# Program for 2013 International Conference on Connected Vehicles & Expo

Time Technical Session Room A Technical Session Room B Technical Session Room C Technical Session Room D

## Tuesday, December 3

10:00-12:00 P01-01: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 1 P03-01: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles - 1 P05-01: Transportation and Connected Vehicles - 1 P06-01: Electric Vehicle and Transportation Electrification - 1
13:30-15:30 P01-02: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 2 P03-02: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles - 2 P04-01: Automotive Electronics and Automatic Control - 1 P06-02: Electric Vehicle and Transportation Electrification - 2
16:00-18:00 P01-03: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 3 P03-03: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles - 3 P05-02: Transportation and Connected Vehicles - 2 P06-03: Electric Vehicle and Transportation Electrification - 3

## Wednesday, December 4

10:00-12:00 P01-04: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 4 P01-05: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 5 P02-01: Mobile Internet, Spatial and Social Systems, Internet of Things - 1 P05-03: Transportation and Connected Vehicles - 3
13:30-15:30 P07-01: Practices, Standards, Policy, Economics, and Social Implications P03-04: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles - 4 P02-02: Mobile Internet, Spatial and Social Systems, Internet of Things - 2 P05-04: Transportation and Connected Vehicles - 4
16:00-18:00 P01-06: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 6 P01-07: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 7 P03-05: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles - 5 P05-05: Transportation and Connected Vehicles - 5

## Thursday, December 5

10:00-12:00 P01-08: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 8 P01-09: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 9 P00-01: Science without Borders (remote presentations) - 1 P06-04: Electric Vehicle and Transportation Electrification - 4
13:30-15:30 P01-10: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 10 P01-11: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 11 P03-06: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles - 6 P06-05: Electric Vehicle and Transportation Electrification - 5
16:00-18:00 P01-12: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 12 P01-13: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 13 P02-03: Mobile Internet, Spatial and Social Systems, Internet of Things - 3 P00-02: Science without Borders (remote presentations) - 2

## Friday, December 6

10:00-12:00 P03-07: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles - 7 P03-08: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles - 8 P04-02: Automotive Electronics and Automatic Control - 2 P05-06: Transportation and Connected Vehicles - 6

## Tuesday, December 3

### Tuesday, December 3, 10:00 - 12:00

#### P01-01: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 1

Technical Session Room A
10:00 LAVI: A Location Aware Virtual Infrastructure for VANETs
Rohan Golatkar (State University of New York - Binghamton, USA); Yu Chen (Binghamton University, USA); Wei-Shinn Ku (Auburn University, USA)
Without requiring pre-fixed infrastructure, Vehicle Ad Hoc networks (VANETs) allow drivers to exchange information and access variant services in real-time manner. While achieving significant flexibility and convenience, dynamic network topology is also the source of challenges that invalidate most of well-designed protocols. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel scheme called Location Aware Virtual Infrastructure (LAVI). The fundamental rationale of the LAVI scheme is based on an observation: although each individual vehicle will not stay at a location for an extended period of time, statistically there are some vehicles available as long as the density of vehicles is reasonably high. LAVI creates a virtually stable infrastructure layer on top of the dynamic physical topology. Through extensive experimental study, we have verified the effectiveness of our LAVI scheme.
10:25 DoS Attack Detection in Internet-Connected Vehicles
Joseph Soryal (The City College of New York - CUNY, USA); Tarek Saadawi (The City University of New York/The City College, USA)
The paper presents a light weight technique to detect the Denial of Service (DoS) behavior applied by malicious users in Internet-connected vehicles using Wi-Fi to access the Internet via hotspots installed on the roads. Malicious nodes manipulate the IEEE 802.11 DCF standards to illegally gain extra throughput and increase the probability of having a successful packet transmission on the expense of the honest users that follow the protocol standards. The theoretical network throughput is derived using two-dimensional Markov Chain to determine the network capacity. Results obtained by the theoretical computations are validated by network simulation to determine the baseline for the maximum achievable throughput in the network under fair conditions where all nodes follow the IEEE standards. An approach is presented to enable all the nodes in IEEE 802.11 network with a mechanism to detect and identify the malicious nodes in a distributed environment. Results are presented to prove the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed algorithm.
10:50 Further Results on Energy Detection of Random Signals in Gaussian Noise
Oluwatobi O Olabiyi and Annamalai Annamalai (Prairie View A&M University, USA)
This article shows that the non-coherent detector for random signals which maximizes the generalized likelihood function is the same as the detector that maximizes the probability of correct detection at any specified false alarm probability by deriving the exact statistics for |Y|^p (where Y is a Gaussian random variable and p is a positive real number) for the following two cases: (i) sample size L = 1 but for arbitrary real p > 0; (ii) arbitrary L but for p = 1, 2 or 4. This observation is in stark contrast to all earlier studies on the "improved" energy detector (that replaces the squaring operation of the signal amplitude in the classical energy detector with an arbitrary positive power p operation). Our analytical results are in excellent agreement with those obtained via Monte-Carlo simulations, and also highlight the inaccuracies with the Gamma density approximation for |Y|^p employed by Chen [2]. Although different choices of p and L will yield distinct receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves, the optimum p remains 2 (i.e., no gain over the classical energy detector) regardless of the values of the signal-to-noise ratio and/or the sample size L.
11:15 Improved Energy Detectors with Data/Decision Fusion of Partitioned Time-Domain Samples
Oluwatobi O Olabiyi and Annamalai Annamalai (Prairie View A&M University, USA)
This article proposes several new and improved energy detectors for detecting unknown deterministic signals perturbed by zero-mean Gaussian noise and/or fading. In contrast to the conventional total energy detector (that computes the signal energy by summing the square of all time-domain signals), we first partition the time-domain samples in pairs and then combine the signal energy estimates from each of these partitions using different rules (i.e., data fusion) to develop new detectors that provide varying levels of primary user (PU) signal protection. Both numerical and simulation results show that all of our modified energy detectors outperform the conventional total energy detector. Decision fusion of the local binary hard decisions made at the sample partitions is also considered to provide a greater flexibility for the PU signal protection and/or to improve the detection performance of the stand-alone energy detector.

#### P03-01: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles - 1

Technical Session Room B
10:00 Driving Behavior Analysis Using Vision-based Head Pose Estimation For Enhanced Communication Among Traffic Participants
Shuzo Noridomi (Doshisha University /ATR, Japan); Akira Utsumi, Masahiro Tada, Naoki Yamamoto and Tadahisa Kondo (ATR, Japan); Norihiro Hagita (Advanced Telecomunications Research Institute International, Japan); Kazuhiko Takahashi (Doshisha University, Japan)
We propose a scheme to evaluate driver behaviors based on a vision-based head pose estimation method. In our project, we are investigating a collaborative safety mechanism based on mutual sharing of driver information (attention and performance) in daily situations. Based on a non-contact type of measurement, the analysis of driver behaviors is one key issue in our mechanism. In this paper, we describe a voting-based head pose estimation algorithm and several driving behavior analysis results using our method. For sharing driver information, we address some simple examples of graphical representations that directly correspond to the extracted driver behaviors.
10:25 Exploiting Vehicular Communications for Reducing CO2 Emissions in Urban environments
Leandros A. Maglaras (De Montfort University, United Kingdom); Pavlos Basaras and Dimitrios Katsaros (University of Thessaly, Greece)
In the overall effort of reducing C02 emissions, especially in large cities, vehicular communications can play an important role. Intelligent transportation systems, which aim to use information and communication technology are considered to be a major factor in this effort. Eco-routing is already used to suggest most environmental-friendly routes in order to reduce overall mileage and CO2 emissions based on historical data. In this paper we propose a real time system based on DSRC communication capabilities in order to reroute vehicles to the most ecological route, avoiding congested roads and minimizing the overall traveled time and C02 emissions.
10:50 Localization of Handheld Devices inside Vehicles using Audio Masking
Nam Nguyen (Digital Technology Ventures, USA); Sagar Dhakal (BlackBerry, USA); Jim Womack (RIM, USA)
This paper addresses the problem of locating a handheld device (a smartphone or a tablet) inside a car. Based on the location of the device in the car, one can determine whether the device is being used by a driver or not so that a software can enable or disable certain features and functions of the device to reduce the distraction to the driver. We provide several predesigned audio signals to play from the car audio system that can be received by a handheld device inside the car. Using some prior knowledge of the predesigned audio signal, the handheld device can post-process the received signal in order to locate its position. Another key element in this paper is the technique to make the audio signal inaudible from users. Two audio hiding methods are proposed that are based on audio masking and playing in the out-of-hearing band.
11:15 Coordinated Control and Communication for Enhanced Safety of Highway Vehicle Platoons
Lijian Xu (SUNY Farmingdale, USA); Le Yi Wang, George Yin and Hongwei Zhang (Wayne State University, USA)
Platoon formation has been identified as a promising framework in developing intelligent transportation systems. By autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicle control and inter-vehicle coordination, an appropriately managed platoon can potential offer enhanced safety, improved highway utility, increased fuel economy, and reduced emission. This paper is focused on quantitative characterization of impact of communication systems on platoon safety. By comparing three information structures which combine front sensors, rear sensors, and wireless communication channels and different information contents such distances, speeds, and drivers' actions, we reveal some intrinsic relationships between control and communications. The findings of this paper provide useful guidelines in sensor selections, communication resource allocations, and vehicle coordination in highway platoon control problems.

#### P05-01: Transportation and Connected Vehicles - 1

Technical Session Room C
10:00 Coordination of Multiple Autonomous Intersections by Using Local Neighborhood Information
Chairit Wuthishuwong (NEC Laboratories Europe, Germany)
The traffic congestion is considering as one of the important problem of the road transportation. The conceptual of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) has been introduced to improve the efficiency of the traffic flow. The autonomous vehicle technology currently becomes reality including the wireless communication technology also becomes a major role in vehicle communication. The wireless communication device will be generally used in the vehicle for the future road transportation. The purpose of this research work is that to use the local traffic information to reduce the delay time of a vehicle at the intersection. In this paper, the fully autonomous intersection system is represented as the single intersection model. In addition, the multiple intersections are created based on the connected of a single autonomous intersection agent. The communication topology of the intersection network is modeled by using the undirected graph. The traffic information in the network is able to exchange by Infrastructure-to-Infrastructure communication (I2I). The discrete consensus algorithm is implemented for coordinating the local traffic information from the neighborhood intersection. The proposed method works based on the concept of Green Wave, maximize the throughput, as well as, minimize the delay time. It maintains the traffic density of every intersection in the network for managing every vehicle continuously drives with minimum delay time. The simulation of variable traffic flow rate of multiple autonomous intersections is implemented based on the proposed method
10:25 Junction-based Model Predictive Control for Urban Traffic Light Control
Yu Wang (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore); Danwei Wang (Supervisor, Singapore); Bin Xu (Postdoc, P.R. China); Tichakorn Wongpiromsarn (Postdoc, Thailand)
This article studies Junction-based Model Predictive Control (JMPC) in urban traffic light control. The entire traffic system is decomposed into junction-based subsystems with their own MPC controllers based on a frequently and regularly initialized difference equation (FRIDE). These MPC controllers consider the control effects on adjacent subsystems and inputs effects from adjacent subsystems, which work cooperatively towards system-wide control objectives. The simulation results show that JMPC works much better than some bench-marking strategies. Besides, JMPC is scalable to larger network because of its distributed nature and makes it possible to deal with the complex urban networks.
10:50 Traveler Oriented Dynamic Traffic Assignment Based on Multiclass Cell Transmission Model
Huifang Deng and Hao Cheng (South China University of Technology, P.R. China)
This paper proposes a model which incorporates the traveler dynamics into the cell transmission model (CTM) by decoupling the travel demand from the traffic demand, in order to simulate traffic dynamics in a more controllable way. The model takes travelers as the source of the traffic load and formulates the relationship between these two demands mathematically. With the proper design, the model can be used as an enhancement to any existed cell transmission model. For implementation in this paper, an open source macro-simulation tool, called Aurora Road Network Modeler (AuroraRNM), is adopted. The experiments are conducted on a real road network with the help of this tool, and the results show the traveler oriented model can reflect the traffic dynamics properly and reasonably. Besides, based on the simulation results, the model also provides a way to find out the manageable status in a nonequilibrium traffic. This is more practical as though user optimal or system optimal solutions present optimal equilibrium traffic, such equilibrium status remain analytical and hard to apply to the real world management due to limited resources or other reasons.
11:15 Southeast Michigan 2014 Test Bed Project for Connected Vehicles: The Next Step Toward Deploying ITS
Walton Fehr (USDOT, USA); Gregory Krueger (Leidos, USA); David McNamara (Individual, USA); Frank Perry (Leidos, USA); Tom Lusco (Iteris, USA); James Marousek (Booz Allen Hamilton, USA)
The US Department of Transportation owns and operates a major on-road test facility in Southeast Michigan dedicated to the development and testing of the next generation of Intelligent Transportation Systems - connected vehicle technologies, standards and applications. Over the course of the next 12 months, this facility will undergo significant upgrades with the intent of supporting the next generation of equipment makers and site operators. This paper is focused on how the Southeast Michigan Test Bed is supporting the next advance in connected vehicles by providing a complete connected vehicle environment, including broadcast and peer-to-peer communication based activities; using all seven DSRC channels available; and, the flow and evolution of situation data. This test bed environment is intended to support the next generation of hardware and applications by providing consistent data environment and a common language for defining applications, data flows and interfaces. This paper will give an overview of the Southeast Michigan 2014 Connected Vehicle 2014 project.
11:40 Southeastern Michigan 2014 Test Bed Project Architecture - Implementing the USDOT's Connected Vehicle Reference Implementation Architecture
Walton Fehr (USDOT, USA); Gregory Krueger (Leidos, USA); David McNamara (Individual, USA); Frank Perry (Leidos, USA); Tom Lusco (Iteris, USA); James Marousek (Booz Allen Hamilton, USA)
The US Department of Transportation's (USDOT) Southeast Michigan Connected Vehicle Test Bed originally hosted the USDOT Proof of Concept Testing (POC), starting in 2007. At that time, the architecture was designed around what was referred to as the Service Delivery Node (SDN). The SDN was a relatively closed system that handled data "collection", processing (applications) and data dissemination back to the vehicle. While effective for these early tests and development efforts, this closed architecture was not conducive to growth and expansion. The USDOT, following the success of the POC, initiated the development of a Connected Vehicle Reference Implementation Architecture (CVRIA), and in 2013 began the final design of an initial implementation of the CVRIA at the USDOT's Southeast Michigan Connected Vehicle Test Bed and will permit all users of this facility to develop and deploy solutions (hardware and software) using a common language that is based on the updated ITS National Architecture. The authors will present the architecture as it is being designed and deployed in this trial in Southeast Michigan, including the different architectural views and how they will lead to final design documentation. The architecture must be built to accommodate a wide range of user agreements, to be secure as well as accessible to a wide range of users, the traveler - often multi-modal, commercial and transportation providers and authorities. In this paper we present the proposed system architecture and our process for evaluation through industry collaboration.

#### P06-01: Electric Vehicle and Transportation Electrification - 1

Technical Session Room D
10:00 Controller Design for Battery Energy Storage System using Linearized Battery Model
Ilsong Kim (Korea National Universtiy of Transportation, Korea)
Controller design method for Battery Energy Storage System using linearized battery model is presented in this paper. The suggested battery model is expressed with OCV having three relaxation filter and linear output equation. The battery state of charge information is obtained by the Kalman filter and its performance is verified by FTP75 driving cycles. The controller for power converter is designed and experimented with 300V battery pack. The proposed control method is simple and easy to apply to the electrical transportation system.
10:25 VOLTTRON™: An Agent Platform for Integrating Electric Vehicles and Smart Grid
Jereme Haack (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA); Bora Akyol (Pacific Northwest Labs, USA); Nathan Tenney, Brandon Carpenter, Richard Pratt and Thomas E. Carroll (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA)
The VOLTTRON™ platform provides a secure environment for the deployment of intelligent applications in the Smart Grid. VOLTTRON design is based on the needs of control applications running on small form factor devices, namely security and resource guarantees. Services such as resource discovery, secure agent mobility, and interacting with smart and legacy devices are provided by the platform to ease the development of control applications and accelerate their deployment. VOLTTRON has been demonstrated in several different domains that influenced and enhanced its capabilities. This paper will discuss the features of VOLTTRON and highlight its usage to coordinate electric vehicle charging with home energy usage.
10:50 Self-Optimizing Energy Management Strategy for Fuel-Cell/Ultracapacitor Hybrid Vehicles
Wei-Song Lin (National Taiwan University, Taiwan)
Fuel-cell/ultracapacitor hybrid vehicle (FHV) needs distributing load power appropriately to its fuel cell system and ultracapacitor bank in order to minimize fuel consumption and power fluctuations in the fuel cell system while supplying adequate power to the load, and the state of charge of the ultracapacitor bank maintained at the permissible levels. This paper proposes a self-optimizing energy management strategy (EMS) for FHV to achieve this aim in an automatic way. Energy management in an FHV is formulated as the optimal tracking problem of a nonlinear discrete-time system with model bias and mixed constraints. Then, the EMS which is an artificial neural network is improved online in real time by sequentially minimizing a Hamiltonian over the driving cycle concerned. The effectiveness of the self-optimizing EMS is verified in an experimental bench, and the results are shown.
11:15 Significance of internal battery resistance on the remaining range estimation of electric vehicles
Achim Enthaler (Audi Electronics Venture GmbH); Frank Gauterin (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany)
This paper investigates the significance of internal losses of high voltage lithium-ion batteries on the range estimation algorithms of Electric Vehicles (EV) and proposes a method to predict the internal battery losses in close cooperation with the vehicle's control strategy. The method combines a vehicle consumption model taking into account trip based information containing speed limits, live traffic and elevation data within a modular battery prediction model. The battery model calculates future losses of the internal battery resistance based on the control strategy's predicted energy consumption. The battery model takes into account the Temperature, State of Charge (SOC) and State of Health (SOH) parameters of the battery. Simulation results show that internal battery losses vary significantly depending on intensity and form of discharge as well as the State of Charge and Temperature. It is demonstrated that varying internal battery losses can be responsible for inaccuracies in current range estimation algorithms. The proposed method aims at reducing these inaccuracies.

### Tuesday, December 3, 13:30 - 15:30

#### P01-02: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 2

Technical Session Room A
13:30 An Improved Reconstruction Method for Compressive Sensing Based OFDM Channel Estimation
Xingxing Li, Xiao jun Jing, Sun Songlin, Hai Huang, Na Chen and Yueming Lu (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.R. China)
In the OFDM system, the channel estimation is significant in that it affects the reliability of coherent detection at the receiver side. Compressive sensing based channel estimation demands fewer pilots than traditional methods and improves the resource utilization in a great manner. Greedy algorithms have a weakness in terms of anti-noise capacity. Combining CoSaMP with exponential smoothing, an improved reconstruction method is proposed in order to suppress noise. The noise suppression capacity of exponential smoothing is analyzed in theory. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method is superior to CoSaMP especially for high noise level or low speed situation at a cost of low additional computational complexity.
13:55 Content Dissemination Over VANET: Boosting Utility Based Heuristics Using Interests
Osamah Dhannoon, Rahul Vishen and Marius C Silaghi (Florida Institute of Technology, USA)
Drivers are not expected to vote while driving, but VANETs are an excellent media for dissemination of pre-recorded support/opinions on regional issues in a decentralized deliberative petition drive or opinion poll. We propose and evaluate heuristics for scheduling messages in a VANET broadcasting-based dissemination of data for decentralized petition drives among self-interested participants. The goal of the heuristics is to increase dissemination of the citizen initiatives questions and results under the given assumptions. The self-interest of the participants is assumed to be manifested by selectivity in the storage and forwarding of raised issues and positions for those issues. Here we describe the concepts enabling the fully decentralized organization of the petition drives and polls. The underlying protocol that we implemented for fully decentralized polling of opinions over VANETs is also introduced and evaluated.
14:20 DTN Hybrid Networks for Vehicular Communications
Justin P Rohrer and Geoffrey G Xie (Naval Postgraduate School, USA)
We present an architecture for the convergence of two established network paradigms, IP and DTN, into a unified environment that leverages the advantages of both. Vehicular networking scenarios, particularly link connectivity, are becoming increasingly heterogeneous at the edge, composed of realms of disparate technologies to address domain-specific requirements. Disruption-Tolerant Networking (DTN) technology, by using a hop-by-hop delivery model instead of the end-to-end IP model, is able to sustain applications despite intermittent or high-latency links. We observe that while IP realms are circumscribed by a hard edge where infrastructure coverage ends, DTN realms have no such defined border, extending as-needed even to space. Therefore, we seek to blur this distinction between IP and DTN networks, by creating a hybrid architecture that enables extended connectivity for applications that were originally confined within the hard boundaries of IP realms. At the same time our architecture incorporates the infrastructure needed for broad support of DTN-aware applications.
14:45 Unified Analysis of Diversity Average Energy Detectors over Generalized Fading Channels
Eyidayo Adebola (Prairie View A & M University & CECSTR, USA); Annamalai Annamalai (Prairie View A&M University, USA)
15:10 On the Energy Detection of Unknown Signals in \kappa-\mue and \eta-\mueFading Channels with Diversity Receivers
Annamalai Annamalai and Abiodun Olaluwe (Prairie View A&M University, USA)

#### P03-02: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles - 2

Technical Session Room B
13:30 Rapid Tracking for Autonomous Driving with Monocular Video
We present a novel tracking algorithm for an autonomous vehicle equipped with a single camera. Given only monocular visual data, our algorithm utilizes projective geometry to compute concise features of the environment. Using these features, road markings are identified by a multi-class classifier. The classification results are then used with a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter to track the vehicle as it moves back and forth across the road. The resulting position tracker is part of a complete, simulated autonomous driving system. The realistic driving video game Need for Speed: Hot Pursuit was used as a vehicle simulation platform, and the autonomous system is shown to perform competitively against the game's automated opponents.
13:55 smartLDW: A smartphone-based local danger warning system
Stefan Wappler and Jens Rohnstock (Berner & Mattner Systemtechnik GmbH, Germany); Christian Haupt (Berner und Mattner Systemtechnik GmbH, Germany)
This paper presents smartLDW, an advanced driver assistance system based on off-the-shelf smartphones and a central information service. Using a smartphone's built-in sensors, an application running on the smartphone detects dangers and submits them to the central information service. This service accumulates the danger information from the various smartphones currently on the road and informs the smartphone about local dangers in its vicinity.
14:20 Initial Evaluation of an IEEE 802.11s-based Mobile Ad-Hoc Network for Collaborative Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Siva Teja Patibandla (Virginia Commonwealth University & VCU, USA); Tim Bakker and Robert Klenke (Virginia Commonwealth University, USA)
The purpose of this research was to develop a reconfigurable network architecture for collaborative Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) based on a mesh networking standard called IEEE 802.11s. A low-cost, small form-factor, IEEE 802.11a based wireless modem was selected and integrated with the existing Flight Control System developed at Virginia Commonwealth University UAV Laboratory. A self-configurable user-space application was developed that can provide support and functionality to collaborative algorithms. The reconfigurability of the IEEE 802.11s mesh network was validated and evaluated by conducting real-world flights using two UAV nodes and one ground node. The results show that the IEEE 802.11s is a promising solution for collaborative UAV applications.
14:45 GAFU: A game to save fuel using social networks
Víctor Corcoba Magaña (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain); Mario Muñoz (Carlos III of Madrid University, Spain)
In this paper, we propose a social game to promote efficient driving and provide feedback to the user. The proposed system uses a fuzzy logic system in order to assess the driving style from the point of view of the fuel consumption. The output is a score between 0 (not efficient) and 10 (efficient). This value can be compared with the score from other users of the social network that have similar characteristics in order to do a fair comparison and obtain eco-driving advice adapted to the environment (e.g., braking frequency is greater on urban road than highway). Providing feedback to the user is essential in driving eco-systems for changing bad driving habits and not returning back to driving bad-habits. In our case, the system provides two types of feedback. The first type of feedback is provided in real time. When the user does not comply with any of a preconfigured set of eco-driving rules, he gets a warning message. The second type of feedback is based on a calculated relative score for each user according to his or her driving style, positioning the user into a ranking of eco-driving users and generating a set of eco-driving tips.
15:10 A Lane-Level Broadcasting Scheme Using Beam-Forming for Intelligent Transportation Systems
Lei Du (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications & National Center of ITS Engineering & Technology, P.R. China)
A novel approach is proposed to enable vehicle, drivers and the traffic administrators to broadcast real-time message to desired direction with lane-level accuracy which is much more low cost and effective than traditional method or other communication systems with complex antenna array. This system can be used to lane associates management in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), including temporary stop warning, on-coming traffic warning, electronic brake warning, and lane-level traffic control. The system uses a pair of symmetric transmitters which is evolved from the structure of out-phasing modulator to 'select' a special zone by beam-forming. The main advantages of the proposed method over other potential technologies such as wireless sign, smart antenna and display board are its adaptability for bad climate and compatibility to on board unite (OBU) in vehicular communication system. Key technical points of the proposed technology are analyzed by simulation, and the results of designed application scenes show the acceptable performance and confirm the viability.

#### P04-01: Automotive Electronics and Automatic Control - 1

Technical Session Room C
13:30 Aerodynamic noise from cooling and HVAC systems
Edward Canepa, Andrea Cattanei and Fabio Mazzocut Zecchin (Università di Genova, Italy)
The present paper deals with the aerodynamic noise generated by cooling and HVAC systems employed in land vehicles. After a brief description of the physical origin of aerodynamic noise, the features important for system engineers dealing with fans installation and operation are considered. First, the main scaling laws useful to estimate the sound level spectrum are reported. Then, the main characteristics of the sound pressure level spectrum are related to the originating aerodynamic generating mechanism and to the quality of the perceived sound, some guidelines for noise reduction are listed, and, finally, the employ of results obtainable from laboratory tests are reported.
13:55 Stability Analysis of BLDC Motor Speed Controllers Under the Presence of Time Delays in the Control Loop
This paper discusses the stability issues of PI-based BLDCM (Brushless DC Motor) speed controllers under the presence of strong time delay in the controller loop. Understanding of time delay effect is of paramount importance to increase performance, quality and productivity in important applications such as electric differential for electric vehicles and high speed spindles in milling and high accuracy tools among others. Unfortunately, the effect of time delays in the asymptotic stability of speed controllers has not been well studied in the existing literature. In this work we present an algebraic technique to calculate the maximum time delay that can be accepted in the control loop of a Brushless DC Motor (BLDCM) speed controller before the closed loop response becomes unstable. Initially, we derive an analytical model for the set point tracking and the load disturbance responses taking into account the various sources of time delay. Using a recently proposed time delay stability analysis methodology, we derive accurate stability conditions for the BLDCM speed controller. The results show that tuning the PI controller for very fast response in the order of magnitude of the BLDCM mechanical time constant cause the time delay to significantly affect the system stability. As an example, the asymptotic stability of the load disturbance response of a Hall based sensored controller is analyzed. Nevertheless, we should notice the method proposed here can be easily extended to analyze the stability of the set point tracking response and the stability of sensorless controllers such as the direct Back EMF. The analytical analysis is applied to a commercial BLDCM controller and verified by simulation and experimental results.
14:20 Secure Device Access for Automotive Software
Se Won Kim, Chiyoung Lee and MooWoong Jeon (Korea University, Korea); Hyun Woo Lee and Hae Young Kwon (Hyundai Motors Company, Korea); Chuck Yoo (Korea University, Korea)
Current automotive software needs to integrate extension software with control software. Software integration increases the complexity of software and can cause system fault that threats safety of automobile. To solve this problem, extension software should be isolated. However, this isolation alone is not sufficient to prevent extension software due to the lack of secure device access method. In this paper, we propose a secure automotive sogftware platform that has secure device access method with TrustZone. Our method restricts a direct access of the extension software and supports multicore processors. Measured integration overhead shows almost 1% degradation, and maximum bandwidth of device access is achieved up to 5MB/s

#### P06-02: Electric Vehicle and Transportation Electrification - 2

Technical Session Room D
13:30 Smart Battery System for Emergency Vehicles: Results from a Pilot Field Study
Pasi Kämppi and Paresh Rathod (Laurea University of Applied Sciences, Finland)
Current emergency response vehicle (ERV) is exceedingly complicated combination of different technologies and solutions to function and perform in varying conditions. The challenge starts when there are no common agreements for how ERV´s should be design to meet requirements of all actors involved in emergency services. In Finland, Laurea University of Applied Sciences has launched a project that concentrated on emergency vehicles. The target of the project was to create user requirements for designing emergency vehicles, also to describe used ICT-systems, investigate power consumption and create an innovative demo vehicle. Due to wide range of the electrical and electronic equipment, the power consumption of modern emergency vehicle is very high. During user requirements phase users indicated strongly that battery is draining out fast and vehicle personnel have very limited possibilities to check actual state of battery health. To fulfill real user need we launched a research study that focused on finding out 1) a solution to improve battery capacity with longer battery lifetime, 2) to improve personnel awareness about battery health state and 3) to implement a proof-of-concept in real emergency vehicle. This paper is reporting those findings of the experiment and pilot field study.
13:55 A Practical Approach to Evaluate Voltage Quality Effects of Electric Vehicle Charging
Anamika Dubey (University of Texas at Austin, USA); Surya Santoso (The University of Texas at Austin, USA); Matthew P. Cloud (The United Illuminating Company, USA)
Integration of electric vehicles (EVs) in distribution circuits introduces challenges such as increase in load demand and voltage drops during peak load hours. These concerns call for a study to evaluate impacts of EV charging on primary and secondary voltages. Hence the objective of the paper is to present practical approaches in carrying out such a study. The paper begins by laying out criteria of circuit simulators for evaluating voltage quality concern. The paper then describes the modeling of three-phase and single-phase distribution circuits, conventional and electric vehicle loads, and their corresponding load profiles. Once simulation models are established, evaluation procedures are described. Circuit parameters for the study include the location of secondary service, the EV load location within a secondary circuit, and the size of the EV load and charger. The paper also describes how results should be interpreted. The simulation tools developed and the analytical approach discussed in the paper will help utilities in evaluating voltage quality impacts of EV loads on their distribution circuits and possibly designing efficient mitigation schemes, addressing the effects of EV charging.
14:20 An ICT Solution for Integration of Electric Vehicles in Grid Balancing Services
Christian Lewandowski and Stefan Böcker (TU Dortmund University, Germany); Christian Wietfeld (TU Dortmund University & Communication Networks Institute, Germany)
To achieve a mass market acceptance of electric mobility, the development of personal safety mechanisms, authorization methods and asset management of charging infrastructure requires standardized ICT protocols. For all these issues protocols have been developed and a roll-out of Electric Vehicles (EV) is feasible. To increase the market penetration of e-mobility, EVs can take part in value added grid services (e-services), which can increase the grid stability in case of high fluctuation of renewable energy resources. As only a single EV charging process cannot compensate grid fluctuations, this paper presents a pooling strategy of multiple charge points, which are controlled by a central pool operator that can react upon grid congestion. Two of such e-services are discussed in this paper by developing an ICT architecture with standardized communication protocols. After an introduction of the used protocols, protocol interaction for realizing the e-services is illustrated by several sequence charts. Therefore a new e-service interface including message definition is developed. These messages are based on standardized message types of ISO/IEC 15118. This ensures interoperability and integration of e-service interface into ICT protocols for charge point management, e.g. Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP).
14:45 A Dynamic Point of Preferred Operation (PPO) Scheme for Charging Electric Vehicles in a Residential Area
I Komang Adi Aswantara and Kab Seok Ko (KAIST, Korea); Dan Keun Sung (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Korea)
Recently, the penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) has been expected to increase gradually. From the power grid point of view, a group of EVs could act as a load as well as energy storage. In order to maintain the electric power grid stability, we need to properly manage an effective charging mechanism for EVs. In this paper, we investigate the benefits of managing EV charging in order to flatten the total electricity load in a residential area. We model a distribution grid in a residential area including homes with several penetration levels of EVs. We proposed a dynamic point of preferred operation (PPO) as a reference value to flatten the fluctuation of the total electricity load. We investigate the total electricity load for uncontrolled charging, static PPO and the proposed dynamic PPO schemes for charging-only, discharging, and bidirectional energy flow scenarios. Results show that the proposed dynamic PPO scheme can significantly shave the peak and alleviate the fluctuation of total electricity load in a residential area.
15:10 Smart charging solution considering distribution network constraints
Recent evolutions in the societal, economic, technical and technological context challenge the Distribution System Operator (DSO) to face a rapid growth of electric vehicles (EV) connected to low voltage networks. The development of an industrial tool able to access the impact of EV integration on a real distribution network in a short time becomes a necessity. The main issue is to create an efficient communication interface between the DSO and electric vehicles supply equipment's owner (EVSE) in order to prevent EV charging during peak period to ensure power quality. We describe in this paper a solution which has been implemented in Lyon by ERDF (main French DSO). This solution, tested within the context of the smart grids project Lyon Smart Community, has been developed using consumption forecast and load flow calculations. Thanks to this tool, technical impacts of EV integration on the distribution network are assessed and integrated in the operational EV's charging management. The whole system is now running in Lyon with a fleet of 30 vehicles spread in a district.

### Tuesday, December 3, 16:00 - 18:00

#### P01-03: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 3

Technical Session Room A
16:00 DSP Framework for FANN Equalizer for Application in Stochastic Wireless Channels
Manasjyoti Bhuyan and Banti Das (Gauhati University, India); Kandarpa Kumar Sarma (Gauhati University & Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India)
Equalization in multipath fading environment offers the highest computational cost in a mobile receiver design. Since its inception, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been accepted for widespread applications in various fields of signal processing. ANN, with its ability to learn and discriminate any type of decision boundaries, establish nonlinear functional relationship between input and output. Efforts have been made to apply the processing power of ANN to deal with the complexities of channel equalization. As computational complexity is a constraint observed in this learning based system, we attempt to use a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) based framework to accelerate the convergence time during training so that the system, with reduced latency, can be appropriately modified for inclusion as a major block of adaptive receivers suitable for high data rich and mobile environments.In this work, we present a TMS320C6713 DSK based implementation of Feedforward ANN (FANN) for identification and prediction of time varying mobile radio channels in offline mode. Significant reduction in time is observed during implementation compared to that obtained using conventional CPU. Results are also compared with that obtained from different data aided channel estimation schemes.
16:25 Adaptive Pilot Placement for Estimation of Vehicle to Vehicle Wireless Channel
Sagar Dhakal (BlackBerry, USA); Nam Nguyen (Digital Technology Ventures, USA); Jim Womack (RIM, USA)
We address the problem of adaptive sampling and estimation of non-wide sense stationary vehicle to vehicle (V2V) wireless channels. In the proposed solution the transmitter utilizes the current channel statistics to dynamically change the number of pilot symbols in every radio frame. The receiver first decodes the location of the pilot symbols and then selects channel estimation filter weights to match the current channel statistics.
16:50 Channel estimation, overhead, and outage for psam-ofdm
Jared Dulmage (Aerospace Corporation, USA); Michael Fitz (University of California Los Angeles, USA)
Ever growing demand for wireless services and a dearth of quality spectrum requires more efficient use of available bandwidth. Cross-layer design has the potential for more efficient system design than is possible considering each layer in isolation. In this article, we consider goodput optimization of pilotsymbol assisted modulation with orthogonal frequency division modulation (PSAM-OFDM). Here goodput accounts for both the training overhead at the physical layer (PHY) and re-transmission of lost blocks at the medium access control (MAC) layer. We present a novel formulation of the cross-layer goodput metric using natural extensions of the mean and variance of the mutual information of PSAM-OFDM found in the literature. From this formulation we identify a practical tradeoff between the frequency-diversity offered by a channel and the signal overhead necessary to exploit that diversity. This has direct implications for the optimization of time-scaled OFDM signals (e.g. channelized OFDM). We show that our optimization of channel bandwidth results in higher aggregate goodput than alternatives proposed in the literature. Finally, we show that the conventional optimization of pilot power allocation to maximize physical layer throughput (considering only physical layer overhead) also maximizes the cross-layer goodput.
17:15 Evolved Joint Transmission and Interference Cancellation with Dedicated Frequency Planning
Yejian Chen (Bell Laboratories, Nokia, Germany)
In this paper, we present a joint transmission and Interference Cancellation (IC) algorithm as a partially centralized Coordinated Multi-Point (CoMP) scheme. Being the evolution of our previous investigation, the User Equipment (UE) is equipped with multiple antenna arrays, and channel decoder can be optionally involved in the IC stage to improve the performance. The performance of the solution can be evaluated not only in the single-link simulation, but also in a multi-link simulation with certain system simplification, both of which have the same signal processing flow, and are bit-true simulators. This is driven by one of the major objectives to have a relatively clear view of the performance gap between link and system performance and the influence of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) technique. Especially, a dedicated frequency planning scheme is taken into account to for the proposed algorithm to support and increase the reasonability of the considered CoMP scheme.

#### P03-03: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles - 3

Technical Session Room B
16:00 Detecting Urban Traffic Congestion with Single Vehicle
Chenqi Wang and Hsin-Mu Tsai (National Taiwan University, Taiwan)
Traffic congestion in urban areas is a severe problem in many cities around the world. Conventional infrastructure-based solutions to detect traffic congestion, such as surveillance cameras and road surface inductive loops, have the limitations of high deployment costs and limited coverage. In recent years, due to the popularity of mobile devices, solutions that do not require pre-deployed infrastructure start to emerge; in these solutions, sensor data is collected by mobile devices onboard the vehicles, sent to a central server via vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) or cellular communications, and used collectively to determine the traffic states of the roads. However, existing solutions require data from a considerably large number of vehicles on the same road to accurately detect traffic congestion of a particular road. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to detect the traffic states of the roads with only the data from a single vehicle. The biggest advantage of such an approach is that, unlike previously proposed solutions, the system can function properly even if there is only a smaller number of vehicles equipped with the system, which is usually the case at the early stage of the deployment of a vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) network or a large-scale intelligent transportation system. In our solution, machine learning mechanisms are utilized to classify the traffic state by extracting the movement behaviors of a vehicle. Our model development and performance evaluation utilize highly accurate vehicle traces collected at several real-world intersections with lidar. In addition, to properly label the obtained data traces to either congested or free-flow and accurately reflect the reality, a previously proposed theoretical method is used in combination with human labeling. Evaluation shows that our approach can achieve a detection accuracy of 88.94%
16:25 An Algorithm of Lane Change Using Two-Lane NaSch Model in Traffic Networks
Ming Zhu, Jiajun Hu and Linghe Kong (Shanghai Jiao Tong University, P.R. China); Ruimin Shen (Shanghai Jiaotong University, P.R. China); Wei Shu (The University of New Mexico, USA); Min-You Wu (Shanghai JiaoTong University, P.R. China)
Many traffic models have been developed to analyze and simulate traffic network flow and related issues, such as the relationship between the flux of road, the frequency of lane change, the density of the vehicles, the braking rate, and travel time. However, few researches focus on the lane change decisions achieving space or time optimality. In order to improve the traffic efficiency and to avoid collisions, this paper studies the vehicular networks from a novel direction, lane change problem. In this paper the goal of the lane change problem is to reduce the additional road space that all the vehicles require before they change to their target lanes on the premise of improving the velocity as far as possible. With respect to the whole lane changes in a highway, the widely adopted Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) model is utilized, which reflects plenty of natural characteristics of actual traffic, such as the demand for higher velocity, safety constraints, and traffic randomness. The most difficult issue in space optimization problems is, how to make lane change decisions from the whole situation. With respect to lane change in each row of the discrete road, there is an optimal operation, according to which a lane change algorithm is proposed. The computer simulation shows that our approach outperforms the random lane change method. Typically, the performance is improved by 72.87\% when the density of vehicles is 80\%, and the percentage of lane change is 100\%.
16:50 Car Driver Fatigue Monitoring Using Hidden Markov Models and Bayesian Networks
Abdullah Rashwan (University of Waterloo, Canada); Mohamed Kamel (Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, University of Waterloo, Canada); Fakhri Karray (University of Waterloo, Canada)
In this paper, audio, heart rate, steering wheel, gas, clutch, and brake pedals positions are used to determine the level of fatigue for the driver. The system consists of three main modules. One decides the fatigue level based on the audio signal, another decides the fatigue level based on the heart rate and the other signals, and the last one combines the decisions from the first two modules using a Bayesian network. Hidden Markov Model (HMM) classifier is used to model the fatigue for both audio module and other signals module. The experimental results show that Hidden Markov Model performs better than Support Vector Machines (SVM) for both audio and other signals modules. The results also show that combining more than one decision improves the performance of the system.
17:15 GPS Pseudorange and Cramer Rao Lower Bound Assisted Cooperative Vehicular Localization
Daiqin Yang (Wuhan University, P.R. China)
Accurate vehicular localization is important for various cooperative vehicle safety (CVS) applications such as collision avoidance, turning assistant, etc. In this paper, the Cramer Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) of a weighted least squares and double difference based distance detection algorithm is derived and a Cramer Rao lower bound based satellite selection method is proposed to increase the accuracy of the algorithm. As demonstrated in the experiment results, by selecting the group of satellites with the least Cramer Rao lower bound of the power function $(\hat{d})^k$ of the detected distance $\hat{d}$, the accuracy of the distance detection could have a more than $40\%$ improvement, and the average distance error can be decreased to be as low as two meters.

#### P05-02: Transportation and Connected Vehicles - 2

Technical Session Room C
16:00 Implementation of Shortest Remaining Processing Time based Schedulers on a 32 bit Serial based Processing Platform
Fawad Ahmad and Muhammad Ali (University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan); Sahibzada Ali Mahmud (University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan); Gul Muhammad Khan (University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan); Faqir Zarrar Yousaf (NEC Laboratories, Europe, Germany)
Vehicle-actuated traffic light controllers react to changes in traffic density throughout the day in order to optimize traffic flow effectively using traffic light control algorithms. Microscopic simulators are typically used to determine the performance of a traffic control scheme/algorithm by studying their effect on the relevant traffic parameters such as average waiting time, average travel time etc. However, the only method for real time evaluation of the control algorithms on physical platforms is to use pseudo-random number generation as input traffic data. In this paper we propose the use of a 32-bit serial based processing platform for the real time evaluation of traffic control schemes that utilizes accurate traffic data generated from a microscopic traffic simulator. This integrated platform can be used to evaluate traffic control algorithms more accurately and realistically since the algorithms are evaluated using traffic simulation data instead of random numbers.
16:25 Flow-based Multi-objective Adaptive Signal Controller
Gulrukh Khattak and Gul Muhammad Khan (University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan); Sahibzada Ali Mahmud (University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan); Faqir Zarrar Yousaf (NEC Laboratories, Europe, Germany)
This paper presents an adaptive traffic signal controller algorithm that allows real time traffic flow data to control traffic signal timing for an isolated intersection. The proposed design allows greater flexibility and control of signal timings while keeping in view multiple criterions. It is based on simple rules that allow traffic flows on all intersection branches to control the timing of current signal phase without causing unrealistic delays on low volume side streets. The algorithm is also adjusted for capacity of different links. Detector data has also been used to assess congestion situation and respond accordingly. A priority scheme for priority vehicles is also proposed. As a proof of concept, the proposed algorithm has been implemented on FPGA as a parameterized VERILOG model allowing adjustment to any intersection size and topology. An evaluator circuit was designed to assess the performance as compared to actuated signal controller. Improvement was observed in total stopped delay, number of stops and queue lengths.
16:50 Shortest Remaining Processing Time Based Schedulers for Reduction of Traffic Congestion
Fawad Ahmad (University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan); Sahibzada Ali Mahmud (University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan); Gul Muhammad Khan (University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan); Faqir Zarrar Yousaf (NEC Laboratories, Europe, Germany)
The main reason for traffic congestion at intersections in urban areas is non-actuated traffic light controllers which aren't equipped with capabilities to handle changes in the traffic flow throughout the day. Actuated traffic light controllers monitor the traffic conditions in real time and are equipped appropriately to react to varying changes in traffic flows thus reducing traffic congestion. We propose to use scheduling in actuated traffic light control to reduce traffic congestion and optimize traffic flow. We propose two traffic scheduling algorithms, Minimum Destination Distance First (MDDF) and Minimum Average Destination Distance First (MADDF) and compare their performance with existing scheduling algorithms as well as non-actuated traffic lights to curb long waiting times in queues at intersections. The simulation results proved the utility of the MDDF and MADDF algorithms since they were able to reduce the average waiting times by as much as 70% as compared to non-actuated traffic lights.
17:15 Autonomously Driven Railway Cabin Convoys - Communication, Control Design and Experimentation
Christian Henke (Fraunhofer Institute of Production Technology IPT & Project Group Mechatronic Systems Design, Germany); Ansgar Trächtler (Universität Paderborn, Germany)
The subject of the RailCab project is the development of autonomous railway cabins, which can dynamically group to convoys without mechanical coupling. This enables an on-demand use of these vehicles while retaining the cost and ecological advantages of public transport. In this paper, we present (1) the system concept with focus on the convoy operation mode. Furthermore we explain (2) the system and communication architecture, which is the basis for the coordination and organization of locally distributed systems. The main contribution of this is the convoy control system (3). The proposed methods allow automatic and dynamic operation of vehicle convoys. Experimental results from the real-life tests (4) validate the system, the communication structure and the control synthesis, thereby ensuring safe and reliable operation.

#### P06-03: Electric Vehicle and Transportation Electrification - 3

Technical Session Room D
16:00 A novel Eco-Driving Application to Reduce Energy Consumption of Electric Vehicles
Raphael Frank (University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg); German Castignani (University of Luxembourg / SnT, Luxembourg); Raoul Schmitz (University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg); Thomas Engel (University of Luxemburg, Luxembourg)
Electro-mobility is becoming increasingly important in nowadays transportation systems. However, due to the limited range of electric vehicles, drivers need to adopt an energy-efficient driving attitude. In this paper, we present a novel eco-driving application that informs the driver about his energy efficiency. We implement an Android application that is able to gather relevant data from the vehicle's CAN bus using an OBD Bluetooth adapter. We evaluate the retrieved data together with topographic information retrieved from the Internet in order to provide the driver with a representative eco-score based on a Fuzzy-System. In order to validate our approach, an experimental evaluation is proposed for different drivers in a predefined path. The results show that the computed eco-score accurately reflects driving efficiency. Further, we show that eco-driving concepts can significantly reduce the overall energy consumption and thus extend the electric vehicle's range.
16:25 Electric Vehicle Battery Swapping Station: Business Case and Optimization Model
Mushfiqur R Sarker, Hrvoje Pandzic and Miguel A Ortega-Vazquez (University of Washington, USA)
In order to increase the adoption rate of electric vehicles, they need to appeal to customers as much as their fossil fuel equivalents. However, major concerns include long battery charging times and range anxiety. These concerns can be mitigated if customers have access to battery swapping stations, where they can meet their motion energy requirements by swapping empty batteries for charged ones, in as much time as it takes to fill the gasoline reservoir of a conventional vehicle. Besides benefiting the customers, the battery swapping station is beneficial to the power system because it emulates an energy storage station capable of participating in electricity markets. In this station, the batteries can be scheduled to charge in grid-to-battery mode, inject power to the grid in battery-to-grid mode, and transfer energy between batteries in battery-to-battery mode, if there are economic advantages in doing so. This paper discusses how these various modes can be optimized and the results translated into a business case for battery swapping stations.
16:50 A Study of the Effects of External Pressure on the Electrical Performance of a Lithium-ion Pouch Cell
Anup Barai, Yue Guo, Andrew McGordon and Paul Jennings (University of Warwick, United Kingdom)
The introduction of lithium-ion batteries for vehicle powertrain electrification has increased in recent years. They are featured with high energy density, high power density, long cycle life, and is also environmentally friendly compared with other types of batteries. A large number of Li-ion cells are usually required to meet the demand in capacity and power for automotive applications. Pouch cells have been favored by many manufacturers because of the high packaging efficiency and, therefore, a higher pack energy density. However, robust packaging is required for performance and safety criteria due to their low mechanical stability, which results in them being compressed in the module/pack. This paper describes research into the effects of external pressure on the electrical performance of lithium-ion pouch cells. The authors have adopted pulse power test, capacity test and electrical impedance spectroscopy test to characterize the effects and the test result indicates lithium-ion pouch cell's performance changes under varying external pressures. Conclusions are drawn on how to make use of the results presented to influence and improve the design of automotive battery modules and packs to meet the challenges in the automotive industry.
17:15 The PEV Security Challenges to the Smart Grid: Analysis of Threats and Mitigation Strategies
Clyde Carryl (Florida Atlantic University, USA); Mohammad Ilyas (Florida Atlantic Universityiversity, USA); Imad Mahgoub and Monika Rathod (Florida Atlantic University, USA)
Amid growing concern over both the skyrocketing price of fossil fuels and the considerable harm to the environment that is now universally attributed to their use, the gas-powered vehicle is increasingly being viewed as an undesirable means of modern transportation, and the Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) is now being actively developed as its potential replacement. The PEV is powered entirely by electricity, which it acquires by plugging into available electric charging facilities. Concurrently, the electrical grid as we know it is being transformed into a smart grid, which couples physical electrical power generation, transmission, distribution and delivery with an advanced communication network infrastructure that enables provision of several new types of services associated with electrical power management and delivery. The new Smart Grid is seen as an ideal environment for the rapid adoption of the PEV as the primary means of transportation, but such a development poses several threats to the security of the Smart Grid, which could lead to local facilities failure, grid overload, grid instability, and exhaustion of national reserve electrical supply. In this paper we analyse these threats and survey and propose effective mitigation strategies which could be employed to nullify their effectiveness in disrupting the services offered by the Smart Grid.
17:40 Smart Charging Architecture for between a Plug-in Electrical Vehicle (PEV) and a Smart Home
Byungchul Kim (University of Texas at Austin, USA)
In a smart grid, customers can not only use energy, but also produce it by using smart meters with battery energy storage systems in smart homes or buildings. The expected increased penetration rate of electrical vehicles, optimal control of charging algorithm will reduce energy consumption in smart grid. In this paper, we propose optimal charging architecture between a smart home and a plug-in electrical vehicle. This solution architecture is expected to optimize energy and power sharing between a plug-in electrical vehicle and a home with minimal costs with demand variability. It also, reflects battery energy storage system's state of charge to make flat demand response schedule.

## Wednesday, December 4

### Wednesday, December 4, 10:00 - 12:00

#### P01-04: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 4

Technical Session Room A
10:00 Evaluation of Wireless Short-Range Communication Performance in a Quarry Environment
Susanne Vernersson (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden); Eleni Kalpaxido (Chalmers, Sweden); David Rylander (Mälardalen University & Volvo Construction Equipment, Sweden)
The quarry industry and the material it provides such as sand and gravel are often an overlooked resource to our modern society. Nevertheless, aggregates are important constituents of building and road structures. The quarry industry has an increasing potential in improving productivity and safety with the introduction of wireless communication technologies. However, the environment in the quarry is harsh due to high EMC, dust and solid materials that present non-line-of-sight (NLOS) issues to the wireless communication. This paper evaluates how a set of wireless standards performs in the quarry in terms of range and packet reception ratio (PRR). The assessment successfully includes the wireless short-range technologies ZigBee, 802.11g and 802.11p using frequencies of 868 MHz, 2.4 GHz and 5.9 GHz. Further, this paper presents measurement results from a real quarry environment and identifies system considerations for quarry safety and efficiency applications based on collected data.
10:25 An Energy-efficient Sub-Nyquist Sampling Method Based on Compressed Sensing in Wireless Sensor Network for Vehicle Detection
Jiangchen Li and Xiaowei Xu (Huazhong University of Science and Technology, P.R. China); Hong Peng Zhao (HuaZhong University of Science and Technology, P.R. China); Yu Hu (Huazhong University of Science and Technology, P.R. China); Tony Zhijun Qiu (University of Alberta, P.R. China)
The wireless magnetic sensor network is scalable and deployable for traffic surveillance. But active magnetic sensors of the wireless sensor node have high energy consumption which cannot be ignored. It is necessary to save energy of the wireless magnetic sensor node for vehicle detection. In this paper, based on compressed sensing (CS) by random down sampling matrix, an energy-efficient sub-Nyquist sampling method in magnetic sensor network is proposed for vehicle detection. With the new sampling method, the active magnetic sensor's average frequency is reduced down lower than Nyquist standard sampling frequency, thus reducing the energy consumption of the active sensor and then extends the lifetime of the wireless sensor nodes. Compared with the new sampling method and the uniform sampling method, when compressed radio is 60%, the new sampling method has doubled wireless magnetic sensor node's lifetime while maintaining the same vehicle detection accuracy.
10:50 Feasibility of Deploying Wireless Sensor Based Road Side Solutions for Intelligent Transportation Systems
Fawad Ahmad, Abdul Basit and Hussain Ahmad (University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan); Sahibzada Ali Mahmud (University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan); Gul Muhammad Khan (University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan); Faqir Zarrar Yousaf (NEC Laboratories, Europe, Germany)
The effectiveness of Intelligent Transportation Systems depend on the accuracy and the timely reliable provisioning of real time data supplied by traffic data collection mechanisms. Data collection through wireless sensor networks is a very effective approach due to their easy installation, low cost, processing capabilities, small size, flexibility, and wireless communication capabilities. WSN are used in ITS for smart parking lots, adaptive traffic light control, accident avoidance and traffic estimation etc. In this paper we propose a WSN based road side communication architecture and system that can be utilized for the intelligent control and management of vehicular traffic at road intersections. In the proposed architecture, the end nodes are vehicles that communicate with road side units, which in turn send the data to the coordinator module at the intersection following a line topology. We introduce a reliable and robust channel switching technique that reduces the response time, energy consumption connectivity delay and interference while increasing the reliability of packet delivery. We perform sensitivity analysis of the proposed system architecture by varying various communication parameters to determine optimum system configuration. The results prove the integrity and feasibility of the deployment of our proposed architecture.

#### P01-05: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 5

Technical Session Room B
10:00 A Simplified Scheme of Group Vertical Handover Decision-Making for Multiple Mobile Nodes and Multiple Target Base Station
Taehyun Seong (Sogang University, Korea); Juwook Jang (Sogang University, USA)
This paper proposed a simplified scheme of Group Vertical Handover (GVHO) decision-making for multiple mobile nodes (MNs) and multiple target base stations (target networks). In the GVHO situation, there are multiple MNs and multiple target networks. Since there are so many cases of matching of MNs and target networks, high calculating load is required for determining the best case of matching. Our scheme is more efficient scheduling algorithm with reduction of calculating load. In addition, we proposed the algorithm of supporting fairness for MNs with handover failure.
10:25 Adaptive Large MISO Downlink with Predictor Antenna Array for very fast moving vehicles
Dinh-Thuy Phan-Huy (Orange-France Telecom, France); Mikael Sternad (Uppsala University, Sweden); Tommy Svensson (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden)
Recently, a "Separate Receive and Training Antenna" technique has been proposed to provide energy efficient and robust wireless downlink data transmission towards antennas placed upon fast moving vehicles. Energy efficiency is attained thanks to Large Multiple Input Single Output Beamforming. Robustness to beamforming mispointing at high speed is obtained by using the recent "Predictor Antenna" concept. However, for some speeds, the Separate Receive and Training Antenna technique suffers from residual mispointing. To improve the robustness of this technique, we propose three new schemes: the "Border Switch Off Scheme", the "Random Switch Off Scheme" and the "Polynomial Interpolation" scheme. The two first schemes dynamically mute transmit antennas selectively when the residual mispointing is too severe. The third scheme generalizes the Predictor Antenna concept and uses all antennas upon the vehicle as a Predictor Antenna Array. These schemes are here assessed over spatially correlated channels. The two first schemes reduce energy saving to slightly improve robustness, whereas the third scheme perfectly compensates all speeds up to 300 kmph with maximum energy saving, at the cost of extra complexity.
10:50 Secure, Privacy-preserving, Distributed Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder
Tat Wing Chim, Siu Ming Yiu and Cheuk Yu Yeung (The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong); Victor O. K. Li (University of Hong Kong, P.R. China); Hui (The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)
Similar to flight data recorder ("blackbox"), motor vehicle event data recorder (MVEDR) is a device installed on a vehicle to record information related to the vehicle's conditions. This information is useful for accident investigation but there are cases of loss or complete destruction of MVEDRs after serious accidents. On the other hand, Vehicular Ad-hoc NETwork (VANET) is an emerging infrastructure with roadside units (RSUs) installed along the roads to communicate with the vehicles. This triggers our idea of virtual distributed MVEDRs using VANET. Conceptually, event data is transmitted to RSUs as vehicles pass by. Like other VANET-based applications, security and privacy are two major concerns of drivers. In addition, volume/frequency of data to be transmitted to and stored at RSUs may be an issue. In this paper, we propose a secure and privacy-preserving scheme for vehicle-RSU communications so that event data and driver identities can only be revealed by authorized personnels. We show that our idea is feasible, through simulations, in terms of transmission overhead due to extra security controls with different data uploading intervals.
11:15 Station Clustering Strategy for DCF-based Centralized OFDMA WLAN Systems
Takuya Endo (Osaka University, Japan); Shinichi Miyamoto (Wakayama University, Japan); Seiichi Sampei (Osaka University, Japan); Wenjie Jiang (NTT Network Innovation Laboratories, Japan)
To enhance the throughput of orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) wireless local area network (WLAN) systems, this paper proposes a stations-clustering strategy in which stations in the basic service set (BSS) are grouped into clusters. In the proposed scheme, initially, to obtain statistics required for calculating the expected throughput achieved by OFDMA WLAN when the stations are grouped into a certain clustered-pattern, the access point (AP) and all stations belong to the same cluster and transmit DATA frames for a certain period. After that, the AP calculates the expected throughput for all clustered-patterns and chooses a clustered-pattern that maximizes the expected throughput. Then, the stations are grouped into clusters in accordance with the selected clustered-pattern, and the stations within the same cluster share the radio resource by OFDMA WLAN scheme. Numerical simulation confirms that the proposed scheme can maximize throughput performance by introduction of dynamic station clustering in the single BSS environment and it is also effective in preventing channel state information (CSI) feedback blocking due to station exposition in the overlapping BSS environment.

#### P02-01: Mobile Internet, Spatial and Social Systems, Internet of Things - 1

Technical Session Room C
10:00 Cyber-Physical Architecture for Modeling and Enhanced Operations of Connected Vehicle Systems
Leonard Petnga (University of Maryland & Institute for Systems Research (ISR), USA); Mark Austin (University of Maryland, USA)
This paper describes a cyber-physical architecture for behavior modeling and formal evaluation of safety properties in connected-vehicle systems. Safety properties are modeled as hard constraints, with their fulfillment determined through the synthesis and realization of predefined pathways on decision trees. An ontology-based framework provides the description logic (DL) semantics and reasoning support needed for decision making. To exercise the methodology, we consider the problem of ensuring system-level safety for a family of autonomous intelligent automobiles approaching a yellow traffic light.
10:25 Development of a Wireless Sensor Network for the Measurement of Human Joint Angles
Dai Meng and Gustavo Vejarano (Loyola Marymount University, USA)
The development of a wireless sensor network (WSN) that measures joint angles of the human body is reported. Its principle of operation is based on measuring the alignment of the different segments of the limb being tracked with the earth's gravity and magnetic fields. The focus is on measurements at the shoulder and elbow joints. These are tracked with 3 and 2 degrees of freedom respectively. In order to validate the accuracy of the proposed WSN, experiments are performed with arm movements on each degree of freedom and the WSN's measurements are compared with those of a professional motion capture (mocap) system that uses infra-red (IR) cameras and markers. The average root mean square error (RMSE) across all degrees of freedom was found to be 1.39 and 2.18 degrees when tested on a spherical coordinate system and human arm respectively. Finally, the causes for this increase on the RMSE are discussed in terms of the effects of the arm's skin and muscles on the alignment of the sensors. It is found that when the user performs the greatest efforts to make the movements, the WSN deviates the most from the IR mocap system. In the degree of freedom that is most affected, the RMSE increases from 0.96 to 2.62 degrees. This is an increase of 173%.
10:50 Low cost implementation of a remote controlled Suzuki car to assist physically challenged people
Paul Molina (Monterey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, Ecuador); Julian M Echeverry and Virgilo Vásquez (Monterey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, Mexico); Jelpis Mendez (Monterey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, Dominican Republic)
This paper describes a project to modify the input interface from the steering wheel and pedals of a vehicle to a computer/phone (or any other internet-connected device) such that the car can be remotely controlled worldwide. In particular, the document presents the design of a low cost system which receives data from a web server and modifies the signal inputs of the actuators to control the steering, accelerating, and braking through an onboard computer. The final result is a low cost implementation of a remotely controlled Suzuki Swift that could be used in medical applications, exploration missions, and dangerous work environments. The current work represents the first stage towards a future driverless car development.
11:15 Endpoint Protection Zone (EPZ): Protecting LBS User Location Privacy Against Deanonymization and Collusion in Vehicular Networks
George Corser (Saginaw Valley State University & Oakland University, USA); Huirong Fu and Tao Shu (Oakland University, USA); Patrick M D'Errico (Rutgers University, USA); Warren Ma (Emory University, USA)
In vehicular networks when map databases may be used to deanonymize user locations, we propose location based services, LBSs, be designed so that LBS users are grouped by spatial location, into endpoint protection zones, EPZs. Users in the same EPZ would share login credentials, and remain transmission-silent until outside of the EPZ, thus preventing an LBS administrator from knowing which particular user from the EPZ is active—even if the LBS administrator colludes with administrators of roadside units, RSUs. Simulations using realistic vehicle traffic mobility models measure improvements in privacy protection under varying EPZ sizes and vehicle densities.
11:40 Vehicle Trajectory Prediction across Non-overlapping Camera Networks
Chingchun Huang (National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan); Nguyen Hung (HCMC University of Technology and Education, Vietnam); Tai-Hwei Hwang (Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), Taiwan)
Using camera networks to monitor the trajectory of moving vehicles plays important role in many applications, such as video surveillance, intelligent traffic system, and social security management. Most of the previous works tried to track the moving vehicle by using either appearance matching or spatial and temporal information. However, we realized that the moving of vehicles should follow some underlying social tendency. By using training data for tendency learning, we proposed a new idea to predict the vehicle trajectory, which is a quite different viewpoint in contrast with previous works. In detail, we regarded trajectory prediction as a recommendation problem. By giving partial and fragmental observations of vehicle locations on the map, the proposed system attempted to predict or recommend the possible vehicle moving trajectory. Three types of algorithms for recommendation were evaluated, including a user-based method, an item-based method, and a latent-based method. The experimental results show the tendency learning could be used as useful prior information for trajectory prediction. Furthermore, the tendency learning could be combined with previous works without conflict.

#### P05-03: Transportation and Connected Vehicles - 3

Technical Session Room D
10:00 Real time Evaluation of Shortest Remaining Processing Time based Schedulers for Traffic Congestion Control using Wireless Sensor Networks
Fawad Ahmad (University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan); Irfan Khan (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi Arabia); Sahibzada Ali Mahmud (University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan); Gul Muhammad Khan (University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan); Faqir Zarrar Yousaf (NEC Laboratories, Europe, Germany)
Pre-timed traffic signals are inefficient in optimizing the traffic flow throughout the day, resulting in greater waiting times at the intersections particularly in congested urban areas during peak hours. Traffic actuated signals use real time traffic data obtained from sensors at the intersections to service queues intelligently. We developed a test bed for the real time evaluation of adaptive traffic light control algorithms using the microscopic traffic simulation open source software, SUMO (Simulation of Urban Mobility), and the AVR 32-bit microcontroller. An interface was developed between SUMO and the AVR microcontroller in which we used the simulation data generated by SUMO as an input to the microcontroller which executed the scheduling algorithms and sent commands back to SUMO for changing the states of the traffic signals accordingly. We implemented four scheduling algorithms in SUMO through the AVR microcontroller, the effect of the algorithms on the traffic network was studied using SUMO and execution times of the scheduling algorithms were measured using the AVR microcontroller. Through this interface, scheduling algorithms can be evaluated more effectively and accurately as compared to the case in which the algorithms are fed with data using pseudo random number generators.
10:25 Efficient, Robust and Resilient Architecture for Communication and Infrastructure Networks
Hidefumi Sawai (International Affairs Department, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology Ja)
We describe a novel method inspired by ants' collective behavior in a self-organizing manner for creating a new Small-World network which has more efficient, robust and resilient features compared to other complex networks known so far. The resultant network architecture becomes a multi-star network, which yields a large clustering coefficient and the shortest average path-length among the conventional complex networks such as the Watts-Strogatz and Barabasi-Albert models etc., from both a theoretical and an experimental analysis of the properties of those networks. In addition to its efficiency, the network architecture is immune from random failures and resilient to targeted attacks. Therefore, this network architecture is useful for designing secure communication and infrastructure networks in real-world such as logistics, smart-grid, airline networks, etc. For example, given the advantageous properties of the multi-star network in real-world applications, it could be used to design a new generation secure global airline network superseding in terms of efficiency, convenience and safety the current, conventional airline network owing to fewer transits and a shorter cruising distance on average from any starting point to any destination on Earth. This will be beneficial not only both to travelers and airline companies, but will also contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) in the near future, while enhancing secure communications and transportation worldwide.
10:50 Live Traffic Camera Content in the Connected Car: Experiences from Motorway Experiments
Peter Froehlich (ftw - Telecommunications Research Center Vienna, Austria); Matthias Baldauf (FTW, Austria); Stefan Suette (Telecommunications Research Center Vienna (FTW), Austria); Dietmar Schabus (FTW, Austria); Marko Jandrisits (ASFINAG, Austria); Alexander Paier (Kapsch TrafficCom AG, Austria)
Today's in-car driver information systems are offering a wealth of multimedia presentation features, which are relying on increasing amounts of available real-time traffic information. Such systems need to efficiently deliver safety-relevant information, but they should not overstrain the driver with too much detail. We present two user studies on the motorway to explore the impact of using live traffic content as a preview of the traffic situation ahead on the motorway. Our study showed that neither drivers did not look more often on the Human-Machine Interface (HMI) screen, nor did they display significantly less safe driving behaviors. In fact, drivers did not take too much notice of the in-car traffic content, as they tended to focus on the driving task. Our results also indicate that the impact of traffic pictures is partly mediated by the presence or absence of auditory instructions. When audio instructions were available, subjective comprehensibility did not differ between recommendations with or without traffic pictures. By contrast, when audio instructions were not presented, comprehensibility was rated lower for messages with traffic pictures than without. A further finding is that drivers recognized the displayed traffic situation better in the smartphone than in the large-screen setup. This was probably due to the fact that the multimedia contents were shown in full-screen mode on the smartphone. Regarding subjective preference, users had moderate interest for using traffic camera content while driving. A specific comparison with regard to the preference of traffic formats showed that abstract animations tended to be perceived as less distracting, but realistic contents such as videos were perceived as slightly more attractive with regard to hedonistic aspects of user experience. Implications for design and further research are discussed.
11:15 Evaluation of Earliest Deadline based schedulers for Reduction of Traffic Congestion in Dense Urban Areas
Asif Ahmed and Rabia Arshad (University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan); Sahibzada Ali Mahmud (University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan); Gul Muhammad Khan (University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan); Hamed Saffa Al-Raweshidy (University of Brunel, United Kingdom)
The unwanted delay experienced by priority vehicles as a consequence of traffic congestion is one of the major problems faced while efficiently managing priority traffic. Two adaptive traffic light algorithms namely the Earliest Deadline First (EDF) and Fixed Priority (FP) have been proposed and evaluated in the paper to reduce the traffic congestion experienced by priority vehicles. The performance of the algorithms has been evaluated at isolated intersections and their resulting efficiency has been compared against a static traffic lights control implementation as well. It has been shown and deduced through different performance metrics that the overall performance of EDF is better than the FP in controlling traffic congestion for priority vehicles when evaluated against static control.
11:40 Technical Feasibility Assessment of Electric Vehicles: An Abu Dhabi Example
Reem Al Junaibi, Asha Viswanath and Amro Farid (Masdar Institute, United Arab Emirates (UAE))
Recently, Electric Vehicles (EVs) have gained much attention as a potential enabling technology to support CO2 emissions reduction targets. Relative to their internal combustion vehicle counterparts, EVs consume less energy per unit distance, and add the benefit of not emitting any carbon dioxide in operation and instead shift their emissions to the existing local fleet of power generation. However, true success of EVs depends on their successful integration with the supporting infrastructure systems. Building upon the recently published methodology of the same purpose, this paper presents an systems-of-systems example assessing the impacts of EVs on these three systems in the context of Abu Dhabi. For the physical transportation system, a microscopic discrete-time traffic operations simulator is used to predict the kinematic state of the EV fleet over the duration of one day. For the impact on the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), the integration of EVs into Abu Dhabi is studied using a Multi-Domain Matrix (MDM) of the Abu Dhabi Department of Transports ITS. Finally, for the impact on the electric power system, the EV traffic flow patterns from the CMS are used to calculate the timing and magnitude of charging loads. The paper concludes with the need for an Intelligent Transportation- Energy System (ITES) which would coordinate traffic and energy management functionality.

### Wednesday, December 4, 13:30 - 15:30

#### P07-01: Practices, Standards, Policy, Economics, and Social Implications

Technical Session Room A
13:30 User Requirements of Emergency Response Vehicles: Preliminary Findings from a Current Research Study
Paresh Rathod and Pasi Kämppi (Laurea University of Applied Sciences, Finland)
A review of current Emergency Response Vehicles (ERVs) demonstrates the use of technological services and solutions in on- and off-pavement performance. There is overwhelming usage of technologies including equipment, components and services in modern emergency response vehicles. These diverse elements also invite various challenges while building emergency vehicles. A set of standards has been released by local and global organizations to help building standard vehicle for emergency responses. There are effective implementations of these standards to provide services and solutions. However, research has shown shortcomings in current ERVs, especially in terms of real users' needs. Consideration of the user's needs and requirements has paramount importance for the building of effective and efficient Emergency Response Vehicles. This research paper addresses those gaps by reporting the preliminary findings of a current research project, namely Mobile Object Bus Integration (MOBI). The study has identified eight areas of focus by closely working with real users of emergency vehicles, which include emergency response preparedness, critical communication and real time updates, ease of use and optimization of ICT systems, optimization of power supply, availability of resources and equipment, and safety and sustainability. The end user's requirements were gathered using both qualitative and quantitative data analysis, and grounded theory-based research study. The focus of the preliminary findings is on the functional requirements. The paper also discusses the science used in the laboratory and field while building state of the art emergency response vehicles.
13:55 A Social-network-enabled Green Transportation System
Wei Shu (The University of New Mexico, USA); Min-You Wu (Shanghai JiaoTong University, P.R. China); Guohui Zhang (The University of New Mexico, USA); Jia-Liang Lu (Shanghai Jiao Tong University, P.R. China)
We focus on the new models of urban transportation system based on green-energy vehicles. The main goal is to design and demonstrate a prototype of social network enabled transportation system which enables communication between electrical vehicles, monitoring, information gathering, assistant driving and traffic flow control. This service-oriented system targets on significant reduction in energy consumption, pollution impact, traffic congestion, and provides solutions with affordable costs from perspective of both individual travelers and transportation agencies.
14:20 Policy Pathways to Vehicle Automation: Industry Perspectives on the Role of Public Policy in Autonomous Vehicle Development
Richard Baker (Texas A&M Transportation Institute & Texas A&M University System, USA)
Federal regulation of the automotive industry has traditionally sought to ensure public safety. Autonomous vehicles could greatly reduce crashes from human error, resulting in significant interest from federal transportation agencies. Autonomous vehicles present a new challenge to the regulation of safety-related technologies, due in part to the lack of clarity in how technology will evolve and affect traffic safety. The federal government has already invested significant effort in the study of connected vehicle technologies and their safety-related applications, some of which could be utilized for autonomous vehicle applications. Thus, federal mandates on the inclusion of connected vehicle technologies in future model vehicles offer one pathway for the federal government to provide regulatory guidance on the development of autonomous vehicles. However, it is also possible that such a mandate could stifle autonomous vehicle development, as it is still unclear what technologies are best suited for autonomous vehicle systems. For this research effort, the team interviewed representatives of automotive manufacturers and in-vehicle systems developers who are active in the development of autonomous and connected vehicle technologies to gain their perspective on the potential role of state and federal authorities in establishing public policy related to connected and automated vehicles. In general, the perspective of the industry is that more work needs to be done on resolving potential liability issues and any regulation of the industry needs to occur with a focus on maintaining an environment of innovation.
14:45 A proposal for the IEEE EV LiB Cell Safety Standard
Jaesik Chung (PCTEST Engineering Laboratory, USA)
As the use of LiB is growing and the large number of LiB has powering in wide ranges of devices in a variety of usage conditions and environments, there were several LiB field incidents. Many battery safety standards were in place to minimize hazard and to prevent field safety incidents. However frequent LiB field safety incidents on the officially certified battery had caused big concerns on its safety and certification. IEEE developed two LiB safety standardizes for mobile applications but not yet starts standard for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Some other standard developing organizations have published or under developing process of the EV battery safety standard. This paper reviews the concepts and schemes of the IEEE LiB standards for mobile applications and analyzes the test results of LiB cell safety certification (IEEE1725). And a concept of standard for the EV battery safety in IEEE and the test protocols for the EV cell safety certification will be proposed.
15:10 Accelerating the Adoption of Virtual Traffic Lights through Policy Decisions
Wantanee Viriyasitavat (Mahidol University, Thailand); Juan Roldan and Ozan Tonguz (Carnegie Mellon University, USA)
A new technology known as Virtual Traffic Lights (VTL) was recently proposed as a self-organizing new paradigm for traffic management. This new technology uses the vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications as its premise. VTL can revolutionize traffic management in urban areas as it can substantially reduce commute time of urban workers, increase productivity, and lead to a greener environment. In a VTL environment, vehicles self-organize to elect a leader which serves as a virtual traffic light to decide the right of way at that intersection, thus replacing the current physical traffic lights. Implementing VTL technology with partial penetration is however an outstanding issue that needs to be addressed. This paper addresses this issue by proposing a co-existence model whereby VTL equipped vehicles can co-exist with vehicles that do not have VTL. Simulation results show that the transition model proposed here could provide drivers with strong incentives to adopt the VTL technology.

#### P03-04: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles - 4

Technical Session Room B
13:30 The Ground Segmentation of 3D LIDAR Point Cloud with the Optimized Region Merging
Kiin Na (ETRI, Korea)
This paper presents a additional approach to improve the result of ground segmentation methods with point cloud. In segmentation process with point cloud, the oversegmentation, which is partitioned to too many region, is usually occurred due to the characteristic of LIDAR in complex urban environment. In addition, it has an adverse influence on the entire results of the perception. In this paper, the region merging algorithm for point cloud is proposed to integrate the overly partitioned ground regions, which are obtained through region growing segmentation algorithm. Both the ground region where the vehicle is able to reach and the ordered candidate regions are resampled to pairs of closest edge pixels, respectively. If the resampled edge data are satisfied with the region merging criterion, the ground region could absorb the compared candidate regions. The proposed region merging algorithm is demonstrated with the labeled simulation data and the real 3D LIDAR data, as compared to the existing normal segmentation methods.
13:55 Obstacle Detection Using Combination of Disparity and Optical Flow under Around View for Driver Assistance System
Rong-Chin Lo, Chin-Yi He and Chun-Ju Chiu (National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan); Hui Tsai Ya (Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan)
Obstacle detection while driving to prevent a car accident is always an important issue. The optical flow method is employed to detect the obstacles in around view monitor (AVM). However, by using optical flow only, this method sometimes detects error optical flow points. Also, there is no enough feature points to be detected in order to find the region of obstacles. This paper proposes not only combines disparity map and optical flow of the bird's-eye view images in AVM, but also provides drivers the region of obstacles nearby. We can find the relative heights of each obstacle's feature point by optical flow and use stereo disparity to find the obstacle and its height in the meantime. Furthermore, in the study, using CUDA parallel computing to speed up calculation. Based on the combination of optical flow and stereo disparity information, we can get the region of the obstacles more accurately.
14:20 An Autonomous Air-Sea Rescue System Using Particle Swarm Optimization
Kevin Rafferty and Euan McGookin (University of Glasgow, United Kingdom)
The focus of this paper is the application of Particle Swarm Optimization to an autonomous air-sea rescue system. This heuristic technique is used to search an area of the sea for survivors of a sinking ship, and is compared with the Random Search, which is used as a benchmark. The search is carried out by four small unmanned helicopters that are deployed from a stationary platform, which in this case, is an autonomous surface vessel. The helicopters are instructed to search a given region for survivors by measuring the temperature of each point visited in the search space using an infrared camera. It has been found that on average, the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm covers less ground than the Random Search but detects more targets, indicating the effectiveness of the heuristics.
14:45 Dynamic Risk Modeling for Safe Car Parking in Climbing over Urban Curbs
Oguz Yakut, Haluk Eren and Mustafa Kaya (Firat University, Turkey); Eyyup Oksuztepe (Tunceli University, Turkey); Mehmet Polat (Firat University, Turkey); Zeki Omac (Tunceli University, Turkey); Derya Bekler and Hasan Kurum (Firat University, Turkey); Mehmet Celenk (Ohio University, USA)
In urban areas, safe and secure vehicle parking presents various problems as vehicles are driven at low speeds toward available parking spots. If there is an obstacle in front or back of the car, drivers have to accelerates their cars from zero to higher speed to pass over the obstruction. Obstacle could be curbs, bumper or any rim over the parking area. In this case, we assume the obstacle to be a curb. Therefore, driver has to get over the obstacle by stepping on the gas of his car. This action can result in hazardous situation to the car, pedestrians or obstacles around the car. In the proposed system, we estimate jumping distance of the car considering major components attributing to scenario. As outcomes, we have obtained the balance between the car performance and steep level of the curb. This would be a guidance not only designing urban areas but also estimating dynamic behavior of the car after detecting the obstacle profile.
15:10 Prototyping of a Portable Data Logging Embedded System for Naturalistic Motorcycle Study
The primary objective of this work is to design a highly portable data logging embedded system for naturalistic motorcycle study with capability of collecting many types of data such as images, speed, acceleration, time, location, distance approximation, etc. This paper is the first phase (of three phases) of a naturalistic motorcycle study project. The second phase is to optimize system area, form factor, and power consumption. The third phase will be concerned with aggressive low power design and energy harvesting. The proposed embedded system design is based on an Arduino microcontroller. A whole suite of Arduino based prototype boards, sensor boards, support software, and user forum is available. The system is high portable with capability to store up to eight (8) hours of text/image data during a one month study period. We have successfully designed and implemented the system and performed three trial runs. The data acquired has been validated and found to be accurate.

#### P02-02: Mobile Internet, Spatial and Social Systems, Internet of Things - 2

Technical Session Room C
13:30 A New Decentralized Bayesian Approach for Cooperative Vehicle Localization based on fusion of GPS and Inter-vehicle Distance Measurements
Mohsen Rohani (Université de Sherbrooke, Canada); Vincent Vigneron (Université d'Evry, Canada); Dominique Gruyer (LIVIC-IFSTTAR, France); Denis Gingras (Université de Sherbrooke, Canada)
Embedded intelligence in vehicular applications is becoming of great interest since the last two decades. The significant growth of sensing, communication and computing capabilities over the recent years has opened new fields of applications, such as ADAS and active safety systems, and has brought the ability of exchanging information between vehicles. In this paper, a new method for improving vehicle positioning is proposed. This method is a decentralized method based on sharing GPS data and inter-vehicular distance measurements within a cluster of vehicles. A Bayesian approach is used to fuse the GPS data and inter-vehicular distances. In order to investigate the performance of this new approach on vehicle localization, a Kalman filter has been employed to incorporate the dynamics of the vehicle. The effect of this method on the reduction of the localization uncertainty, over-convergence issues and identification of the vehicles are also discussed in this paper.
13:55 An HMM-based Map Matching Method with Cumulative Proximity-Weight Formulation
Ali Oran (SMART, Singapore); Patrick Jaillet (MIT, Singapore)
In this study, we introduce a hidden Markov model map matching method that is based on a cumulative proximity-weight formulation. This new formula is based on the line integral of a point-wise segment weight rather than the almost standard shortest distance based weight. The proposed method was tested using vehicle and map data from Seattle area. Several simulations were conducted so as to have a clear comparison of the new weight to the traditional one; and particular emphasis were given to matching of GPS data with long sampling periods and high level noise. Overall, possible improvements to MM accuracies by the new weight were identified. It was seen that the new weight could be a better option than the shortest distance based weight in the presence of low-frequency sampled and/or noisy GPS data.
14:20 A Reversible Image Steganographic Scheme Based on SMVQ and Huffman Coding
Ji-Han Jiang and Shih-Chieh Shie (National Formosa University, Taiwan); WeiDer Chung (Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan); Wei-Jyun Syu (National Formosa University, Taiwan)
A reversible image steganographic scheme implemented in the SMVQ compression domain of image is proposed. The idea of this scheme is to hide secret data into the compression codes of image by using the sorted state codebook of SMVQ. In addition to reversibility and high-payload, the bit rate of the compressed cover image is another major consideration in the proposed scheme since the secret data are sheltered by and delivered through the compression codes. To compact the volume of the overall data needed to be transmitted, the Huffman coding technique is applied. By the proposed scheme, the original VQ-compressed cover image can be losslessly restored at the receiver. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme.
14:45 EMC Hadoop as a Service Solution
Volker Scherer (EMC International, Germany)
This documents describes how the adoption of Big Data analytics can be simplified by using a Hadoop as a service(HDaaS) platform solution that employs EMC® Isilon®, Pivotal® Hadoop Distribution (HD), and VMware vSphere Big Data Extensions to ensure maximum resource utilization while simplifying management.

#### P05-04: Transportation and Connected Vehicles - 4

Technical Session Room D
13:30 Development and calibration of a single lane urban traffic simulator
Aleksandar Kostikj and Milan Kjosevski (Ss Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of); Ljupco Kocarev (University of California San Diego, USA)
Reduction of traffic accidents, enhanced safety, enhanced vehicle flow, reduction and eventually elimination of traffic congestion have been attractive issues for researchers in the past two decades. The approach to these issues implies understanding of the actual traffic stream which can be treated as random or even as chaotic. There are many microscopic models, i.e. models that describe individual vehicle behavior in relation to other vehicles in the traffic stream. These models primarily treat vehicle behavior on highways where usually there are no interruptions of the traffic stream, as pedestrian crossings or traffic intersections. On the other hand, interruptions of the traffic stream in urban environments are very common, and by that most of the mentioned microscopic models are not suitable for simulation of urban traffic stream. This situation imposes the need for urban traffic simulators that would support the contemporary processes of traffic planning, analyzes and control, as well as giving a contribution in the overall process of solving problems regarding traffic safety, congestion, fuel consumption and exhaust emission. In that course, the research presented in this paper is focused on the development of a microscopic single lane urban traffic simulator able to reflect real traffic situations. Modeling of the real traffic stream in urban environment is done in Matlab. The model integrates infrastructural submodel and general acceleration submodel. It controls three sets of inlet parameters and covers two primary vehicle conditions, several secondary conditions and so called emergency condition. Vehicle acceleration, speed, traveled distance and intervehicle spacing are basic output parameters of the model, obtained as a result of simulation of real traffic stream in urban environment. The model is calibrated with experimentally obtained urban traffic data in order to bring the model closer to the real traffic condition. At the end of this process we have obtained flexible single lane urban traffic simulator capable of performing real simulations of the traffic flow on different types of arterial roads.
13:55 On the Reliability of DSRC Safety Applications: A Case of Jamming
Ahmed Serageldin, Hani Alturkostani and Axel Krings (University of Idaho, USA)
Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) is the wireless communication protocol of safety applications in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) using Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANET). Due to the criticality of the ITS the reliability of its safety applications is of great concern. Much research has been dedicated to reliable message exchange in VANET, mainly focusing on the physical and Media Access Control (MAC) layers. In contrast, our research considers reliability from the safety application point of view, as it is adversely affected by malicious behavior, thus shedding light on application layer reliability. Specifically, the wireless communication shared medium can be used by jammers to launch Wireless Denial of Service (WDoS) attacks. This has great implications for Basic Safety Message (BSM), which is the most important message for safety applications as defined in the SAE J2735 Message Set Dictionary Standard. In this paper we study the impact of different jamming types, constant, random, and intelligent, on the reliability of BSM message exchanges. For the research we selected the Forward Collision Warning (FCW), which is one of the identified critical safety applications by the standard. We introduce survivability mechanisms, utilizing the concept of dissimilarity and redundancy, to increase reliability of the application. These mechanisms are strictly compliant with existing standards, and thus do not require any mechanisms outside of the standards. The impact of the different jamming types and the effectiveness of our solutions on the application reliability are demonstrated.
14:20 D-Taxi: Adaptive Area Recommendation System for Taxis by using DiRAC
Junpei Kamimura, Hisaya Wakayama, Naoki Shiota, Masatsugu Ogawa and Norihiro Iga (NEC Corporation, Japan); Masafumi Yano (Tohoku University, Japan)
In this paper, we present a recommendation system, D-Taxi, which informs taxi drivers on where to find the next passenger using the latest picking-up/dropping-off and positional information from other taxis. D-Taxi works in terms of the global optimization of the total vacancy time of taxis without any deep analysis of the historical logs by using our control mechanism named DiRAC. D-Taxi can adapt to the real-time situation such as an unexpected increase of passengers. The experimental results show that the proposed system can adapt to the aforementioned situation, and can improve the occupancy rate by 20\% compared with a greedy algorithm.
14:45 Traffic Light Assistant: Applying cooperative ITS in European cities and vehicles
Michael Zweck (Audi AG, Germany); Michael Schuch (SWARCO AG, Austria); Michael Wieck (SWARCO Traffic Americas, Inc., USA)
This paper reports the application of a traffic light assistant service based on cooperative ITS (C-ITS) standards in European cities. The service delivers Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory (GLOSA) and a time to green service to Audi drivers. the functional possibilities will be shown using this data in a modern connected car. This pre-series deployment comprises several hundreds of intersections in Verona, Berlin, and Garmisch-Partenkirchen. This implementation is the next step in a development line starting with R&D projects involving traffic signal control such as travolution-ingolstadt.de and finalizing in a potential series product service. Applying SAE J2735 Signal Phase and Timing (SPAT) and Map Data (MAP) messages in a real operational environment proved the feasibility of the chosen processing architecture and revealed technical and operational challenges to be mastered. The paper also explains why in this pre-series deployment transition the service is using C-ITS technology, but not DSRC as carrier medium due to commercial and organizational constraints of the operational setting. Furthermore it depicts the requirements of the communication from the automotive view.

### Wednesday, December 4, 16:00 - 18:00

#### P01-06: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 6

Technical Session Room A
16:00 Performance Study of Fixed and Moving Relays for Vehicular Users with Multi-cell Handover under Co-channel Interference
Yutao Sui (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden); Zhe Ren (BMW Group Research and Technology, Germany); Wanlu Sun and Tommy Svensson (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden); Peter Fertl (BMW Group Research and Technology, Germany)
In this paper, we investigate the power outage probability (OP) of a vehicular user equipment (VUE) device served by half-duplex decode-and-forward relay nodes (RNs) under co-channel interference. Both moving RNs (MRNs) and fixed RNs (FRNs) are studied, and compared with the baseline, base station (BS) to VUE direct transmission. In order to understand the benefit for vehicular users served by an RN, we consider practical channel models for different involved links as well as the impact of handover (HO) between the BS and the RNs. For an accurate comparison, we present a comprehensive framework to optimize the HO parameters, as well as we numerically optimize the FRN position which minimizes the average power OP at the VUE. FRN shows its advantage to serve its nearby VUEs. However, when vehicular penetration loss is moderate to high, MRN assisted transmission greatly outperforms transmission assisted by an FRN as well as direct transmission. Hence, the use of MRNs is very promising for improving the quality-of-service (QoS) of VUEs in future mobile communication systems.
16:25 A new multi-core software architecture for improving CUR in LTE Layer1 DSP/SoC
Hao Xiang (Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai Bell, P.R. China); Xuedong Yang (Alcatel-Lucent, USA); Zheng Li (NOKIA, USA); Xiaogen Jiang and Qunfeng Shang (Alcatel-Lucent Shanghai Bell, P.R. China)
Multi-core digital signal processor (DSP) and system on chip (SoC) are widely used in Long Term Evolution (LTE) L1 development since five years ago. The corresponding multi-core software architecture design is a big challenge. Nowadays, a traditional three layers architecture is very popular. Its 3 layers are accelerators driver layer, OS layer and application layer. One shortage of this architecture is the weak cross-vendor portability. A worse one is the low chip capability utilization rate (CUR) in some cases. In order to improve the CUR and simplify the cross-vendor software porting process, an innovated hierarchy architecture is presented in this paper. The proposed new three layers are different from the traditional architecture layers in the operating system (OS) layer, control process layer and user process layer. An Inter-Process Communication (IPC) module is newly added and shows the gain. In the proposed new architecture, the user process is separated from the control process. The global buffers are the bridges between these two layers, and could be shared by all the tasks on all cores. The common IPC supports transparent and flexible communication between all tasks on all cores. As a result, tasks can be dynamically mapped on cores at run time. Three improvements are obtained with this new architecture. 1) All the user process tasks can be flexibly scheduled among cores. The core load can be balanced very well in each scenario, so as to improve the CUR. 2) Almost all the control process tasks ( in C language ) can be directly reused on other venders' DSP/SoC. The cross-vendor porting is significantly simplified. 3) All layers can be developed in parallel to speed up the time to market (TTM) progress.
16:50 Effect of Antenna Current Distribution on the Characteristics of Hexapolarized MIMO System over Free Space and Ground Reflected Channel
Dazhi Piao (Communication University of China, P.R. China); Yi Mao and Longchu Liu (Communication University Of China, P.R. China); Huaqing Zhang (Communication university of China, P.R. China)
In this paper, the effects of current distribution of antennas on the eigenvalues and capacity of the hexapolarized multiple input multiple output (HMIMO) system are investigated, over free space channel and the perfect electric conducting (PEC) ground reflected channel, individually. Computation results show that the capacity of the HMIMO system composed of loop antennas with uniform current distribution is larger than that of the system composed of the loops with non-uniform current distribution, in both of the two channels. When SNR = 20 dB, the capacity of HMIMO system with uniform current distributed loop antennas is about 20% larger than that of the non-uniform current distributed loop antennas in the PEC ground reflected channel. Furthermore, for both the two types of loops, capacity of the HMIMO system in the PEC reflected channel is about 20% larger than that in the free space channel. Interestingly, 6 non-zero eigenvalues can be obtained by the HMIMO system, in both the free space and PEC ground reflected channel, however, some of the them are too small to be used as an effective parallel channel for information transfer.
17:15 Two Novel Colocated Dual-Polarized Antennas with Extremely Low Mutual Coupling for Polarization Diversity MIMO Applications
Dazhi Piao (Communication University of China, P.R. China); Yi Mao (Communication University Of China, P.R. China); Huaqing Zhang (Communication university of China, P.R. China)
This paper presents two novel colocated cross-polarized multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antennas. One consists of two modified printed loop (MM) antennas with ideal impedance matching and port isolation, which can provide a wide bandwidth of 750 MHz. The simulated isolation between the two loops was -30 dB or less within 2.25-3.0 GHz. The other one is composed of an electric dipole and a magnetic dipole (EM), and ideal port isolation (better than -60 dB) is achieved within the entire band of 1.5-3.5 GHz. Computation results show that in the free space channel, a nearly twofold capacity gain can be obtained over the one-polarized single-input-single-output (SISO) system for both of the two dual-polarized antennas. The capacity gain obtained by the MM antennas is 1.975 and by the EM antennas its 1.995, for the communication distance larger than 0.1 m. In the ground reflected channel, the maximum capacity gain close to 2 can also be obtained for both of the two dual-polarized MIMO antennas, however, the capacity gains fluctuate with the communication distance. We get the conclusion that the characteristics of the multipolarized MIMO system is not only influenced by the antenna properties, but also influenced strongly by the propagation characteristics of the channel.
17:40 VTM-MAC:Vehicle Traffic Monitoring MAC in WSNs
Kyeong Tae Kim (Electronics Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Korea)
Traffic monitoring and control applications in WSNs provide a number of challenges related to wireless communication between sensor nodes. In this paper, we propose a Vehicle Traffic Monitoring MAC (VTM-MAC) protocol in a reliable and low- cost collision warning system utilizing WSNs technologies. VTM- MAC adopts the access method based on TDMA and uses superframe structure which considers the relay of packets from a source (sensor) to a destination (basestation) via sensor to sensor communication. It enables for VTM-MAC to guarantee a delay bound by assigning time slots in a sequence so that the packets flow continuously from leaf level nodes to the top level node in a convergecast network. Moreover, VTM-MAC utilizes a multiple path for data forwarding via a sensor node, which supports reliable data delivery during same superframe period. For energy saving and minimizing the latency, it dynamically allocates time slots and adjusts its period based on weighted moving average of each data gathering path depends on traffic pattern. We also provide two time synchronization protocols viz., a Beacon based Time Synchronization (BTS) that is one- way broadcast synchronization scheme which can synchronize a network wide sensor nodes with a beacon, and a Elapsed Time Synchronization (ETS) that is translational synchronization scheme between event time and elapsed time. Both of techniques well integrate with the VTM-MAC to minimize the jitter and achieve microsecond level time synchronization accuracy. Our evaluation shows that VTM-MAC plays an important role in the beneficial impact on intelligent transportation systems in the real-road environment.

#### P01-07: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 7

Technical Session Room B
Panayiotis Kolios, Georgios Ellinas and Christos Panayiotou (University of Cyprus, Cyprus)
16:25 Analysis of Connectivity Probability and Hop Count for Multi-hop Broadcasting in Vehicular Networks
Xiao Huan Li and Bin-jie Hu (South China University of Technology, P.R. China); Hongbin Chen and Ye Jin (Guilin University of Electronic Technology, P.R. China)
In vehicular networks, multi-hop broadcasting is a frequently-used method to deliver messages. Safety-related messages from a source can be relayed to a distant vehicle, which may traverse multiple hops. Two important parameters affect the link availability and delay of multi-hop broadcasting--connectivity probability and average hop count. In this paper, a new analytical model for connectivity probability and average hop count is built for multi-hop broadcasting in vehicular networks, which take into account the following factors: propagation distance, one hop transmission range, distribution of vehicles, vehicle density, average length of vehicles, and minimum safety distance between vehicles. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that the proposed model can provide better performance in terms of connectivity probability. Moreover, the proposed model sheds light on average hop count and gets closer to the practical environment.
16:50 Fairness Improvement in long-chain Multihop Wireless Ad hoc Networks
Fazlullah Khan (Abdul Wali Khan University, Pakistan); Fahim Arif (National University of Science and Technology, Pakistan); Syed Asif Kamal (International Islamic University, Islamabad & International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan)
In asymmetric multihop wireless networks the original MAC protocol does not perform well, especially when the offered load is high. Many papers have studied these issues, and premeditated to obtain better fairness in multihop wireless ad hoc networks. These techniques provide some degree of fairness but either provide low throughput or assume MAC layer fairness and hence need improvements. In this paper we improve the work of [1], and obtained better results in terms of fairness. Our proposed method perform better than FIFO scheduling, RR scheduling, and [1]. For evaluating the performance of the proposed scheme, we have used Network Simulator version-2 (NS-2). Simulation results have shown that our proposed scheme produces high degree of fairness.
17:15 A BUS Vehicular Network Integrated with Traffic Infrastructure
Xiaoxiao Jiang and David Du (University of Minnesota, USA)
With the development of wireless communications, Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) has received considerable attention on information sharing and data delivery services. In order to collect and control traffic conditions, Intelligent Transportations Systems (ITS) has deployed a number of Road Side Unit (RSUs) along the roads to collect and deliver traffic information to the Traffic Control Center (TCC) for analyzing traffic data. Although some VANET models have been proposed based on the predictable routes and schedules of buses, none of them considered taking advantage of such traffic infrastructure which already been supplied by ITS and combine them with scheduled buses. In this paper, we propose a two-tier BUS-VANET that is fully integrated with RSUs and TCC as traffic infrastructure. In this new architecture, the communications of vehicles, not only benefit from the existence of buses, but also consider the effects of using RSUs and TCC. RSUs are used to ensure service coverage while TCC is helpful for locating the destination vehicle quickly. We also investigate how much benefits can be obtained by taking advantage of traffic infrastructure.
17:40 An integration Approach to Specify and Model Automotive Cyber Physical Systems
Lichen Zhang (Guangdong University of Technology)
Automotive Cyber-Physical Systems (ACPS) have attracted a significant amount of interest in the past few decades. The mechatronic control systems that are typically implemented in automotive application, such as engine control, transmission control, throttle control, and braking, typically involve multiple complex physical systems with dedicated embedded controllers that communicate with each other via a vehicle network. Moreover, Future vehicles, by communicating with other vehicles, roadside infrastructures, and personal communication devices, will adapt to the external regional environment and consequently avoid collisions and congestion. The automobile has developed from a purely physical system based on the laws of mechanics and chemistry, to a more sophisticated Cyber Physical System (CPS) which embeds electronic components and control systems to improve performance and safety. In this paper, we integrate AADL with Modelica, UML, and formal methods to specify automotive cyber physical systems. We specify cyber part of automotive cyber physical systems with AADL and UML, and model physical part of cyber physical systems with Modelica. We apply formal specification method in requirement analysis process in order to ensure that the software requirements model satisfies required system function and performance goals and constraints, including safety. The proposed method is illustrated by Vehicular Ad-hoc NETwork.

#### P03-05: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles - 5

Technical Session Room C
16:00 A 3D experimental framework for exploring drivers' body activity using infrared depth sensors
Alexandra Kondyli (University of Florida, USA); Virginia Sisiopiku (University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA); Angelos Barmpoutis (University of Florida, USA)
A significant amount of research has been involved with the development of advanced driver-assistance systems. Such systems typically include radars, laser or video sensors that detect the vehicle trajectory and warn for an imminent lane departure, or sense the front vehicle's speed and apply the brakes of the following vehicle to maintain safe distance headways (i.e., collision avoidance system). However, most of these systems rely on the subject vehicle and surrounding vehicles' position and do not explicitly consider the driver's actions during the driving task. In addition safety research has focused on eye tracking as a means of capturing driver's attention, fatigue, or drowsiness; however, the body posture has not been investigated in depth. This paper presents a novel approach for studying the actual movements of drivers inside the vehicle, when performing specific maneuver types such as lane changing and merging. This information can be useful for identifying specific body movements that may hide potentially unsafe situations. A pilot study was conducted along a freeway and arterial segment, where the 3D shapes of selected participants were constructed with the use of a low-cost infrared depth sensor (Microsoft Kinect) while merging and changing lanes. The analysis of the 3D shapes shows that there are important differences between participants when performing similar driving maneuvers. The preliminary results of this pilot research set the basis for implementing the proposed methodological framework for conducting full-scale experiments with a variety of participants, and exploring differences due to driver behavior attributes, such as age, gender and driving experience.
16:25 Electric-Car-Train: Link Connected Electric Vehicles Offer Significant Improvement to Automotive Transit
Ronald Gatten (Member IEEE & Qylur Security Systems, Inc., USA)
16:50 An Effective Variable Selection Algorithm for Aggressive/Calm Driving Detection via CAN Bus
Ozgur Karaduman, Haluk Eren and Hasan Kurum (Firat University, Turkey); Mehmet Celenk (Ohio University, USA)
In this research, the aim is to come up with an algorithm determining most appropriate variables of CAN (Controller Area Network) bus data for Aggressive/Calm Driving detection problem. This study assists drivers to take attention their Aggressive/Calm Driving habits on steering wheel. System complexity increases as involving all the variables in the problem. Therefore we can get cost efficiency by eliminating variables. With this aim, the proposed algorithm is applied to find optimal variables before identifying driving mood. As an initial phase, we have realized several test-drives having employed drivers with different driving styles being aggressive and calm in order for collecting data needed. Afterwards the novel algorithm developed is applied to eliminate trivial variables. Proposed method is based on exploiting similar correlation characteristics related to variables appearing in both Aggressive and Calm driving. As applying the selection algorithm, similar relation clusters are obtained with the aim of searching for redundant variables that will be eliminated. In this manner we reach a favorable set belonging to optimal variables. This novel algorithm can be easily applied for the systems including binary data set.
17:15 SGM-based dense disparity estimation using adaptive census transform
Maziar Loghman and Joohee Kim (Illinois Institute of Technology, USA)
Generating an accurate and dense disparity image is one of the important requirements for many applications such as 3D video and stereo vision-based advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). Depth estimation is the process of obtaining a depth map based on two or more reference images. Recently, several techniques that use semi-global optimization for estimating depth maps have been suggested. Although robustness against illumination changes is a vital factor in applications like ADAS, semi-global matching (SGM) based on mutual information achieves limited performance under illumination changes. In this paper, a modified SGM algorithm is proposed which is based on adaptive window patterns of census transform. The goal of the proposed method is to improve the quality of the estimated depth map while reducing the processing time and making it applicable for depth-based pedestrian detection techniques. To enhance the quality of the estimated depth map, a spatial Gaussian weighted averaging filter along with a color-aware filter is implemented. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method, the Middlebury stereo dataset and the KITTI vision benchmark have been used on the experiments. Experimental results show that the proposed method reduces the percentage of bad pixels by 0.7-1.2% for the test sequences compared to the original SGM algorithm with reduced processing time.
17:40 Novel Boundary Determination Algorithm for Lane Detection
a novel boundary determination algorithm (BDA)for robust lane detection is presented. The algorithm can track a complete lane boundary based on partial lane edge points provided there exist sufficient orientation similarity there between. BDA mainly comprises two parts: (a) utilizing an edge detection method to extract orientations and coordinates of edge points; (b) repeatedly applying two circular masks, i.e., a probing circular mask followed by a tracing circular mask, to collect two separate sets of orientations of edge points and from which to sift out a primary orientation for tracking a curve as perceived by human eyes. The algorithm is characterized in that the probing circular mask acts to probe ahead for the tracing circular mask in order to avoid deviation from the right track.

#### P05-05: Transportation and Connected Vehicles - 5

Technical Session Room D
16:00 The Potential Role of Vehicle Automation in Reducing Traffic-Related Energy and Emissions
Matthew Barth, Kanok Boriboonsomsin and Guoyuan Wu (University of California, Riverside, USA)
In the last few years, there has been a significant increase of interest related to vehicle automation, even though the fundamental building blocks for automating vehicles have been developed over the last several decades. In parallel, there has been a big push to make vehicles more energy efficient and less polluting, through the development of advanced powertrains, the development and promotion of alternative lower-carbon fuels, better managing VMT, and improving traffic operations. One of the key questions is how can vehicle automation contribute to energy efficiency and reducing emissions. In this paper, we outline some of these potential impacts, examining issues such as vehicle design, vehicle and traffic operations, and even potential changes in activity patterns.
16:25 On Promoting Modal Shift via Generalized Ride-Sharing
Nicola Sacco (University of Genoa); Angela Di Febbraro and Edoardo Cangialosi (University of Genoa, Italy)
In the last decades, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and, in particular, the Internet technologies have shown a great capability of changing people behaviors in different activities of the daily life, providing an easy access to many information, allowing on-line shop, planning mobility, and so on. In this framework, designing transportation supply systems that take advantage of these new features has become an interesting task to cope with. In this paper, a Generalized Ride Sharing (GRS) system is proposed as an innovative and integrated transportation supply that connects already existing modes (Taxis, Buses, Car-Sharing and Ride-Sharing) with the aim of better satisfying the users' needs and promote a modal shift from private vehicles towards more sustainable transportation modes.
16:50 A Google-like Model for Public Transport
Mahsa Faizrahnemoon (Hamilton Insitute, Ireland); Arieh Schlote (National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Ireland); Emanuele Crisostomi (University of Pisa, Italy); Robert Shorten (IBM, Ireland)
A recently introduced paradigm to describe road mobility networks is adapted to public transport networks. Preliminary description of the proposed approach and current on-going work in the topic are illustrated.
17:15 Emergent Information Diffusion in RFID Systems on Roads
Tao Jing and Xing Wei (Beijing Jiaotong University, P.R. China); Wei Cheng (Virginia Commonwealth University, USA); Mingyang Guan and Yan Huo (Beijing Jiaotong University, P.R. China)
The framework of RFID systems on Roads (RSR) was recently proposed to improve the driving safety and the drivers' comfortability. In RSR, RFID readers are installed on vehicles, and RFID tags are deployed on each lane. The tags store the lane level road information, which will be provided to the vehicles when they are passing by the tags. As the RFID tags are passive and have to be programmed/updated by vehicles, a native challenge in RSR is how to quickly update the information stored in all the tags when emergent events occur. In this digest paper, we design a multi-tag information diffusion algorithm, which can fast and accurately update all the tags' information. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is effective in all the testing environments.

## Thursday, December 5

### Thursday, December 5, 10:00 - 12:00

#### P01-08: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 8

Technical Session Room A
10:00 Analyzing the Impact of False-Accident Cyber Attacks on Traffic Flow Stability in Connected Vehicle Environment
Peter Jin (University of Texas at Austin, USA); Guohui Zhang (The University of New Mexico, USA); C. Walton (University of Texas at Austin, USA); Xiaowen Jiang (Southwest Jiaotong University, P.R. China); Amit Singh (University of Texas at Austin, USA)
With the rapid development of connected vehicle (CV) technologies, cyber security issues in the vehicular network has emerged as serious concerns for successful deployment of the CV technologies. In the existing literatures, the analysis of the cyber security impacts has been primarily focused on the computer science perspectives investigating potential attacking scenarios and counter-measures through network security strategies. In this paper, we investigate the traffic impact of cyber attacks considering the real-world driver behavior, especially the "built-in" safety redundancy of the visual verification by human drivers or autonomous driving system. More specifically, we study the impact of "false-accident" attack on the stability of traffic flow. In the false-accident attack, a vehicle sends out a false accident alert to its surrounding vehicle through CV network and has considered an attacking scenario that has catastrophic effects. Traffic flow stability is based on widely-used numerical linear stability analysis method, the ring road test. In such test, vehicles are restricted within a ring road so that traffic congestion and perturbations appear in cyclic patterns indicating the stability of traffic flow. The study indicates that false-accident attacks do not necessarily yield significant impact on the stability of traffic flow. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the attacking duration, position of the attacking vehicle in a platoon, and the CV communication range.
10:25 Adaptive Information Hovering in VANETs: Robustness and Enhancements
Andreas Xeros (University of Cyprus, Cyprus); Themis Constantinides and Marios Lestas (Frederick University, Cyprus); Yiannos Mylonas and Andreas Pitsillides (University of Cyprus, Cyprus); Vicky Papadopoulou Lesta (European University Cyprus, Cyprus)
The concept of Information Hovering in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks applies in cases where useful information needs to be made available to all vehicles within a confined geographical area for a specific time interval. In cases of low traffic density, low reachability may be observed within the Hovering Area due to partitioned uninformed sections of the vehicular network. In our previous work we have proposed an Information Hovering Scheme which increases the reachability, by employing probabilistic flooding outside the hovering area. Informed vehicles outside the hovering area serve as information bridges towards the partitioned areas thus increasing reachability. A unique feature of the proposed protocol is that it is adaptive in the sense that the rebroadcast probability outside the hovering area is adaptively regulated based on estimates of the vehicle density within the hovering area. In this work we investigate the robustness of the proposed protocol with respect to changing hovering area, transmission range of the vehicles and the message loss probability. We verify that the protocol continues to work effectively in all scenarios outperforming other approaches which have been proposed in literature. In addition, we investigate enhancements to the proposed protocol which ensure improved performance in cases of high traffic density within the hovering area. We apply probabilistic flooding within the hovering area and we observe that retransmission probabilities less than one suffice to lead to high reachability values.
10:50 Unlinkable Authentication for Roaming User in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks
Eun-Kyung Ryu, Gil-Je Lee and Kee-Young Yoo (Kyungpook National University, Korea)
Recently, the 3rd Generation Partnership Project published the specifications of universal mobile telecommunications system and WLAN access networks interworking, enabling to provide high-speed data services along with anywhere, anytime connectivity to mobile users. In order to achieve the required security properties in such settings, Extensible Authentication Protocol-Authentication and Key Agreement (EAP-AKA) is adopted. However, the fact that the EAP-AKA is vulnerable to a type of man-in-the-middle attack as well as potential threats to user privacy causes major obstacles on the practical use of the technologies. In this paper, we describe a new scheme for supporting secure and unlinkable user authentication in the cellular and wireless networks interworking settings. Our scheme achieves all required security properties including security against the man-in-the-middle type of attacks, replay attacks, and rogue access point attacks. It also guarantees user privacy with no scalability problem. It does not require any synchronization mechanism. It requires only five communication rounds.

#### P01-09: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 9

Technical Session Room B
10:00 Bounded-latency Bluetooth Low Energy for in-vehicle network cable replacement
Arvind Kandhalu (Texas Instruments, USA); Ariton Xhafa (Texas Instruments Inc., USA); Srinath Hosur (Texas Instruments, USA)
Vehicles today employ many different sensors to provide information such as tire pressure, proximity to objects and so on to Electronic Control Units for state maintenance and actuation functions. This has resulted in an increase in the number and complexity of wiring as well as wiring harness for in-vehicle communication networks. In fact wires and wiring harness are among the heaviest components in a vehicle. Reducing the amount of cables will improve fuel efficiency; reduce cost of manufacturing and maintenance of vehicles greatly. Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is a great candidate for cable replacement given its supported data rates and widespread adoption in many markets. BLE device discovery is required to establish the presence of nodes within each other's communication range and begin reliable exchange of data. In our system, the nodes are the sensors and actuators. The fundamental problem in such device discovery is that energy consumption and discovery latency are inversely related. Therefore an optimal trade-off BLE connection setup that reduces energy-consumption while being able to provide worst-case discovery latency guarantees is critical especially in the automotive industry. We propose a mechanism that exploits Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) to provide worst-case latency guarantees during the connection setup phase of BLE devices. We provide the required modifications in BLE as well as provide evaluation results to show the improved performance. To the best of our knowledge this is the first work that considers providing bounded-latency connection setup for BLE devices using CRT.
10:25 Optimization of GSM/UMTS Inter-System Handover Times provided by Connectivity Maps
Tobias Pögel and Lars C Wolf (Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany)
Cellular networks are particularly suitable for the provision of vehicular online services due to their high coverage rates. In addition to LTE, the most widely used networks for mobile data services are GSM (2G) and UMTS (3G) with several enhancements. In the vicinity of UMTS cell boundaries it comes to Inter-System Handovers (ISHO) to switch over to a GSM network, which usually covers large areas. The ISHO can result in unfavorable situations such as significant delays and long communication disruptions. In the opposite direction the handover is often performed late, so that networks with higher capacities and lower latencies remain unutilized. In this paper ISHO times are optimized by the use of context data from a Connectivity Map. Vehicles which go around can be exploited to collect data on the current network properties. Afterward they are transferred to a central server where predictions of the future connectivity can be estimated. The newly gained knowledge can be made available to the vehicles for optimizing the handover times. With a novel developed trigger, the cellular device is actively influenced to initiate the handover. Thus, the negative effects are significantly reduced. Based on an evaluation scenario, the differences between common network-dependent and the Connectivity Map supported handovers are investigated.
10:50 FADER: False Alarm DEtection and Recovery for Trust-aware Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks
Youngho Cho (Republic of Korea Air Force, Korea); Gang Qu (University of Maryland, College Park, USA)
Many trust-aware routing algorithms have been proposed in order to reliably deliver data packets from sensor nodes to the base station in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) where there exist inside attackers. In these approaches, a trust mechanism is adopted for each node to measure its neighbors' trustworthiness so the node can send data packets only to the trustworthy neighbors. A false alarm occurs when a good node is considered as untrustworthy. We propose a False Alarm DEtection and Recovery (FADER) technique which enables us to identify and reuse these false alarmed nodes. By doing so, we can improve the performance of the trust-aware routing protocol in terms of many metrics such as the network lifetime, the packet delivery rate, and many routing performance measures. We have conducted extensive OPNET simulations and the results confirm these claimed advantages of our proposed FADER approach over a representative trust-aware routing algorithm. The results show that FADER is able to recover 60-70% of the false alarms without recovering any of the attackers.

#### P00-01: Science without Borders (remote presentations) - 1

Technical Session Room C
10:00 Coordinating Rendezvous Points for Inductive Power Transfer between Electric Vehicles to Increase Effective Driving Distance
Promiti Dutta (Columbia University, USA)
Battery electric vehicles (EV) average 75 miles on a fully charged battery. This range can be limited by external factors, namely use of battery power while the vehicle is stopped in traffic. Coupled with the time required by a battery to fully recharge and the current lack of charging stations, many drivers have range anxiety which prevent them from switching to EVs. One method to increase interest in EVs and to ease range anxiety concerns among drivers is to offer immediate charging facilities that are available to drivers. A possible solution is to have drivers "share" charge with each other using inductive power transfer to wirelessly transfer charge between vehicles at rendezvous points. We simulate the interactions of this ad-hoc network of rendezvous points between EVs for charge transfer to determine the feasibility of such a system, especially for taxicabs. We use real world data to simulate typical commuting driving distributions for commuters and New York City taxis. Assuming that all users in the system use GPS, we know each cars start and stop nodes. Using fisheye state routing (FSR) with first-come-first-serve (FCFS) methodology for car coordination at rendezvous points, we show that we are able to reduce the probability of refueling to 0% for commuter cars and significantly lowers the probability of refueling for taxicabs traveling more than 75 miles.
10:10 Impact of VANET-Based V2X Communication Using IEEE 802.11p on Reducing Vehicles Traveling Time in Realistic Large Scale Urban Area
Hamed Noori (University of Waterloo & Tampere University of Technology, Canada); Mikko Valkama (Tampere University of Technology, Finland)
Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) communication are important components of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) architecture. One of the promising applications of ITS is calculating the estimated traveling time dynamically and showing drivers the fastest vehicular route to the destination, which has several benefits such as decreasing traffic congestion, fuel consumption and emissions, etc. This paper proposes a new method to find the fastest route from origin to destination by using the V2X communication which provides real-time traffic information to drivers. This method, assigns a Current Traveling Time (CTT) for each street in a city which could help drivers to find the best route and also it could help real-time monitoring of the traffic of the streets. The contribution of this paper is threefold: First, the mentioned novel methods are proposed. Second, impact of the method is investigated by using traffic simulator (SUMO) and also dynamic route planning with employing CTT for each street which are calculated with the proposed method. Third, OMNET++ is used to simulate the mentioned scenario as a VANET (with 802.11p standard) by using Veins framework to run SUMO and OMNET++ in parallel. This study has developed the Veins framework by adding new modules to OMNET++ which aims to add numerous RoadSideUnits (RSUs) in the realistic traffic simulation. Moreover this study has developed a new program written in Python which is connected to SUMO and controls the traffic simulation. This program uses SUMO to simulate a microscopic traffic (by considering every single vehicle movements) and also with calculating the Current Traveling Time for streets and dynamic route planning for the cars. This program dynamically calculates the fastest route for the specific car.
10:20 Development of Multi-agent ANFIS-based model for Urban Traffic Signal Control
Kingsley Udofia (University of Uyo & University of Benin, Nigeria); Joy Emagbetere (University of Benin, Nigeria)
In this paper, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based model for urban traffic signal control was developed. The ANFIS-based control scheme adaptively controls phase sequence and phase lengths to ensure smooth flow of traffic, decrease traffic delays and hence enhance effective road usage. In this design, a multiagent approach was adopted, and an agent (ANFIS-based) used traffic information such as queuelength and waiting time in an intersection, and queuelengths information received from agents of neighboring intersections, to effectively and efficiently control traffic in real-time at any given intersection. A simulator is developed using MATLAB/SIMULINK software for a network of eight intersections in Uyo Metropolis of eastern Nigeria as a case study. Performance evaluation results showed that for three different traffic volume scenarios considered, ANFIS-based traffic control scheme significantly outperforms the existing and optimized fixed-time controls in terms of delay, throughputs and queuelength.
10:30 Autonomous Automobile Parking Aided by a Crowd-Sourced, Context-Centered, Mobile Navigation Network
Ronald Benson and Jason Black (Florida A&M University, USA)
Navigation technology is becoming a staple of automobile travel in today's world. Dedicated GPS units as well as GPS equipped mobile devices such as smart phones, mp3 players, and tablet computers are the tool of choice for many drivers when the need for help navigating from one place to another arises, rendering traditional paper maps all but obsolete. However, even with the convenience of navigation-enabled devices, drivers finding places to park remains a problem for drivers around the world. The objective of this research is to devise a system that will provide improved navigation for both manual and autonomously driven vehicles. The result of the study is a methodology that combines information from existing navigation services with parking information shared by drivers. The Distributed Information Sharing System DISS) is designed to demonstrate the usage of that methodology. DISS will combine a cross-platform mobile application interface with a context and location aware web service. The mobile application interface will allow drivers to share parking information, and the web service will consume the user generated data as well as context information related to the usage of the data. Thereafter, when future users query DISS for navigation information, the system will relay information based on what has been most helpful to previous users.
10:40 Identity-Based Security systems for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks
Gianmarco Baldini (Joint Research Centre - European Commission, Italy); Alberto Trombetta (University of Insubria, Italy); Marco Taddeo (University of Insubria, European Union); Igor Fovino (Joint Research Centre - European Commission, European Union); Vincent Mahieu (Joint Research Centre, European Union)
Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) based on vehicular car to car ad-hoc networks have been extensively investigated by the research community and industry to improve efficiency and safety in road traffic. The management and control of the vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) is still one of the most challenging research fields in the networking domain. In particular, security and privacy protection are very important requirements for the design of VANETs. The potential high dynamicity of VANETs and the need for flexibility and scalability in ITS applications supports the research for new security frameworks and the application of novel cryptographic schemes that ensure authentication, integrity and confidentiality given the constrained computational environment in which such applications usually operate. This paper investigates the application of identity based (id-based, for short) cryptographic schemes (in particular, signature schemes) to provide better security and privacy for VANET. Along with an presentation of the state-of-the-art in this area, this paper presents a security framework for car-to-car VANETs based on a protocol for the distributed generation of signing keys that overcome key escrow issues.
10:50 Semi-Active Control of Aircraft Landing Gear System Using H-infinity Control Approach
The landing of an aircraft is one of the most critical operations because it directly affects the passenger safety and comfort. During landing, the aircraft fuselage undergoes excessive vibrations that cause the safety and the comfort problem and hence need to be suppressed quickly. The existing passive oleo dampers are not always efficient in absorbing these excessive vibrations under each landing condition. A semi-active control system of a landing gear suspension by using Magnetorheological damper can solve the problem of excessive vibrations effectively. In this paper, a switching technique is developed in the simulation of the landing procedure which enables the system to switch from the single degree of freedom to three degrees of freedom system in order to simulate the sequential touching of the two wheels of the main landing gears and the nose landing gear wheels with the ground. A semi-active Magnetorheological damper is developed using two different controllers namely linear quadratic regulator and the H∞. Spencer model is used to predict the dynamic behavior of the Magnetorheological damper. The results of the designed controllers are compared to study the performance of the controllers in reducing the overshoot of the bounce response as well as the bounce rate response. The simulation results validated the improved performance of the robust controller compared to the optimal control strategy when the aircraft is subjected to the disturbances during landing. The comparison of both control strategies for the bounce rate response of an aircraft proved the superiority of the H∞ controller over the linear quadratic regulator. By considerably reducing the rate of bounce for the realistic landing scenario, the passenger safety and comfort are improved during the landing operation.
11:00 A PAPR Reduction approach in OFDM Optical-Wireless-Access Networks using Blind Symbol Power Estimation
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) based optical wireless transport system suffers from high peak to average power ratio (PAPR) as it essentially increases the complexity of analog to digital converter circuitry (ADC and DAC), introduces significant distortion of amplifier nonlinearity and gain saturation at high input power. Here, we propose a novel PAPR reduction scheme for OFDM based optical and wireless transport system using Blind Symbol Power Estimation(BSPE) based on scaling technique. Significant PAPR reduction of over 2.7 dB is achieved without inserting any side information, any significant signal distortion,without increasing average transmitter power and without any special extraction technique at the receiver.
11:10 An Analytical Model for Primary User Emulation Attacks in IEEE 802.22 Networks
Alireza Bagheri and Ali Shahini (New Jersey Institute of Technology, USA)
Cognitive radio networks were established by IEEE 802.22 wireless regional area network (WRAN) to allow unlicensed users utilize the idle TV band opportunistically. Although many researches were done for diminishing the effect of security vulnerable, the security issues are still open problems. One of the most important attacks in physical layer of cognitive radio is primary user emulation attack (PUEA). In this paper, comprehensive studies about probability of successful PUEA over general wireless propagation environments are scrutinized. The analyses started with considering path loss/shadowing and also path loss/fading scenarios which are important starting points of investigation a general case. In the general case, the wireless propagation model is supposed consisting of Nakagami-m fading superimposed on lognormal shadowing and path loss with considering IEEE 802.22 standard. Numerical results demonstrate that successful PUEA could be obtained at long distance of a good secondary user by increasing the number of collaborative malicious users.
11:20 Analytical and Learning-Based Spectrum Sensing over Channels with Both Fading and Shadowing
Alireza Bagheri and Ali Shahini (New Jersey Institute of Technology, USA)
In this paper, sensing performance of an energy detector (ED) for local and collaborative detection scenarios is investigated in unreliable environments dominated by multipath fading and shadowing effects. The channel is modeled by using Kg distribution for Nakagami-m multipath fading and lognormal shadowing. Novel analytical expressions are firstly derived for the average detection probability for both fading and fading/shadowing cases. The analysis is then extended to the conventional fusion strategies i.e. decision fusion and data fusion. The performance of decision fusion scheme under the generalized k-out-of-n fusion rule has been investigated. In data fusion method, the analytical expressions are derived for two combining schemes including maximal ratio combining (MRC) and square law combining (SLC). Further, a reliable fusion scheme based on a learning algorithm is proposed. In this fusion mechanism, the Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm is utilized to enhance reliability of the final decision regarding presence or absence of primary user (PU). The analytical results are validated by numerical computations and Monte-Carlo simulations along with the performance of the proposed learning-based fusion scheme.
11:30 A Unified Approach to Performance Analysis of Energy Detection with Diversity Receivers over Nakagami-m Fading Channels
Alireza Bagheri and Ali Shahini (New Jersey Institute of Technology, USA)
This paper analyzes the performance of an energy detector for single and diversity antenna receptions. It starts by providing closed-form expressions to a class of semi-infinite integrals which include the generalized Marcum Q-function and its extension, the Nuttal Q-function as special cases. Based on these unified frameworks, novel analytical expressions are firstly derived for the average detection probability over Nakagami-m fading channels. The analysis is subsequently extended to cases with diversity receptions including maximal ratio combining (MRC) and switch and stay combining (SSC). For the SSC scheme, closed-form expressions are derived to determine optimum switching thresholds in a maximum average detection probability. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves, as an important measure of the energy detector, over different fading and diversity parameters are discussed. The analytical results are verified by numerical computations and Monte-Carlo simulations.
11:40 Collaborative Strategic Energy Management of Serial-Hybrid Electric Urban Busses in Operation
Gerfried H. Cebrat (EUC Energie- und Umweltconsulting DI Gerfried Cebrat eU & TU-Graz, Austria)
The paper presents a methodology of coupling strategic energy management systems of serial hybrid urban buses, propagating the location of forced stops as input for controlling the motor generator set. The hypothesis postulates that using data from vehicles driving head to head adding information from other telematics services helps improving fuel economy. At first the control scheme and algorithms for the strategic energy management are described. Several potential telematics system architectures for acquiring the needed input are evaluated and the data update process is validated. The employed black box simulation model is using test data of (virtual) preceding buses evaluating the influence of an improving data quality.
11:50 A New Hybrid Model for Performance Evaluation of IEEE 802.11p Broadcast Mode in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks: A Numerical Analysis
Seyed Amir Ali Ghafourian Ghahramani (Sharif University of Technology-International Campus, Iran); Ali Mohammad Afshin Hemmatyar (Sharif University of Technology, Iran)
In this paper, we will propose a new methodology for performance modeling of IEEE 802.11p medium access control (MAC) sub-layer in broadcast mode. In most of the current works, it is assumed that the number of contending nodes is deterministic and constant. However, in vehicular ad hoc networks, we can observe a kind of uncertainty in number of contending vehicles, which try to get access to the shared wireless channel. This uncertainty can affect the performance analysis of MAC protocols in vehicular environments. In this paper, we will try to model the dynamicity of number of contending vehicles based on the distribution of vehicles' velocity. This model will be combined with the current methodologies used in performance evaluation of distributed MAC protocols, such as IEEE 802.11p. The resulting hybrid model has the ability to provide us with more insightful analysis about the performance of the standard under various traffic conditions.

#### P06-04: Electric Vehicle and Transportation Electrification - 4

Technical Session Room D
10:00 Current Harmonics of EV Chargers and Effects of Diversity to Charging Load Current Distortions in Distribution Networks
Lauri Kütt and Eero Saarijärvi (Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering, Finland); Matti Lehtonen (Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Finland); Heigo Mõlder (Tallinn University of Technology, Finland); Jaan Niitsoo (Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia)
Charging of electric vehicles (EVs) is expected to bring a healthy addition of load for the distribution networks. Especially the residential networks where the EV owners would charge their vehicles after returning from daily activities would be subjected to high load increase. For providing greater EV charging capabilities the power quality aspects have to be considered in addition to the load increase analysis. This paper focuses on the harmonic content of the EV charging load. As EV charger is a powerful non-linear load and rather large harmonic currents can be present during the EV charging. Analysis of the quantities of the harmonic currents is necessary for guaranteeing the distribution network operation that would meet the power supply standards. In this paper, the EV charging measurement results are presented and analyzed, with focus on the current waveform distortions. Different EVs are analyzed for the current harmonics present during the duration of the charging. For the modeling of the EV charging loads in the networks, discussion is presented on the harmonic currents summing and cancellation effects. The results presented in the paper can be further used for modeling of the actual harmonic loads of the EVs in the distribution networks
10:25 Applying a QoS-based Fleet Dimension Method to Reduce Fleet Emissions
Mingming Liu and Wynita Griggs (University College Dublin, Ireland); Christopher King (Northeastern University, USA); Fabian Wirth (University of Passau, Germany); Paul Borrel (IBM Research, USA); Robert Shorten (IBM, Ireland)
Car sharing is a successful commercial application based on the collaborative consumption model. In this paper, we apply a recently proposed idea from a car sharing scheme to solve a fleet dimension problem emerging in utilities with large vehicle fleets. Within this framework, EVs are used to replace Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEVs) to reduce fleet pollutants. A small number of additional ICE vehicles are purchased to service long trips. The number of such vehicles are determined using a queueing model. Our studies show that pollutants can be significantly reduced while still providing a good quality of services (QoS) for staff to access vehicles.
10:50 Implementation of V2G Technology Using DC Fast Charging
Yaxi Liu and Sean Mitchem (Southwest Research Institute, USA)
The first implementation of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology utilizing Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) compliant standards for DC Fast Charging was recently deployed on a US Army base and certified as operational. We discuss the system deployed and the capabilities it provides, focusing especially on the energy aggregation system. We further explain why this is of significant importance in moving the state of V2G technology forward.
11:15 Design Of An Android Based Input Device For Electric Vehicles
Pedro Daniel Urbina Coronado (Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey & The Ohio State University, USA); Vishnu Sundaresan (The Ohio State University, USA); Horacio Ahuett-Garza (Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Mexico)
Mobile devices offer a unique opportunity for integration with daily life functions on a unified platform. In spite of market penetration, mobile devices have not made any impact on interfacing with the driving functions of an automobile. The primary challenge for this deficiency is the lack of unifying hardware/software platforms and barriers that exists between popular ecosystems. In order to address these issues, this work proposes a unifying platform that has the potential to combine internet connectivity, reconfigurable and personalized user interface and interaction with the automobile. This futuristic paradigm for automobiles is demonstrated using an Android tablet and interface hardware, where the tablet serves as the input device for primary or secondary vehicle functions and the interface hardware could be added on to existing dashboard controller. The interface hardware is based on a real-time board with multicore architecture and can serve as the bridge between the connected world and local ecosystem in an automobile. In this article, we discuss our proposed architecture and explore the limitations of this architecture for application in real-time control.
11:40 TeleWatt: An Innovative Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Over Public Lighting System
Mario A Alvarado-Ruiz (Telecom ParisTech, France); Fadi Abi Abdallah (University of Nice, France); Maurice Gagnaire (Telecom Paristech & Institut Telecom, France); Yannick Lascaux (Edelcom, France)
The growth of the Electric Vehicles (EV)'s market is strongly conditioned by the availability of cost-effective and reliable charging infrastructures. In the current state of the technology, the limited capacity of the batteries limits EV's market to urban moves. The rapid deployment of charging stations in urban areas is a real challenge. In this paper, we introduce an original approach consisting in reusing existing public lighting infrastructures for that purpose. Two main advantages characterize our solution. First, charging stations can be deployed rapidly without costly civil engineering. Second, a fraction of the power non consumed by the lamps at night can be used to the benefit of the charging stations. Meanwhile, such an approach must be achieved while guaranteeing the stability and quality of the lighting system.

### Thursday, December 5, 13:30 - 15:30

#### P01-10: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 10

Technical Session Room A
13:30 Enabling Vehicular Safety Applications over LTE Networks
Seiya Kato (Hitachi Ltd, Japan); Matti Hiltunen, Kaustubh Joshi and Richard Schlichting (AT&T Labs - Research, USA)
Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS) for improving vehicular safety are increasingly network based, with approaches that use vehicle to vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) communication. Most current proposals for V2V and V2I use DSRC and a dedicated infrastructure of road side units (RSUs) for the V2I scenarios. Here, the technical feasibility of an alternative architecture is explored, one that uses a combination of LTE cellular networks and servers near the edge of the LTE network. Compared with approaches based on DSRC and RSUs, this architecture exploits an infrastructure that is already largely deployed, but requires that technical challenges related to latency and scalability be addressed. This paper outlines an architecture that addresses these challenges and shows experimental results that demonstrate its effectiveness for vehicular safety applications. The approach combines resources near the network edge with broadcast-based data distribution to provide data freshness guarantees comparable to what can be achieved with DSRC for many applications. Experiments from the deployed LTE network and NS-3 simulations demonstrate that this approach is feasible, and show the benefits and limitations of the architecture.
13:55 The Impact of Data Complexity on Privacy Management in Vehicle to Infrastructure Applications
Andre Zierfuss and Resit Sendag (University of Rhode Island, USA)
In recent years, privacy management has become one of the most complex processes in the connected world. Technologies like GPS, cellular communications, and the Internet have become inevitably mandatory equipment in the modern vehicle. Subsequently, the vehicle became part of this connected world, wherein data are constantly sent and received. Accordingly, it became inevitable to introduce data security to vehicular communication. Hence, the development of location based and other connected services introduced a new level of data complexity. In scenarios where GPS data are tied to certain entities or databases consisting of entire personal profiles, data cannot be treated separately anymore. Prior improvements regarding privacy protection achieved through anonymous pseudonyms have become negligible due to GPS and cellular enabled traceability. This paper presents a new approach that turns privacy protection from a one-way street into a negotiation process. It allows the user to individually decide what data is provided or kept private
14:20 Data Dissemination in Highway Scenarios using Car-to-Car Communication
Ademar Takeo Akabane (University of Campinas, Brazil); Leandro Aparecido Villas (UNICAMP, Brazil); Edmundo Madeira (State University of Campinas, Brazil)
Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are a specific type of mobile networks in which the nodes are vehicles with capable of processing, storing, and wireless communication. Each node has a high mobility and path well defined, thus some intrinsic characteristics appear in VANETs: highly dynamic topology, frequent disconnections with the network, short time in which the vehicles remain connected and scalability network. Due these characteristics, the data dissemination in VANETs become large challenge in this type of environment. Several data dissemination protocols have been proposed in the literature, but most of them were developed to address exclusively the broadcast storm problem or network partition. Based on this, we propose ATENA algorithm to operate in highway environment, which addresses the broadcast storm problem in dense network and it has high coverage in network partition with high coverage, short delays and low overhead. The simulation results show that ATENA addresses efficiently the broadcast storm problem and it has maximum coverage, in comparison with other algorithms from literature.
14:45 A Compact Multi-band Reconfigurable Base-station Antenna for Next Generation Mobile Communication Base-station Applications
Young-Bae Jung (Hanbat National University, Korea)
This paper presents a commercial multi-band base-station antenna for next generation mobile communications. This antenna is composed of 3 types of the dipole linear array that are aligned in parallel with compact size and the frequency control is realized by MEMS switches with an external antenna control unit. It was confirmed that the antenna meets the required base-station antenna specification in Korea by indoor performance test using a communication simulator.
15:10 DSRC Performance Assessment for Crash Warning Applications
Hirofumi Onishi (Alpine Electronics Research of America, USA); Fanny Mlinarsky (octoScope, USA); Fumio Watanabe and Carlos Velasquez (Alps Electric North America, Inc., USA)

#### P01-11: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 11

Technical Session Room B
13:30 A highly scalable IEEE802.11p communication and localization subsystem for autonomous urban driving
Axel Sikora (University of Applied Sciences Offenburg, Germany); Manuel Schappacher (Steinbeis Innovation Center Embedded Design and Networking, Germany)
The IEEE802.11p standard describes a protocol for car-to-X and mainly for car-to-car-communication. It has found its place in hardware and firmware implementations and is currently tested in various field tests. In the research project Ko-TAG, which is part of the research initiative Ko-FAS, cooperative sensor technology is developed for the support of highly autonomous driving. A secondary radar principle based on communication signals enables localization of objects with simultaneous data transmission. It mainly concentrates on the detection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users (VRU), but also supports pre crash safety applications. Thus it is mainly targeted for the support of traffic safety applications in intra-urban scenarios. This contribution describes the Ko-TAG part of the overall initiative, which develops a subsystem to improve the real-time characteristics of IEEE802.11pneeded for precise time-of-flight real-time localization. In doing this, it still fits into the regulatory schemes. It discusses the approach for definition and verification of the protocol design, while maintaining the close coexistence with existing IEEE802.11p subsystems. System simulations were performed and hardware was implemented. Test results are shown in the last part of the paper.
13:55 A Data Dissemination Protocol Using Route Sharing
Dave McKenney and Tony Richard White (Carleton University, Canada)
If more effective traffic control is to be achieved, connected vehicles need to be supplied with timely, pertinent information from other vehicles. A data dissemination protocol using shared route information, which is capable of providing accurate traffic state measurements is proposed. Initial experimental results analysing the protocol are presented. The results demonstrate that the protocol is capable of prioritizing data and adapting to varying ratios of active vehicles.
14:20 Pheromone-Based V2V Unicast Routing Scheme in VANETs
Wen-Hsing Kuo (Yuan Ze University, Taiwan); Shiqi Dong (Xi’An Jiaotong University, P.R. China); Jen-Shian Huang (Yuan Ze University, Taiwan)
In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), it is difficult to locate and manage the position of each vehicle. Therefore, to establish a connection between two nodes, a V2V (vehicle-to-vehicle) routing protocols is necessary. In this paper, we propose a bionic V2V routing scheme called Pheromone-Based Vehicle to Vehicle (PBV2V) Routing, which exploits the concept of pheromones. Each vehicle periodically exchanges its pheromone information with neighboring cars and updates its own pheromone table accordingly. Then, a packet can be forwarded from the source to the destination based on the pheromone density of the intermediate nodes. We analyzed the performance of PBV2V under different distances, and evaluated the connection rate and the average number of hops via simulations. The results demonstrate that PBV2V achieves a satisfactory performance. Moreover, the actual results approximate the analytical values.
14:45 A Low-Cost NLOS Ultra-Violet V2I Identification System for Vehicular Theft Recovery
Reza Ashtari (Auburn University & Auburn Nanosystems Group, USA); Shiwen Mao and Michael Hamilton (Auburn University, USA)
With increasing populations in urban areas, an intelligent means of vehicular identification, tracking, and communication becomes a necessity. In this paper, an optical alternative to radio frequency identification (RFID) using ultra-violet (UV) light is presented. A non-line-of-sight (NLOS) UV vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) system is proposed to establish proof of concept. The performance of a proto-type communication system demonstrating the use of UV lamps and on-off keying (OOK) to transmit an identification number over free space channels up to 30 m (~100 ft) is analyzed. Although a proto-type, the ultra-violet identification (UVID) system yields an effective, discrete solution towards unidentified terrestrial vehicle identification. Several applications of UVID within amber alert scenarios, recovery of stolen vehicles and vehicular networking are analyzed. Implementations in development including a low power UV LED-based transceiver adapted for car headlights capable of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication and its applications within intelligent vehicle design are discussed as well.

#### P03-06: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles - 6

Technical Session Room C
13:30 Step Moving for an Electric Wheelchair Using a Robot Programmable over the Intranet
Hidetoshi Ikeda, Natsuki Hatakeyama and Ayuki Kinoshita (Toyama National College of Technology, Japan); Eiji Nakano (Robofesta Org., Japan)
This paper describes cooperative step climbing tactics for an electric wheelchair and a partner robot with dual manipulators. When the wheelchair is moving over a step, the two vehicles are linked together and the tilt of the wheelchair is controlled appropriately by using the difference in speeds between the two vehicles. During this process, some of the manipulator joints are controlled passively. The upper-arm link is pressed against the front of the robot body to control the amount of passive rotation about the shoulder joint, and thus support the motion of the wheelchair. Similarly, when the robot climbs a step, the upper-arm link is pressed against the rear of the wheelchair. Teleoperation of the robot through an intranet was investigated. The electric wheelchair and the robot were successfully maneuvered up a step.
13:55 Camera-based heart-rate monitoring in highly dynamic light conditions
Vincent Jeanne, Murtaza Bulut, Albertus den Brinker and Michel Asselman (Philips Research, The Netherlands)
Recent advances in biomedical engineering have shown that heart rate can be monitored remotely using regular RGB cameras by analyzing minute skin color changes caused by periodic blood flow. In this paper, an infrared-based alternative for light-robust camera-based heart rate measurements suitable for automotive applications is presented. The results obtained by this system show high accuracy (RMSE < 1BPM under disco-light) and a correlation score above 0.99 when compared with a reference measurement method. The proposed system enables new applications in the automotive field, especially since heart rate measurement can be integrated with other camera-based driver monitoring solutions like eye tracking.
14:20 A 3-D Real-Time Simulation for autonomous driving with V2V Communications
Sangho Lee (Yonsei University, Korea); Janghee Cho (Digipen Institute of Technology, USA); Shiho Kim (Yonsei University, Korea)
We propose a real-time traffic simulation for autonomous vehicles with V2V communications. In order to execute a simulation, imitated generic traffic signals are developed as a component of the simulator, which is similar as ones in the real world. In addition, autonomous vehicle driving module supported by V2V communication is integrated into the simulator. Then, we generate robust numbers of the vehicle in the simulation software to conduct experiments. The results can be shown in real-time 3D rendering with ongoing status of surrounding vehicles.
14:45 A Novel Video Analysis Approach for Overtaking Vehicle Detection
Panya Chanawangsa and Chang Wen Chen (State University of New York at Buffalo, USA)
Road safety plays a pivotal role in intelligent transportation systems. In the past decade, much attention from researchers and industries alike has been directed towards intelligent systems that can help reduce the number of on-road accidents. For obstacle detection applications, sensor-based approaches employing radar and LIDaR are appealing as they offer high object detection rates. However, videos are a much richer source of information and video-based approaches can offer a holistic view of the scene, bringing about new applications that are not limited to just obstacle detection. In this paper, a novel video-based framework is proposed for detecting possibly overtaking vehicles, which may ultimately lead to a potential hazard. The system relies on lane marks to guide the vehicle tracking module and leverages the information extracted from the vanishing point to correctly distinguish a vehicle passing by from the one truly attempting to overtake the ego-vehicle. The key to the success of the system lies in the accurate detection and tracking of the trajectory of the vehicle, localization of the lane marks, and estimation of the vanishing point. Experimental results obtained from running our algorithm on real-world footage confirm that the proposed system produces high detection and low false alarm rates.
15:10 Gull Drive - an approach for autodrive
Vinaykumar Inapakurthi (Tata Consultancy Services, USA); Inapakurthi Ravikiran (JNTU Kakinada & GMR Institute of Technology, India)
When four people going in a car for a 1000 mile long drive share the driving time. Can they do the same while driving four cars? Gull Drive addresses the problem with the features like vehicle map, in-built GPS & push-to-talk, vehicle sync. These features help drivers know the vehicles with similar destinations and path. Then forming a group and sync the vehicles in the group with a lead vehicle. Only the driver in the lead vehicle controls the steering and other vehicles follow the lead vehicle while the drivers relax. Leadership switches from vehicle to vehicle at regular intervals of time. Vehicle map will be shared to traffic control systems to ease patrolling. Safe Distance Sensor system is an autonomous system which controls the vehicle from collisions. It takes care of the auto-braking, acceleration control and alerting the driver for manual control in case of emergency.

#### P06-05: Electric Vehicle and Transportation Electrification - 5

Technical Session Room D
13:30 Hydrogen Pressure Control Scheme of Hydrogen Generation System Using Sodium Borohydride for Fuel Cell Vehicle
Keisuke Tomoda and Ryo Funakawa (Tokyo University of Science, Japan); Nobukazu Hoshi (Tokyo University of Science & Faculty of Science & Technology, Japan); Junnosuke Haruna (Tokyo University of Science, Japan); Atsuhiro Yoshizaki and Keiichi Hirata (Hydric Power Systems, Japan)
The authors have proposed and made a hydrogen generation system for fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEVs) which generates large amount of hydrogen by hydrolysis of powdery sodium borohydride (NaBH4). This paper shows control scheme of pressure of hydrogen generated from the hydrogen generation system according to variation of fuel cell output power.
13:55 Interleaved High-Gain Boost Converter With Low Input-Current Ripple For Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Applications
Jesus Valdez-Resendiz (Centro Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Mexico); Abraham Claudio-Sanchez (Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Mexico); Gerardo Guerrero (Centro Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Mexico); Carlos Aguilar-Castillo, Alejandro Tapia-Hernandez and Josefa Gordillo-Estrada (Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Mexico)
This work proposes a boost dc-dc converter topology that offers excellent characteristics for fuel cell power conditioning. The converter features a high-voltage gain without utilizing extreme values of duty cycle or boosting transformers, input current ripple reduction by interleaved inductors, low count of components and reduced weight and size. These features make the converter ideal to fuel cell electric vehicles, where a high dc bus for traction system and reduced input current ripple, for increasing the fuel economy is required. Simulation-based results and a theoretical analysis are presented in this work.
14:20 Design of a Portable Assisted Mobility Device-A Sustainable Urban Transport
By 2030, urban areas will be home for more than 60% of the world's 8 billion people. This will create tremendous pressures in the form of pollution, congestion, energy security, and traffic safety. This will also challenge a public infrastructure that is already struggling to meet the growing demand for transportation and basic services. These mega cities will be so dense that the space for the traditional car will rapidly shrink. Hence, the transportation and automotive industries are currently seeking solutions to these global challenges by considering alternative modes of mobility. A Portable Assisted Mobility Device (PAMD) is being investigated for future transportations by the PACE (the Partners for the Advancement of Collaborative Engineering Education) program. The PACE program also strives to educate and inspire students on the necessities of global collaboration and to foster awareness of current social and economic pressures. The PACE project competition unites schools from around the world in a team effort to accomplish this goal. Besides Tuskegee University, our global PACE team is comprised of students from INHA University (South Korea), Northwestern University (USA), and Hongik University (South Korea) for the PACE PAMD project. In this article we describe the work performed by students of Tuskegee University as part of this project.Literature search on current PAMD and similar devices has been completed. The literature search included the Honda UX-3, Yike Bike, Volkswagen Bike, and the Toyota iReal. After the literature search, customer surveys and possible risk analysis were completed to help develop design specifications. The results conclude that our design needed to be user friendly, foldable, lightweight, and economical. Three different possible device concepts were developed using the NX7.5. A comparison of each concept to the most competitive existing device was conducted and iterated to select the final design parameters. From these specifications, a detailed computer-aided design was developed.Engineering analysis using the Nastran embedded in the NX7.5 on the strength of the structure was made. The maximum speed and traveling distance of the PAMD were calculated. The results showed that the carbon fiber composite frame with a safety factor of 5 would be strong enough for the average sized customer. The maximum stress was observed to be 380,000 psi at the main folding joint of the frame. The highest speed of the PAMD was determined to be 11.2 m/s and the device was capable of traveling a distance of 18 km.
14:45 Cloud Connected Smart Grid Enabled EVSE
Sm Hasan, Andrew Reid and Matthew Nielsen (GE Global Research, USA); Keith Dodrill (Department of Energy, USA)
Electric vehicles are getting lot of attention during the last few years around the world to deal with environmental concerns as well as to increase economic stability by reducing oil consumption. But this new technology can pose a threat to the utilities by adding extra demand on an electric grid. In this paper, we propose a methodology to interface the utility with electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE). This system offers two-way real-time information and communication between EVSEs and utility through a cloud server. Using this technique, a utility would be more tightly coupled with the load being served providing benefit to both the utility and consumer such as advanced protection schemes and downward pressure on cost.

### Thursday, December 5, 16:00 - 18:00

#### P01-12: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 12

Technical Session Room A
16:00 A Study on the Architecture of the In-Vehicle Wireless Sensor Network System
Doo Seop Yun (Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Korea); Seung-Jun Lee (Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Korea); Do Hyun Kim (ETRI, Korea)
In this paper, we study on the architecture of the in-vehicle wireless sensor network system. We present the system architecture which will be applied to the convenience/safety-related services by using wireless sensor networks applied to the in-vehicle system. This system architecture aims to compose an efficient vehicle system and reduce the increased vehicle weight by the in-vehicle sensors and ECUs(Electronics Control Unit). We describe the system architecture about a base-station system and a vehicular wireless sensor node system which is installable randomly to the in-vehicle electronic components.
16:25 Open Problems for Group-Key Agreement Protocols on Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks
Orhan Ermiş (Boğaziçi University, Turkey); Serif Bahtiyar (Bogazici University and Provus A MasterCard Company, Turkey); Emin Anarim and M. Ufuk Caglayan (Bogazici University, Turkey)
Security is a challenging issue in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks since entities in the networks generally use insecure channels to communicate with each other, where key exchanges are a major challenge. Actually, there exist several security constraints in vehicle to infrastructure communication and vehicle-to-vehicle communications. In this paper, we address open problems related to secure key exchange in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks by comparing traditional group key exchange protocols with other key exchange protocols.
16:50 A Modified TC-MAC Protocol for Multi-hop Cluster Communications in VANETs
Mohammad S Almalag (Indiana University Kokomo, USA); Michele C. Weigle and Stephan Olariu (Old Dominion University, USA); Samy S. El-Tawab (James Madison University, USA)
One of the challenges for Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) is the design of the Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol. When exchanging messages between vehicles, there are network issues that must be addressed, including the hidden terminal problem, high density, high node mobility, and data rate limitations. A cluster-based MAC scheme is needed in VANETs to overcome the lack of specialized hardware for infrastructure and the mobility to support network stability and channel utilization. This paper presents a multi-hop cluster MAC protocol for vehicular ad-hoc networks using a modified TCMAC, which is a method for TDMA slot reservation based on clustering of vehicles. Our protocol aims to decrease collisions and packet drops in the channel, as well as provide fairness in sharing the wireless medium, minimizing the effect of hidden terminals, and increasing the network scalability.

#### P01-13: Wireless Communications and Vehicular Networking - 13

Technical Session Room B
16:00 Robust Beamforming for Cognitive Radio Based Vehicular Communication
Md Monzurul Alam (Purdue University, USA); Sudeep Bhattarai (Virginia Tech, USA); Liang Hong and Sachin Shetty (Tennessee State University, USA)
This paper proposes a robust beamforming scheme under steering vector uncertainty for cognitive radio based vehicular communication. The service probability of secondary users (SU) is maximized, the SU's transmission power is uniform within the target mobility range, and the probability of interference level to primary users (PU) is constrained. Simulation results show significant BER improvement for PU without trading off the SU's performance when there are errors in steering vectors.
16:25 Pass and Run: A Privacy Preserving Delay Tolerant Network Communication Protocol for CyberVehicles
Carson Dunbar (Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab, USA); Mingze Gao (Uinversity of Maryland, USA); Gang Qu (University of Maryland, College Park, USA)
Roadside infrastructure is becoming an important platform for information collection and dissemination. However, when a vehicle communicates with roadside infrastructure, it will leave a trace of its location information on the roadside units (RSUs) it communicates with over the time. These traces may reveal some of the privacy of the vehicle such as driving patterns. In this paper, we consider a privacy protection problem where the goal is to preserve the individual vehicle's location information during its communication with the RSUs. We propose to consider vehicles as a delay tolerant network (DTN) where the network nodes (vehicles) are connected through vehicle-to-vehicle communication. Packets that contain information that the vehicle want to exchange with roadside infrastructure will be passed around the DTN before they eventually reach an RSU. The location of the vehicle that generates the packet will not be revealed because the last node that passes the packet to an RSU may not be the source node. We analyze the performance of this pass and run communication protocol and propose emulation and simulation platforms to demonstrate its effectiveness in preserving vehicle privacy
16:50 A 250Mb/s CMOS Optoelectronic Transmitter and Receiver IC for Next-Generation In-Vehicle Networks
Myung-Geun Jung, Jong-Bum Park, Kang-Yeob Park and Won-Seok Oh (Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Korea)
In this paper, fiber optic transmitter and receiver integrated circuits (ICs) for next-generation in-vehicle networks are designed and implemented using a standard CMOS technology. Despite of using a plastic optical fiber (POF) as a transmission medium, the next generation in-vehicle networks require wider bandwidth than the past one. To meet the bandwidth requirement, low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS) is preferred as an electrical interface. The fiber optic transmitter and receiver ICs can operate up to 250Mb/s of bit rates through a full optical link. -24dBm and -22.6dBm of optical sensitivities are respectively achieved for 10-9 and 10-12 of bit error rate (BER) at 250Mb/s.
17:15 A Low Power Electronic Sticker for Vehicle Identification System using Proprietary Active RFID Wireless Protocol
Fatih Karabacak, Hakduran Koc and Arif Ceber (University of Houston - Clear Lake, USA)
In this paper, we present design and implementation of an electronic car sticker (e-sticker) using a proprietary RFID protocol. The system is a wireless data transmission system and consists of a monitoring module (reader) and many data acquisition modules (tags). In order to extend the battery life, the hardware and software components in both reader and tag modules are specifically design to consume minimal power/energy. The proposed e-sticker can replace many windshield stickers such as registration, inspection, parking on vehicles and can be monitored by patrol officers, inspection stations and authorized offices.

#### P02-03: Mobile Internet, Spatial and Social Systems, Internet of Things - 3

Technical Session Room C
16:00 Information-Centric Communication Architecture for Vehicular Networking
Shingo Ata (Osaka City University, Japan); Hiroshi Kitamura (NEC Corporation, Japan); Masayuki Murata (Osaka University, Japan)
In the network of connected vehicles with various devices and sensors, the most of communications should be information centric by short messages, which are delivered to the appropriate receivers according to the content itself. However, developing a new communication architecture is not feasible not only in aspect of cost and deployment, but also the interoperability to IP networks to retrieve the information from the Internet. In this paper, we propose a new communication architecture to support information-centric by using IP infrastructure. For this purpose we design name mapping and completion scheme for efficient and lightweight information retrieval.
16:25 Caching Reverse-Geocoded Locations on Smartphones
Thomas Phan, Albert Baek, Abhishek Singh and Zheng Guo (Samsung Research, USA)
Photo-driven smartphone usage often requires invoking a server to perform reverse-geocoded location lookup, an approach that incurs network delay and increased power consumption for communication. A solution we consider is to cache the reverse-geocoding results so that the location of subsequent photos taken within some range of previously reverse-geocoded photos can be looked up in the cache without having to access a server. The key challenge, then, is effectively defining and caching the reverse-geocoded regions on the smartphone to enable accurate lookups. We propose three schemes and evaluate their performance over a photo data set taken across 14 cities.

#### P00-02: Science without Borders (remote presentations) - 2

Technical Session Room D
16:00 Experimental Analysis of Multi-hop Vehicle Node CCA Threshold Selection for EWM transmission
Qingwen Han, Yuebo Liu, Le Yang and Lingqiu Zeng (Chongqing University, P.R. China)
Emergency warning message (EWM) transmission insurance is one of the most interesting topics for Vehicular Cyber-physical System (V-CPS) application. A relatively low transmission requirement should improve EWM's real-time delivery, and however, decrease reliability of packet delivery by its corresponding burst converge-cast, especially under multi-hop condition. In this paper, a clear channel assessment (CCA) threshold selection method is proposed to ensure both real-time and reliability for EWM transmission. A series of experiments under several scenarios on the sensor network testbed evaluate its effectiveness. The experimental results show that the threshold adjusting method has a positive effect on the delivery rate. With an appropriately diminishing clear channel assessment threshold related to the packet hops, the global dissemination successful rate can be up to 73.5%, and more than 90% of the 1-hop nodes can receive the correct packet. The experiment results provide a practicable method to improve EWM dissemination performance.
16:08 Inspection and Control of Vehicle Emissions through Internet of Things and Traffic Lights
Chi-Man Vong (Unversity of Macau, Macao); Pak-Kin Wong, Ka-In Wong and Zi-Qian Ma (University of Macau, Macao)
To alleviate the air pollution problem caused by vehicle emissions, different vehicle inspection programs have been introduced, in which vehicles are examined by undergoing a number of emission tests. However, these emission tests are usually cost-ineffective and time-consuming. It is also difficult to enforce the vehicle owners on monitoring the health of their engines daily and taking immediate action to fix their vehicle emission problems. Therefore, this paper proposes a new vehicle emission inspection and notification system to help daily monitoring of engine health through the concept of Internet of Things. As there are numerous traffic lights in an urban area, they are employed to play an important role in the proposed system. By the fact that every car must stop in front of red lights, reliable reading of air ratio () from a vehicle, which indicates the engine emission status, can be interrogated wirelessly through mature and low-price radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. By inspecting the in real time, the vehicle emissions can be effectively controlled by the governmental authorities. Meanwhile, several implementation issues have also been considered and analyzed in this paper. An innovative method is proposed to select the appropriate traffic lights on which RFID monitoring devices should be installed.
16:17 A traffic efficiency promotion algorithm for urban arterial roads based on speed guidance
Bowen Yang, Jianming Hu, Yizhi Wang and Yunxiao Deng (Tsinghua University, P.R. China)
Vehicles may experience a lot of extra travel time when passing through urban arterial roads, due to the waiting time at signalized intersections and the slow-to-start process after that. Various methods based on green wave control have been carried out to promote the traffic efficiency in urban arterial roads. However, such methods cannot ensure that all vehicles from all directions are able to pass through the intersections without a stop. This paper proposes a novel distributed algorithm which, theoretically, allows each vehicle to keep a certain non-zero speed when passing through intersections. Therefore, the travel time of each vehicle can be reduced by a shorter and immediate acceleration process instead of a slow-to-start after passing through intersections. This algorithm is also an economic alternative for roads maintainers and an environmental friendly way of control strategy. The key principles of this algorithm as well as the optimization model are thoroughly explained in this paper. A simulation based on VISSIM is applied to verify the proposed algorithm.
16:25 Spatial sampling methods for improved communication for wireless relay robots
Ramviyas Nattanmai Parasuraman (KTH & CERN, Sweden); Thomas Fabry and Keith Kershaw (CERN, Switzerland); Manuel Ferre (Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain)
Having a reliable wireless communication in a network of mobile robots is an ongoing challenge, especially when the mobile robots are given tasks in hostile or harmful environments such as radiation environments in scientific facilities, tunnels with large metallic components and complicated geometries and search and rescue robotic missions. In this paper, we propose a decentralised method for improving the network throughput of wireless communication by optimizing the mobile robots (used as wireless relays) position to receive the best wireless signal strength using conjugate gradient algorithms and spatial diversity concepts. We experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed solutions with a Youbot omni-directional mobile robot. The performance of the algorithms is compared under various scenarios in an underground scientific facility at CERN.
16:34 Route Guidance Systems Based On Real-time Information
Chengjin Wu, Xuedan Zhang and Yuhan Dong (Tsinghua University, P.R. China)
Traditional route guidance systems usually model the transportation network as a static graph, however, this model is not close to reality. Due to time-varying and stochastic properties, we establish the mathematical model of a transportation network as a stochastic time-dependent network. Then we define the mathematical formulation of our knowledge about the network, which can be divided into two categories, prior information and real-time information. Under the framework we developed, we propose two solutions to solve the problem of route guidance based on real-time information. The solutions are, respectively, a fastest path finding algorithm and two time-adaptive decision rules based on greedy strategy. At last, simulation results on an artificial stochastic time-dependent network with multidimensional normal distribution are given and the performance of our algorithms is evaluated and compared.
16:43 Cross-Layer Architecture for Congestion Control in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks
Deepak Puthal (QMIC, Qatar); Zeeshan Hameed Mir (Qatar Mobility Innovations Center (QMIC), Qatar); Fethi Filali (QMIC, Qatar); Hamid Menouar (Qatar Mobility Innovations Center, Qatar)
Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) are special kind of Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs). The distinctive characteristics of the VANETs include high speed of vehicular nodes and high variability in node density. Congestion detection and control protocols have been proved to be an efficient method for improving network performance and are well studied for the MANET environment. However, they often result in sub-optimal network performance for the vehicular network environment due to the specialized characteristics of VANET. In this paper we present an adaptive and distributed cross-layer congestion detection and control protocol for the VANET environment. During the congestion detection phase, information from each layer of the network protocol stack is combined and mapped on to congestion levels. In the subsequent congestion control phase parameters like contention window, transmission rate and transmit power are jointly adjusted to improve on the network performance. The effectiveness of the proposed model is evaluated through mathematical analysis and simulation-based studies.
16:51 A Novel Cooperative MAC for Broadcasting in Clustering VANETs
Fan Yang (Xiamen University, P.R. China)
In VANETS, a variety of services can be provided, including safety-related applications, traffic management and user infotainment services. Out of all these applications, safety-related applications are the most important ones and they mainly depend on the broadcast service. However, it is a challenging task to provide a reliable broadcast in VANETs, because of the mobility of vehicles and the unreliability of wireless channels. On the other hand, cooperative communication has been proved effective to mitigate wireless channel impairments and increase the reliability of communications. In this paper, a cooperative MAC for broadcasting is proposed in clustering VANETs. This MAC can improve the reliability of broadcasting. The performance of this MAC is verified through mathematical analysis and simulations.
17:00 Enhancement of Controller Area Network (CAN) Bus Arbitration Mechanism
Chin-Long Wey (National Chiao Tung University); Chung-Hsien Hsu (National Central University, Taiwan); Kun-Jun Chang (Chung-Hua University, Taiwan); Ping-Chang Jui (National Central University, Taiwan)
FlexRay protocol includes a static time-triggered and a dynamic event-triggered segment to ensure that no one message type hogs the bus. The static segment enabling a guaranteed real-time transmission of critical data, while the dynamic segment (optional) for low-priority and event- triggered data. Based on the CAN (Controller Area Network) bus arbitration mechanism, this study takes the most significant bit, D10, of the identifier to assign the messages to be either static or dynamic, where the static type has higher priority than the dynamic type. With the designers' experience and knowledge, the above assignment can ensure that all critical messages can be sent out before their deadline and no one message type hogs the bus. However, the salient feature is achieved at the cost of losing one bit for the identifier.
17:08 A Unitized Charging and Discharging Smart Battery Management System
Chin-Long Wey and Ping-Chang Jui (National Central University, Taiwan)
Rechargeable batteries are widely used in many portable electronic products and consumer devices. This paper presents a unitized charging and discharging battery management system (UCD BMS) with distributed battery units allowing some battery units to be discharged their energy running the vehicle, while some other units are charged from the energy harvesting with photovoltaics or other technologies. The proposed UCD BMS comprises of a smart battery module, a programmable battery management (PBM) module, a charging module, and a discharging module. The PBM module contains a control circuitry and a programmable path array (PPA) module which is realized by switching circuits. The control circuitry turns on and off the corresponding switches in the PPA module forming two paths: (1) battery path; and (2) charging (discharging) path. The smart battery charger (load) included in the charging (discharging) path is then connected to the battery path which includes the smart battery units to be charged (discharged). The proposed PBM provides various output voltages so that the smart battery module is used more flexibly and enhances the utilization rate of the discharge energy, improving the overall power efficacy of the smart battery module. The PBM can also be applied for battery balancing and fault-tolerant BMS design.
17:17 A Collaborative Integrity Monitor Algorithm for Low Space Aviation under Limited Number of Navigation Satellites
Yang Liu (Beihang University, P.R. China); Yanbo Zhu (Aviation Data Communication Cooperation, P.R. China)
17:26 Energy Efficiency Optimization for Proposed High Speed Trains in India
Rushil Zutshi (VIT University, India); Ayush Sood (VIT University & ARAI Academy, India); Pushpander Rathore (Vit University, India); Satyajit Ghosh (VIT University, India); Georgey John (Vellore Institute of Technology, India)
Indian Railways have identified specific corridors for High-Speed Railway connectivity which will entail energy efficient designs. Low energy consumption at increased speeds requires a new train concept and design altogether. This study first identifies a viable track using ArcGIS and the Mumbai-Ahmedabad sector is chosen. A special sandwich design is recommended for the cabins. This is followed by an Autodesk EcotectTM analyse to optimize day-lighting and thermal comfort levels within an energy efficient cabin. Comfortable zones within a specially designed cabin compartment are obtained after conducting a series of carefully constructed sensitivity runs with different values for the glazing ratio and the cabin fabric. Using typical perimeter lighting and standard air-conditioning, the increase in artificial lighting energy used to achieve 300 lux inside the cabin with progressively reduced window size was finally ascertained.
17:34 A Novel Information Dissemination System for Vehicle-to-RSU Communication Networks
Mianxiong Dong and Kaoru Ota (Muroran Institute of Technology, Japan); Motoki Sakai (Tokyo Denki University, Japan)
We design a novel information dissemination system for VANET which is capable to selectively provide local information for drivers as much as possible while meets a certain condition of transmission capacity.
17:43 Secured Scrambling Codes for Vehicular Control and Navigation
Chirag Warty (Intelligent Communication lab & Director, Quantspire, India); Ennio Gambi and Susanna Spinsante (Università Politecnica delle Marche, Italy)
The intent of the paper is to propose a new set of scrambling codes at the physical layer in a manner that provides much higher security and reliability. In Vehicular Communication system at the physical layer the neighboring node search procedure consist of series of synchronization stages by which the client determines time and frequency parameter necessary to demodulate the downlink and to transmit uplink signals with correct timing. This critical exchange makes the physical layer elements vulnerable to possible security related attacks by undesired entities. At present the popular standards use binary Gold as scrambling sequences for the control channel. Gold codes are known to provide good correlational properties but lack severely in other areas like cardinality. This paper suggests the use of De Bruijn sequences as next generation set of scrambling codes especially for their huge cardinality and correlation related properties. Performance of binary modified De Bruijn codes is analyzed with a specifies emphasis on length 31 so as to compare it with the Gold codes of length 31 currently suggested by the standard. De Bruijn sequences are seen to provide much more favorable results as compared to Gold codes.
17:51 Optimum and Reliable Routing in VANETs: An Opposition Based Ant Colony Algorithm Scheme
Babak Kazemi, Masoumeh Ahmadi and Siamak Talebi (Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran)
By the advancement in technology on one side, and governmental as well as social demands for lowest rate of driving accidents and reliable communication among vehicles on the other side, particularly in highways, vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) are of special interest as a reliable approach to this aim. VANET is typically defined as the communication network for wireless communicating between vehicles in a region. One of the most important challenges in such networks is reliable routing of data packages among the vehicle users. Several VANET routing topologies are published in the literature, however, there is still a lack of reliable scheme. This is due to the nature of users behaviour in such networks, in which the network may change its topology frequently and break the communication links. Up to now, there are few research efforts for proposing a reliable protocol for VANETs in highways. This paper introduces a novel approach for routing in VANETs, particularly for highways, based on the opposition based ant colony optimization (OACO) algorithm. In this approach, we model the network topology to a graph model and then solve it optimally based on our criteria for reliable routing in VANETs based on the OACO. Some simulations have been conducted to evaluate performance of the OACO. The results demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly outperforms similar protocols in the literature.

## Friday, December 6

### Friday, December 6, 10:00 - 12:00

#### P03-07: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles - 7

Technical Session Room A
10:00 Vehicle Speed Control Algorithms for Eco-Driving
Sanjiban Kundu, Aditya Wagh and Chunming Qiao (State University of New York at Buffalo, USA); Xu Li (InterDigital Communications, USA); Sandipan Kundu (SUNY at Buffalo, USA); Adel Sadek (State University of New York at Buffalo, USA); Kevin Hulme (SUNY Buffalo, P.R. China); Changxu Wu (University at Buffalo, USA)
Given the rise in fuel prices and the harmful environmental consequences of excessive fuel consumption, we address a new problem in eco-driving, which examines how the upcoming V2V/V2I technology can be harnessed to improve fuel-efficiency. Unlike most of the existing studies in this area where the focus of control is on infrastructure side (i.e., signal timing plans), we present a new approach to eco-speed control at a microscopic level. We use a concept of platoon of vehicles to reduce fuel consumption in a journey covering multiple intersections in a multiple vehicle setting. Three heuristic algorithms are proposed and numerical results from simulations are also presented.
10:25 An Integrated Evaluation Approach for Performance and Safety of Autonomous Vehicles
Gabriele Zanardo (Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria); Thomas Stanger and Dominik Lang (JKU Linz, Austria); Luigi del Re (Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria)
Cooperative mobility is emerging as a key technology to improve energy efficiency, safety, and road capacity while preserving a high degree of individual freedom. This has attracted a large interest by industry and academia, largely focused on vehicle safety applications, but also on fuel savings by enforcing smoother traffic conditions. More recently, the potentially high benefits in terms of fuel efficiency also for the single traffic participants have been addressed However, production maturity and public acceptance of cooperative mobility can only be achieved if safety, energy efficiency improvements and compatibility with other traffic participants is demonstrated in a convincing way. Traditionally, similar aims have been tackled using large fleet tests. In the case of cooperative automated driving, the number of use-cases and participants makes this procedure prohibitively expensive. This paper proposes an integrated approach in which a physical engine test bench, a high fidelity vehicle simulator working online and a large scale traffic simulator are connected to provide a representative and fast testing setup able to replace large fleet testing.
10:50 Human-Robot Cooperation System with Mechanical Impedance Emulation for Friendly Human Perception
Leonardo Silva, Braz Cardoso and Fabrício Pujatti (Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil)
Many professional or daily activities demand load displacement by human arms or human powered vehicles. Those activities may lead to muscle-skeleton diseases in load-carrying professionals as in people carrying their personal belongs. To help preventing those injuries, the scientific community has developed human-robot cooperation systems which are implemented through a robot that works as a force multiplier equipment and the human that works as the positioning or force reference producer. Those systems are effective for muscle-skeleton injuries prevention but, since it's demanded physical contact between robot and human, the robot dynamic behavior may lead to a stressing perception for the human. This perception may lead to anxious or unpleasant feelings, which may inhibit the robot use, worse the human emotional state during long lasting activities or even to increase the risk of accidents during the cooperative tasks. In order to provide the force multiplication feature and also to care about the human perception during the cooperative task, this paper presents the desing and implementation of a robot that is dedicated to help in translational movements while emulating a mechanical impedance that provides a friendly perception to humans. The mechanical, electronics and control features are detailidly presented, as well the human force and trajectory signals that proves the mechanical impedance emulation.
11:15 Efficient Pseudonym Changing Schemes for Location Privacy Protection in VANETs
Yeong-Sheng Chen (National Taipei University of Education, Taiwan); Tang-Te Lo, Chiu-Hua Lee and Ai-Chun Pang (National Taiwan University, Taiwan)
To achieve location privacy for Location-Based Services (LBS) in the Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) environment, many pseudonym changing mechanisms have been proposed in the literature. Although some exiting mechanisms, such as AGE, SLOW, SPOT and can achieve high security level, yet much overhead is incurred due to a large number of pseudonym changes. While performing pseudonym changes, the services from the location server will be interrupted and the routing has to be reestablished, causing communication overheads. In light of this observation, this study proposes efficient pseudonym changing schemes to minimize the number of pseudonym changes while still achieving high location privacy protection level. Criteria for performing pseudonym changing are proposed by considering the age of pseudonyms, the speed, and the moving direction of the vehicles. Thus, four mechanisms AS, AD, SD and ADS are developed by using the combination of these three factors. Simulations have been carried out with the SUMO simulator. Compared with other existing pseudonym changing approaches, simulation results show that the proposed mechanisms have better performance in the sense of achieving high protection rate with less number of pseudonym changes, and, in particular, ADS always has the best performance.

#### P03-08: Cooperative Driving, Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles - 8

Technical Session Room B
10:00 Making Traffic-related decisions in FRIEND: A Cyber-Physical System for Traffic Flow Related Information AggrEgatioN and Dissemination
Samy S. El-Tawab (James Madison University, USA); Stephan Olariu (Old Dominion University, USA); Mohammad S Almalag (Indiana University Kokomo, USA)
The main purpose of this paper is to present the various mechanisms whereby FRIEND - which is a Cyber-Physical System for traffic Flow Related Information aggrEgatioN and Dissemination, that was introduced in previous work - makes decisions about the state of the traffic and also about the possible occurrence of traffic-related incidents. Recall that FRIEND bases most of the inferences it makes about the status of traffic on two perceived parameters of the traffic flow: speed and density. In turn, the instantaneous density of the flow is deduced by sampling the headway distance of the most recently passing cars. A fundamental theoretical question that we address is the extent to which the sample mean of the collected headway distance data is a good approximation of the overall headway distance. In the paper, we also explain our incident detection algorithm and how we classify various types of incident. Our results show that the traffic parameters discussed in this paper along with historical data collected over a reasonable time period (duly adjusted for diurnal and seasonal variations), and with the aggregated traffic information firmly in hand, FRIEND is ready to disseminate to the traveling public a color-coded traffic status report.
10:25 Evaluation of a new intelligent speed advisory system using hardware-in-the-loop simulation
Rodrigo H. Ordonez-Hurtado (Hamilton Institute, National University of Ireland Maynooth, Ireland); Wynita Griggs (University College Dublin, Ireland); Kay Massow (Fraunhofer FOKUS, Germany); Robert Shorten (IBM, Ireland)
In this paper we present a recently developed speed advisory system for ITS applications. A real vehicle embedded in a large scale SUMO simulation is used to demonstrate the efficacy of such a system.
10:50 Agent-based Control for Adaptive High Performance Connected Vehicle Streams
Montasir Abbas (Virginia Tech, USA); Milos Mladenovic (Aalto University, Finland)
Recent advancements in Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) technologies allows equipped vehicles to travel with much shorter headways on freeways, increasing freeway capacity and reducing fuel consumption. The technology, augmented by the capabilities made available through the connected vehicles framework, has opened the door for many significant developments in traffic management and control applications. In this paper, we present a novel multi-agent system approach to resolve conflicts based on a token-based dynamic priority index (PI) concept. Experimental results showed the ability of agents to adapt and form high performance streams in a connected vehicle environment as an emerging behavior.
Daiqin Yang, Shidong Ke, Youqiang Hou and Zhenzhong Chen (Wuhan University, P.R. China)
This paper presents a driver alerting system based on saliency detection. Due to the unequal distribution of photoreceptors in human visual system, visual acuity decreases according to the distance to the fovea area on the retina. A driver alerting system is proposed based on visual sensor to detect the saliency information which may not be well perceived by the driver. The image acquired by the visual sensor is analyzed by the saliency detection algorithm. The salient object which is not perceived by the driver, i.e., is projected on the retina but is far away from the fovea area, is detected. The experiments show that the proposed driver alerting system can effectively detect salient object which is not well perceived by the driver therefore ensure better driving safety.

#### P04-02: Automotive Electronics and Automatic Control - 2

Technical Session Room C
10:00 Touch Screen Based TETRA Vehicle Radio: Preliminary Results of Multi-methodology Usability Testing Prototype
Ville Roisko (Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering, Finland); Pasi Kämppi and Satu Luojus (Laurea University of Applied Sciences, Finland)
A modern emergency vehicle is the combination of different technologies and single vehicle can contain dozens of user interfaces (UI). Laurea University of Applied Sciences launched on 2010 Mobile Object Bus Interaction-project (MOBI) that defines user requirements for designing emergency vehicles, finding solutions to decrease power consumption, experimenting possibilities to create common ICT-architecture and reduce number of UIs in emergency vehicles. MOBI-project equipped a demo vehicle with the latest technology and a possibility was offered to test new prototype of touch screen based TETRA vehicle radio integrated with the onboard computer. This paper presents a multi-methodology approach for usability testing for touch screen based TETRA vehicle radio where heuristic evaluation was combined with field testing and real users in a moving vehicle. Research result confirms that multi-methodology approach is able to detect key usability problems in early stage of the product development cycle and enables to improve software quality in prototyping phase.
10:25 Speeding Detection in RFID Systems on Roads
Tao Jing and Xingni Li (Beijing Jiaotong University, P.R. China); Wei Cheng (Virginia Commonwealth University, USA); Yan Huo (Beijing Jiaotong University, P.R. China); Xiaoshuang Xing (Changshu Institute of Technology, P.R. China)
In this digest paper, we propose a speeding detection system (SDS) based on RFID Systems on Roads (RSR), which consist of RFID tags deployed on road surfaces and RFID readers installed on vehicles. The objective of SDS is to achieve full-road and all-time speeding detection. The proposed SDS incudes both the speed detection method and the RFID tag deployment method, which is critical to support speeding detection. According to the analytical and the experimental results obtained so far, SDS can successfully detect speeding (both over-speed and low-speed) even if the aggressive drivers are extremely alert.
10:50 Spatial Modulation in High Speed Railway Communication
Zhao Li, Fanggang Wang and Zhangdui Zhong (Beijing Jiaotong University, P.R. China)
Communication in high speed railway (HSR) is a critical issue which could be used for traffic control and guarantee safety. Unfortunately, channel condition of HSR communication is extremely time-varying due to large Doppler effect from high mobility and fast environments alternating. In this paper, spatial modulation is introduced to HSR communication as a multi-antenna candidate technique for its many advantages. It indicates that high spectral efficiency and good robustness can be achieved by using spatial modulation in HSR communication. Then, we further provide some potential application scenarios for HSR communication system. Numerical results show that spatial modulation with proper receivers outperforms V-BLAST or space-time coding in certain cases. Furthermore, the results validate the potential of spatial modulation applying to HSR communication.

#### P05-06: Transportation and Connected Vehicles - 6

Technical Session Room D
10:00 The effect of feedback in the assignment problem in shared bicycle systems
Arieh Schlote (National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Ireland); Bei Chen, Mathieu Sinn and Robert Shorten (IBM, Ireland)
We study the effect of availability of occupation data on customer choices in bicycle sharing systems and the use of this data to build ITS prediction systems. We show that if this data is given directly to customers, the overall performance of such a system can degrade. Solutions to this problem are presented.
10:25 Embedding Real Vehicles in SUMO for Large-Scale ITS Scenario Emulation
Wynita Griggs (University College Dublin, Ireland); Robert Shorten (IBM, Ireland)
We present a platform for embedding, in real-time, real vehicles into SUMO (Simulation of Urban MObility). The purpose of the platform is to provide a half-way mark between emulating large-scale traffic scenarios purely with simulators, and demonstrating prototype technologies in the real world with small fleets of field-test vehicles, in the pursuit of evaluating experimental large-scale intelligent transportation systems (ITS).
10:50 Socially Sustainable Control Framework for Self-driving Vehicles
Milos Mladenovic (Aalto University, Finland); Montasir Abbas (Virginia Tech, USA)
Considering an emerging technological potential for large-scale deployment of self-driving vehicles, there is a need to establish intersection control mechanism. Contrary to some of the previous research efforts, this paper is proposing a an expanded design perspective that includes social sustainability. The approach for sustainable design focuses on the notion of social justice. The framework of social justice is developed through a system of priority levels and hierarchically decentralized control based on distributed vehicle intelligence. The control mechanism has been developed in an agent-based environment. Testing of the system has proved its safety, user comfort, efficiency, and delay distribution requirements. Several recommendations for further research are presented.
11:15 Evaluation of Variable Speed Limit (VSL) Under Connected Vehicle (CV) Environment
Joyoung Lee (New Jersey Institute of Technology); Brian Park (University of Virginia, USA)
The Variable Speed Limit (VSL) application provides travelers with dynamic speed advisory information to keep optimal traffic flow conditions for freeways and corridors under both recurrent and non-recurrent congestion incurred by incidents and/or work-zones. By coupling VSL and Connected Vehicle (CV) environment enabling two-way wireless communications for vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure, it is expected to achieve improved performance of VSL as a viable traffic congestion mitigation tool. This digest paper presents the impact of connected vehicle on the effectiveness of VSL on a freeway bottleneck section by using a microscopic simulation model. Simulation experimental results show that CV-powered VSL improves the traffic congestion conditions up to 6~12% depending on CV market penetration rates.