record the propagation affects of $5.8$GHz radio signals in an urban and sub-urban like environments with experiments conducted in the city of Melbourne for an infrastructure to vehicle (I2V) use case. The experiments were conducted for a T-R separation from $20m$ to $150m$ with line of sight conditions for the three chosen environments with and without the vehicle for comparisons as described in the paper. Based on the measurements we estimate the pathloss exponent and the shadowing standard deviation for the chosen scenarios. More interestingly our results also show a constant pathloss for the measurements with the car when compared to the measurements without the car for different scenario.
Presenter bio: Gianmarco Baldini (M'08) received the Italian Laurea degree in electronic engineering from the University of Rome "La Sapienza," Rome, Italy, in 1993, with specialization in wireless communications. He was a Senior Technical Architect and System Engineering Manager with Ericsson, Stockholm, Sweden, Lucent Technologies, New Providence, NJ, USA, Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD, USA, and Selex Communications, Washington, DC, USA, before joining the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Ispra, Italy, in 2007 as a Scientific Officer. His current research interests include privacy aspects, mobile security, communication services for public safety, and communications/navigation in the transportation sector.

#### TS1-13: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking

Room: Schubert 5, First Floor
Zhongjiang Yan (Northwestern Ploytechnical University, P.R. China); Bo Li, Xiaoya Zuo and Tian Gao (Northwestern Polytechnical University, P.R. China)
Many vehicular roadside units (RSUs) or infrastructures are deployed along the highways to provide information service. However, most of them are powered by renewable energy, such as solar power, due to the unavailability or prohibitive expensive of the wired electrical power. In this paper, the timeslot based traffic scheduling problem is considered with the objective to fairly and energy efficiently serve the vehicles. The contact durations between the vehicles and the RSU are slotted into timeslots, during each of which one unit of the traffic can be transmitted from the RSU to one vehicle, and then one unit of vehicle's requirement can be satisfied. The downlink traffic scheduling cost is defined as the transmission energy cost to deliver the traffic. The fairness of the traffic scheduling strategy is evaluated by the Jain's fairness index of the unsatisfied vehicle requirements. The proposed problem is formulated as a three-step optimization problem. To address the difficulty of the three-step optimization problem, a flow network based algorithm is proposed. Both the offline and the online traffic schedule strategies are derived. Simulation results show that the derived offline traffic scheduling strategy outperforms the original energy optimal traffic scheduling strategy in terms of fairness, while the transmitted traffic and the transmission energy cost remains almost the same. The derived online traffic scheduling strategy outperforms the GMCF algorithms in terms of fairness, at the expense of larger transmission energy, and with the same total transmission traffic.
Presenter bio: Zhongjiang Yan received the B.E. and PhD degree in telecommunication engineering from Xidian University in July 2006 and 2011, respectively. From Sept. 2010 to Dec. 2011, he was a visiting PhD student in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta. In Dec. 2011, he joined School of Electronics and Information, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, China, where he is currently an Associate Professor. His research interests include protocols design and their FPGA implement of the media access control layer, radio resource management, and traffic scheduling stratety. He is a member of the IEEE.
13:50 A Flexible Backhaul Architecture for LTE-Advanced
Yi Shi and Mingchao Li (Huawei Technologies, P.R. China); Xin Xiong (Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd., P.R. China); Guanglin Han (Huawei Technologies, P.R. China); Wan Lei (Huawei Technology Ltd, P.R. China); Xiaodai Dong (University of Victoria, Canada)
The proliferation of data-hungry smart electronic devices, such as smartphones and intelligent vehicles, has driven the capacities of current mobile communication systems towards their limits. To tackle this formidable challenge, 3GPP Long Term Evolution has recognized network densification with low-power small cells (SCs) as a key paradigm in the upcoming 5G communication system. In this article, we introduce a novel wireless backhaul framework for small cell networks by introducing a new backhauling component, which is referred to as Type-A relay. This new entity is capable of communicating simultaneously with two macrocells by leveraging the downlink resource of one cell as well as the uplink resource of the other, which effectively operates in full-duplex mode without incurring additional costs to acquire carrier resources. The proposed approach offers increased architectural flexibility and substantial capacity enhancement over the current LTE relaying-based solutions. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the strong potential of the proposed approach in future 5G communication systems.
Presenter bio: Yi Shi(S'06-M'10) received the Ph.D. degree in Electronic and Computer Engineering from The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, in August 2010. Before he joined Huawei Technologies, Beijing, China in June 2013, he worked as a post-doctoral fellow in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Victoria. After Joining Huawei, Dr. Yi Shi has been participating actively in various standardization bodies promoting cellular communication technologies in vertical markets. In 3GPP, he has served as Huawei leading delegate for 3GPP SA1 and RAN1, primarily responsible for the study of C-V2X use case and requirements, and physical layer system design, respectively. Dr. Yi Shi has also been representing Huawei in ETSI TC ITS, SAE DSRC TC, and 5GAA for C-V2X industry promotion.
14:10 Messages Prioritization in IEEE 802.15.4 based WSNs for Roadside Infrastructure
Imane Horiya Brahmi (CEA-Leti, France); Soufiene Djahel (Manchester Metropolitan University, United Kingdom (Great Britain)); Damien Magoni (University of Bordeaux, France); John Murphy (University College Dublin, Ireland)
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have gained a wide popularity for real-time events monitoring and detection due to their high accuracy and ease of deployment. Therefore, they have become increasingly prevalent solutions in several application domains such as health-care, transportation, etc. Many studies in the literature have focused on optimizing the energy consumption of the wireless sensors in order to ensure their autonomous operation for longer periods. Some applications of WSNs, however, have strict delay requirements due to the nature of the information being transmitted. This delay should be kept as short as possible to ensure timely and efficient reaction of the system, such as a Traffic Management System (TMS) dealing with an incident on the road. In this context, we propose, in this work, two novel schemes to improve the transmission delay of prioritized messages in WSNs deployed in road networks to report regular traffic as well as event-driven (i.e. incidents) information. These schemes consist in an improvement of the backoff computation mechanism at the MAC layer of IEEE 802.15.4 standard protocol, in addition to an original dual mode operation mechanism, in order to speed up the transmission of event-driven messages, while keeping the transmission delay of periodic messages reasonably low. Simulation results show that our schemes succeed to reduce the transmission delay of event-driven messages and achieve a very high packets delivery ratio.
14:30 Performance Analysis of a Combined STC-SVD MIMO-OFDM System
Mohamed Osman, Heba Soliman and Sherif M Abuelenin (Port-Said University, Egypt); Kairy El-Barbary (Suez Canal University, Egypt)
Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems using orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) technique are considered as promising solutions for the next generation communication systems. MIMO-OFDM systems can be enhanced using Space-Time Coding (STC). In this paper we introduce a combined Alamouti Space Time Block Coding/Repetition coding (STBC/STRC) with Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) system for future generation WLANs. The introduced system improves the Symbol Error Rate (SER) performance of MIMO-OFDM systems. Two schemes are applied on a (2×2) MIMO-OFDM antenna configuration. MATLAB® simulations show that the proposed system performed better over its standalone Alamouti-STC and SVD counterparts. Moreover, we show that better performance is not associated with a significant increase in the computational complexity of the algorithm, especially in the STRC-SVD case.
Presenter bio: Sherif M. Abuelenin (IEEE Member '05) received the B.Sc. degree in electronics and communications from Suez Canal University, Egypt in 1999, the M.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering from Tuskegee University in 2002, and the Ph.D. degree from Auburn University in 2005. He joined Tuskegee University as an assistant professor of Electrical Engineering in 2005. From 2007 to 2011 he served as assistant professor in the faculty of Engineering Sciences, Sinai University, Egypt. In 2011, he joined the faculty of engineering, Port-Said University, where he currently is an Assistant Professor of Electrical engineering. His research interests include fuzzy logic systems, inter-vehicular communications, and signal processing.
14:50 Propagation Model for Vehicle to Vehicle LOS Communication in Foliage Scenario
Yuan Chen (Technische Universitaet Darmstadt & Hella KGaA Hueck & Co., Germany); Bhavin Chamadiya (HELLA KGaA Hueck & Co., Germany)
Available propagation models for Vehicle to Vehicle communication in foliage scenario are based on empirically derived formulation, where attenuation is caused by the absorption of vegetation when propagation through the body of vegetation. In this paper, we analyze the scenario where high-profile trees along both roadsides with a LOS communication link between testing vehicles. We present a multi-ray model to simulate the propagation loss and validate the model with raw data from measurements performed in the rural area of Lippstadt, Germany. Two dominant reflection rays aroused by vegetation and ground respectively are mainly considered for computational simplicity. The proposed model reflects the condition observed from our measurement results, and has a high performance in estimating the attenuation.
Presenter bio: Yuan Chen received B.Eng. degree in communication engineering from Tongji University, Shanghai, China, in 2012. She is currently pursuing M.Sc. degree in communication engineering at Technical University of Darmstadt. From 02.2014 to 08.2014 she was with the Department of Advanced Engineering, Hella KGaA Hueck & Co., Lippstadt, Germany.